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Full text of "A history of Enfield in the County of Middlesex; including its royal and ancient manors, the chase, and the Duchy of Lancaster, with notices of its worthies, and its natural history, etc.; also an account of the church and charities, and a history of the New River; the church history by George H. Hodson, and the general history by Edward Ford"

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A    HISTORY    OF    THE    NEW    RIVER. 

e   Church    History,    by  the   Rev.   GEORGE    H.    HODSOX,    I'i.w, 
And  the    General  History   by    EDWARD    FORD,    Esquire. 


(PRICE    O.\E    CUIXEA.) 




JjY    I.    H.    MEVEKS. 




Its  Situation  and  Extent     ...  7 

Divisions  of  the  Parish        ...  II 

Privileges  and  Exemptions...  12 


MANOR   OF   ENFIELD      15 

Geoffrey  de  Mandeville       ...  16 

Robin  Hood...          ...          ...  16 

Family  of  Boh un     ...         ...  17 

John  o'  Gaunt          ...          ...  21 

Manor  House    .        ...         ...  21 

"The  Palace"          25 

THE  OLD   PARK               ...            ...  29 

Ranger's  House       ...          ...  31 

Chase  Park  ...          ...          ...  32 

Chase  Side  House   ...         ...  33 

THE    CHASE         ...            ...             ...  35 

Surveys  of     ...          ...          ...  36 

Division  of    ...         ...         ...  42 

Officers  of     ...         ...         ...  45 

Battle  of  Barnet       46 

South  Lodge            ...       -...  -48 

West  Lodge...          ...          ...  49 

East  Lodge  ...         50 


Enclosure  Acts         ...         ...  51 

Trent  Park 53 

Camelot  Moat          ...         ...  54 

Beech  Hill  Park       55 

Chase  Lodge  ...         ...  56 

Claysmore     ...          ...          ...  57 

Hill  Lodge 59 


History  of     ...         ...         ...  60 

Separated  from  the  Crown  ...  61 

TheSovereignal\vays"Duke"  6l 

The  Duchy  Court    63 


Families  of  Wroth,  Tiptoft, 

Roos,  and  Lovell...         ...  69 

Given  by  the  Earl  of  Rutland 

to  King  Henry  VIII.  ...  70 
Granted  to  the  Cecils,  and 

alienated  by  the  2nd  Earl 

of  Salisbury  ...  ...  70 

Forty  Hall 71 

Purchased  by  J.  Meyer,  Esq.  72 


The   Old   Manor   House  of 



Worcesters,     and     Royal 



Residence  ... 


Queen    Elizabeth   holds  her 




Ornithology  ... 


Site  of           


Botany           .  . 


Myddelton  House    ... 
The  Gunpowder  Plot 
Site   of  Old   White   Webbs 


Ferns  and  Fungi 
Entomology  ... 





Trees  (by  j.  w.  F.)  


King  James  and  the  Tinker 



White  Webbs  Park  


Sir  Walter  Raleigh  


Old  Conduit  House  


Incident  of  the  Cloak 


Descriptive  Catalogue 


Evidence  of  Fuller  ... 




William  Wickham  ... 




Robert  Uvedale 


Old  Gateway  and  Moat 


Isaac  D'Israeli 


Abbot  of  Thorney's  Lands... 


Lord  George  Gordon 


Richard  Gough         ...         ... 




Major  Cartwright     ... 




Rev.  Daniel  Cresswell,  D.  D. 




John  Abernethy 


Enfield  Court 
Lincoln  House 


Charles  Babbage 
The     Right     Rev.     Connop 
Thirhvall,  D.D  



Bridgen  Hall            


Captain  Marryat 




Charles  I^amb 


MARKETS   AND   FAIRS,    &C.     ... 


THE    RIVER    LEE              



1  08 

THE   MILL    RIVER,    &C. 









The  Envoy    ... 




The  Bells      

The  Organ 

Monuments  ... 
The  Churchyard 

The  Rectory 

The  Vicarage 
The  Vicars    ... 
The  Lecturer 
The  Churchwardens 
Parish  Registers 


S.  James's,  Highway 

Jesus  Church,  Forty  Hill 

Christ  Church 

S.  John's,  Clay  Hill 

S.  Michael  and  All  Angels 

The  Cemetery 


Parochial  Schools     ... 
Population     ... 


Baker-street  Chapel... 
Ponder's-end  Chapel 
-    Zion  Chapel... 
Chase-side  Chapel    ... 



...    267 

Primitive  Methodist  Chapel  .... 


...    276 

Highway  Congregational  ditto 


...    278 

Wesleyan  Methodist  ditto 


...    278 

Baptist  Tabernacle 


...    287 

Baptist  Chapel,  Totteridge-roac 


...    288 

Roman  Catholic  Chapel 


...    299 

British  and  other  Schools 


•••    303 


•••    305 


...    306 



••-  3°7 

Ramston's    ... 






•••  3T3 



•  --314 



•••  3H 



•••  315 



3  ...       3  ^  ^ 

Raynton's    ...         ... 


...  316 





oi.  317 



•  ••  327 

King  James's 


...  329 

Nichols'  (Jasper)    ... 


Market  Place          


Billing's  and  Osbourne's  ... 


...  331 



...  331 

Pigott's        ...          ...          ..       xxviii. 

•••  332 

Nichols'  (Mary)     ... 





Darby's       ...          ...  ...       xxxi. 

Turpin's      ...          ...  ...       xxxii. 

Timber  Money       ...  ...     xxxiii. 

Wright's  Almshouses  ...      xxxv. 

Crowe's  Almshouses  ...     xxxvi. 

Ellson's       ...         ...  ...    xxxvii. 

Eaton  and  Meyers'  ...  xxxviii. 

Dickason's  . . .         ...  ...     xxxix. 

Claxton's    ...  xl. 


Mestura's    ...         ...         ...  xL 

The  Two  Hundred  Acres...  xli. 

The  Timber  Money           ...  xli. 

Conduits     xlii. 

Mrs.  Anne  Cough's          ...  xliii. 

Mrs.  Kelham's       xliii. 

The  Green  and  Encroach- 
ments      ...         ...         ...  xlvi. 

New  River  Company's      ...  xlvii. 


/.     15,  /.     7,  for  son,  read  descendant. 
/.    22,  /.  17,  for  335  acres,  read  3-35  acres. 
p.    30,  /.     4,  for  Albermarle,  read  Albemarle. 
/.    54,  (Note)  Transfer  to  page  53. 

/.  62,  Additional  Note. — The  sovereign  of  Hungary  was  always 
"King."  In  the  I4th  century  Louis  of  Hungary,  surnamed 
(t  the  Great,"  was  succeeded  by  his  daughter  Mary  "King  of 
Hungary,"  and  when,  in  1740,  Maria  Theresa,  driven  from 
every  other  part  of  her  dominions  took  refuge  in  Hungary,  and 
threw  herself  and  her  child  on  the  loyalty  of  her  subjects,  they 
unsheathed  their  swords  and  swore  to  devote  "vitam  et 
sanguinem  pro  rege  nostn?  Maria." 

p.    67,  add, — The  Right  Hon.  John  Bright,  Aug.  1873. 
/•     73>  I'     7)  f°r  command,  read  commend. 

p.  82.  Every  reader  will  recall  the  concluding  scene  of  the 
Lady  of  the  Lake,  where 

"  in  the  room 

Fitz-James  alone  wore  cap  and  plume." 
/.  134,  /.     7,  Edmond  Godesman  was  the  last  chantry  priest,  and 

received  a  pension  at  the  dissolution  of  chantries. 
/.  173,  /.   23,  for  laying,  read  lying. 

p.  2U,  /.     4,  for  July  gth,  1835,  read  October  I5th,  1831. 
/.  212,  /.   12,  for  emeritas,  read  immeritas. 
p.  213,  [vulturnus — comix — snowdrop — curfew.] 
p.  271,  /.    14,  for  £10,  read  10  marks. 
/.  273,  /.  27,  for  Jugland's,  read  Juglans. 
/.  302,  /.     5,  for  presentum,  read  presentem. 
p.  308,  /.    17,  for  January  3 1st,  read  January  1st. 
p.  319,  /.  25,  But  in  the  Chauntry  Roll  (Hen.  VIII.  and  Edw.  VI.) 
in   the    Public    Record    Office,     under    Enfield,    we    find : — 
"Landes     and    tenements    being    in    the    townes    of    South 
Benfleet,  Hadley,  and  Thundersley,  given  for  the  maintenance 
of  a  brotherhood   priest  there,   whereof  Sir  John   Bridgeman 
received  for  his  salary,  vii,£." 

"  Go,  lityl  boke,  be  simple  of  mannere, 

"  And  specially  let  this  be  thy  prayere, 

"  Unto  all  'hem  that  thee  will  rede  or  hear, 

"Where  thou  art  wrong — after  ther'  help  to  call 

"  Thee  to  correct,  in  any  parte  or  all. 

"  Praie  'hem  also,  with  thine  humble  serrlse 

" Thy  boldenesse  to  pardon  in  this  case; 
' '  For  els  thou  art  not  able  in  no  wise 
"  To  make  thyself  appear  in  any  place, 

"  Consideryng  by  good  advisament 

"  My  grete  unconnyng  and  my  simplenesse. 



WHEN  this  volume  was  first  announced,  the  intention 
was  simply  to  edit  a  new  edition  of  Mr.  Tuff's  "  Historical 
Notices,"  for  the  benefit  of  his  widow.  The  general 
interest  however  that  was  taken  in  the  work,  and 
the  encouragement  given  by  the  constantly  lengthening 
list  of  subscribers,  were  so  far  beyond  what  had  been 
anticipated,  that  the  Editors  felt  something  more  would 
be  expected  of  them  than  a  mere  reprint  of  the  little 
book  as  originally  proposed. 

They  have  attempted  to  meet  this  expectation,  so  far 
as  the  more  important  duties  of  one  writer,  and  the 
literary  inexperience  of  the  other,*  would  permit,  and 
they  offer  the  following  pages  as  a  HISTORY  OF  ENFIELD, 
"  endeavoured  " — to  use  the  expression  of  old  Fuller — 
according  to  their  ability.  Any  such  work,  must  be 
necessarily  imperfect,  and  when  the  life-long  antiquarian 
researches  of  Mr.  Gough,  and  of  Mr.  Lysons,  have  been 
at  fault,  many  errors  no  doubt  still  remain. 

*  I  shall  be  excused  for  adding,  that  any  value  or  interest  which 
my  share  in  the  work  may  possess,  is  in  great  measure  due  to  the 
labour  and-  research  of  my  son,  John  W.  Ford,  to  whose  filial 
assistance  in  this,  as  in  other  matters,  I  am  so  much  indebted.  [E.  F.  ] 

Much  information  has  been  gleaned  from  both  these 
writers,  and  from  the  later  history  of  Dr.  Robinson 
(whose  references  in  particular  have  been  of  great  value). 
"\Vhere,  however,  their  statements  are  at  Variance  with 
other  evidence,  and  the  Editors  have  attempted  to 
correct  inaccuracies,  or  to  remove  obscurities ;  or  where, 
what  appeared  redundant  has  been  replaced  by  matter 
which  they  thought  would  be  more  generally  interesting, 
they  have  endeavoured  to  steer  between  the  two  extremes, 
so  aptly  described  by  Hen.  VIII.  in  proroguing  Parliament 
on  Christmas  Eve,  1545. — "Some  be  too  stiff  in  their 
"  old  mumpsimus,  others  be  too  busy  and  curious  in  their 
"  new  sumpsimus."  (NOTE.)  Whatever  may  be  the  defects 
of  their  unpretending  production,  it  will  be  a  gratification 
to  them  and  to  the  Subscribers,  to  know  that  its  original 
object  has  succeeded  far  beyond  their  expectations,  and 
that  a  sum  of  nearly  one  hundred  pounds  will  be  realized, 
which  it  is  intended  to  invest  for  the  widow  of  Mr.  Tuff, 
on  whose  behalf  it  was  undertaken. 

No  probable  sale  could  have  defrayed  the  cost  of  the 
engravings,  so  skilfully  executed  by  Mr.  Pearson, — many 
of  them  have  been  contributed  free  of  expense  by 
different  subscribers ; — for  the  interesting  illustrations  of 
the  New  River,  the  Editors  are  indebted  to  the  liberality 
of  Mr.  Smiles  and  Mr.  Murray,  of  Albemarle  Street,  and 
for  those  of  the  Bohun  and  Tiptoft  families  to  the  London 
and  Middlesex  Archaeological  Society.  It  is  a  grateful 
duty  to  express  their  thanks  to  these  donors,  to  the 

different  landed  proprietors  who  have  lent  their  title 
deeds  for  examination  (from  which  much  curious  informa- 
mation  has  been  obtained) ;  to  the  officials  of  the  British 
Museum,  whose  courteous  attention  never  fails  to  the 
most  troublesome  enquirer;  and  lastly,  to  the  "troops  of 
friends  "  who  have  done  so  much  to  encourage  and  assist 

their  faithful  and  obliged  servants, 



NOTE. — The  curious  reader  may  be  gratified  to  see  this  proverbial 
allusion,  (which  has  perhaps  been  more  frequently  quoted  than 
explained)  traced  to  its  source.  The  anecdote  is  first  told  by  Sir 
Richard  Pace,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  the  friend  and  correspondent  of 
Erasmus,  and  Secretary  of  State.  It  occurs  in  a  rare  volume, 
"  Ricardi  Pacei,  invictissimi  Regis  Anglise  primarii  secretarii,  ejusque 
' '  apud  elvetios  oratoris  De  Fructu  qui  ex  doctrina  percipitur  Liber. 
' '  In  inclyta  Basilea. — A.D.  1517."  Where  Pace  speaking  of  the 
hard  usage  to  which  the  letter  S  had  been  subject,  tells  the  story  of 
an  ignorant  English  priest  who  had  disused  it  for  thirty  years,  and 
during  that  time  (in  the  office  of  the  mass)  had  read  mumpsimus 
instead  of  sumpsimus,  and  when  his  error  was  pointed  out  to  him  by 
a  scholar,  replied  that  he  did  not  choose  to  change  his  own  old 
"  mumpsimus  "  for  his  new  "  sumpsimus." 

"Sane  proba  hsec  mea  ancilla  [S]  omnium  literarum  fuit  infortu- 
4 '  natissima.  Nam  et  quidam  indoctus  sacrificus  Anglicus  earn, 
' '  possessione  sua  annis  triginta  expulit,  nee  puduit  ilium  tam  longo 
' '  tempore  mumpsimus  legere  loco  sumpsimus,  Et  quum  moneretur 
"adocto,  ut  errorem  emendaret,  respoudit  se  nolle  mutare  suum 
"antiquum  mumpsimus  ipsius  novo  sumpsimus." — p.  80. 


1 '  I  know  each  lane,  and  every  alley  green, 
"Dingle,  or  bushy  dell  of  forest  wild; 
"And  every  bosky  bourn  from  side  to  side, 
"My  daily  walks  and  ancient  neighbourhood." 

Masque  of  Cotnus. 

THE  parish  of  Enfield  is  situated  about  nine  miles 
from  London  *  and  is  bounded  by  Edmonton,  East 
Barnet,  Hadley,  South  Mimms,  Northaw,  and  Cheshunt, 
and  by  the  River  '  Lea,  which  separates  it  from 
Waltham,  in  Essex.  It  contains  12653*096  acres, 
of  which  223  are  public  roads,  12 2*5  water,  and  about 
too  railways.  It  extends  from  east  to  west  about  Sj4 
miles,  and  3^  from  north  to  south  by  the  main  road, 
but  between  5  and  6  in  other  places. 

Few  districts  in  the  vicinity  of  London  retain  so  much 
of  rural  and  sequestered  character,  owing  no  doubt  in  part 
to  its  formerly  tedious  and  circuitous  means  of  access. 

*  The  old  mile-stone, — opposite  the  Market-house, — was  inscribed, 
"9  miles  and  a-half-and  32  poles,  from  Shoreditch  Church." 


Since  the  opening  of  two  new  lines  of  railway  however, 
this  isolation  cannot  much  longer  continue.  The  beauty 
and  variety  of  the  scenery,  the  upland  Chase,  still  so 
nobly  timbered,  and  the  more  cultivated  lowlands, 
watered  for  many  a  mile  by  the  windings  of  the  New 
River  and  the  Lea;  and  the  long-sustained  character  of 
the  parish  for  health  and  longevity  (rating  the  second  in 
England)  are  drawing  the  attention  of  the  country-loving 
public,  to  this  picturesque  and  interesting  neighbourhood. 

From  the  more  elevated  situations,  extensive  prospects 
may  be  obtained  in  all  directions  over  the  adjoining 
counties;  from  Camlet-moat,  and  from  the  Ridgeway-. 
road,  across  the  broad  expanse  of  the  Chase;  far  down 
into  Hertfordshire,  from  the  wood  at  Forty  Hall;  and 
away  into  the  heart  of  Buckinghamshire,  from  above 
Potter's-bar;  and  the  long  range  of  Epping  and  Hainault 
forests  from  everywhere. 

The  bridle-road  across  Hadley-common,  perhaps  the 
last  remains  of  genuine  forest  scenery  in  Middlesex,  leads 
to  the  highest  ground  in  the  parish,  whence  looking 
south,  distant  gleams  of  the  Thames  and  the  white  sails 
of  its  shipping  may  be  seen  in  the  far  horizon. 

Norden  (MS.  Harl.  370)  describes  it  as  "a  parish  stand- 
ing on  the  edge  of  the  Chace,  of  such  extent  that  if  it  were 
measured  by  the  ring  it  would  be  found  at  least  20  miles 
in  extent,  some  time  parcell  of  the  Duke  of  Lancaster's 
lands — now  Queen  Elizabeth's.  The  Chace,  called 
Enfield  Chace,  taketh  its  name  of  this  place."  To  this  he 

uncivilly  adds,  "It  is  called  of  some  Enfen,  and  so 
"  recorded  in  regarde  of  the  fenny  scytuation  of  some 
"  parte  thereof,  upon  the  marshes  or  meerish  ground, 
"which,  though  now  brought  to  be  good  meadow  and 
"  profitable  pasture,  it  hath  in  time  past  been  fenny." 

This  statement,  however,  is  not  supported  by  any 
authority.  The  termination  "  field,"  is  the  past  participle 
of  the -verb  fsellan,  to  fell,  and  opposed  to  woodland, 
as  land  where  the  trees  have  been  cleared.  Domesday 
Book  calls  it  Enefelde,  and  the  variations  in  subsequent 
records  are  very  trifling, — Endfield,  Enfeld,  Enefield, 
and  Enfield,  and  le'ss  frequently  Envild. 

This  place  formerly  conferred  the  title  of  Baron,  on 
the  Earl  of  Rochfort,  whose  ancestor,  the  first  Earl, 
married  Joan,  daughter  of  Sir  Henry  Wroth,  of  Durants, 
and  was  created  Baron  of  Enfield  by  William  III.  in 
1695.  It  now  gives  the  title  of  Viscount  to  the  Earl 
of  Strafford,  whose  son  and  heir  is  M.P.  for  Middlesex. 

The  parish  is  included  within  the  "  Hundred "  of 
Edmonton,  a  division  which  originated  in  the  old  military 
constitution,  the  name  being  given  to  a  district  which 
chose  one  hundred  men  for  counsel  and  defence,  though 
it  is  stated  by  Tacitus  that  the  number  did  not  always 
correspond  with  the  name.  The  meetings  of  the  hundred 
were  held  monthly,  "  quum  aut  inchoatur  luna  atit 
"impletur."  Every  free  member  of  the  community 
above  twelve  years  old  was  bound  to  enrol  himself  in  a 
hundred,  which  should  be  surety  for  him,  and  in  case  of 


an  accusation,  should  bring  him  to  justice.  The  leader 
of  the  men  of  the  hundred  was  called  the  "comes 
stabuli,"  since  degenerated  into  that  subordinate  police 
officer  the  constable. 

The  administration  of  justice  was  also  in  the  hundred, 
the  finding  a  verdict  being  entrusted  to  a  committee  of 
twelve  of  the  principal  thanes.  The  decision  of  two- 
thirds  of  this  jury  was  a  valid  one,  those  outvoted 
being  subject  td  a  pecuniary  mulct. 



The  parish  is  divided  into  four  quarters,  viz. — the 
Town,  Chase,  Bull's  Cross; — and  Green  Street  and 
Ponder's  End. 

Town  Division. — Enfield  Old-park,  London-road,  Essex- 
road,  Sydney-road,  Raleigh-road,  Cecil-road,  Church- 
street,  Enfield-town,  Silver-street,  Nag's-head-lane,  Baker- 
street,  Clay-hill,  Parsonage-lane,  and  the  east  side  of 

Chase  Division. — Windmill-hill,  the  west  side  of  Chase- 
side,  and  the  whole  of  Enfield-chase. 

Bull's  Cross  Division. — Forty-hill,  Bull's-cross,  Turkey- 
street,  Enfield-wash,  Lock-lane,  the  Lock,  Freezywater, 
White-webbs,  and  CrewVhill. 

Green  Street  and  Ponder's  End  Division. — Green-street, 
Enfield-highway,  and  Ponder's-end. 

It  appears  by  the  minute  book  of  the  Vestry,  1691 
(the  earliest  one  preserved)  that  there  were  then,  and  for 
several  years  subsequently,  four  Churchwardens  and  four 
Overseers  for  four  quarters,  viz.:  "Enfield  Green"  now 
"  the  Town "  quarter,  Bull's-cross  quarter,  Green-street 
quarter,  and  Ponder's-end  quarter;  and  five  Surveyors, 
for  Enfield-green,  Parsonage-ward,  Bull's-cross,  Green- 
street,  and  Ponder's-end  respectively.  In  1703,  one 
Churchwarden  served  for  Green-street,  Ponder's-end,  and 
Bull's-cross.  From  that  time,  Green-street  and  Ponder's- 
end  seem  to  have  been  permanently  united  for  Church- 
wardens ; — but  not  for  Overseers,  till  1710. 



There  is  a  singular  document  in  existence,  with 
reference  to  Fairs  and  Markets.  There  was  originally  a 
grant  by  Richard  II.,  and  subsequently  confirmed  by 
Henry  IV.  and  VI.,  and  other  Monarchs,  down  to 
George  III.,  a  copy  of  which  can  be  had  on  application 
to  the  Steward  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  which  exempts 
the  inhabitants  of  Enfield  from  toll,  pannage,  passage, 
lastage,  tallage,  tollage,  carriage,  pesage,  picage,  and 
terrage,  for  their  goods,  wares,  and  merchandizes,  in  all 
fairs,  markets,  villages,  and  other  places  throughout 
England,  (out  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  in  the  County 
of  Middlesex.)  It  is  stated,  however,  that  this  exemption 
has  been  resisted  in  Covent-garden  and  Whitechapel 

There  was  also  a  charter  of  exemption  from  arrest, 
granted  by  Richard  I.,  but  it  has  not  been  acted  upon 
for  many  years,  and  is  now  considered  obsolete. 

An  exemption  from  toll  at  Warebridge  was  also  granted 
to  the  inhabitants  of  Enfield  by  Queen  Elizabeth,  and 
subsequently  confirmed  by  George  III.  All  these 
charters  are  preserved  among  the  parish  records. 


"Out  of  monuments,  names,  words,  proverbs,  traditions,  private 
"  recordes  and  evidences,  fragments  of  stories,  passages  of  bookes, 
"and  the  like,  we  doe  save  and  recover  somewhat  from  the  deluge 
"of  time." 

Bacon — Advancement  of  learning, — Book  II. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Manors  for  which  Courts- 
leet  and  Courts-baron  are  held  on  particular  days,  for  the 
purpose  of  settling  all  fines,  heriots,  services,  reliefs, 
profits,  perquisites  of  courts,  waters,  waste  grounds, 
fisheries,  royalties,  liberties,  franchises,  &c.,  viz. — 

The  Manor  of  Enfield. 

The  Manor  of  Durants,  or  Durant's  Harbour. 

The  Manor  of  Elsynge,  alias  Norris,  or  North  Farm. 

The  Manor  of  Suffolks. 

The  Manor  of  Honylands  and  Pentriches,  alias  Capels. 

The  Manor  of  Goldbeaters. 

The  Manor  of  Worcesters, — and 

The  Rectory  Manor. 


Of  these  Manors  the  most  important  are  those  of 
Enfield  and  of  Worcesters,  both  of  which  were  formerly 
in  the  possession  of  the  Crown,  each  having  its  owa  park 
and  palace. 

It  is  material  that  this  circumstance  should  be  distinctly 
pointed  out,  as  it  has  led  to  some  confusion  in  the  state- 
ments of  both  Gough  and  Lysons,  which  have  been  copied 
by  Dr.  Robinson  and  all  subsequent  writers.  The  Manor- 
house  of  Worcesters,  was  Elsynge-hall,  alias  Enfield- 
house ; — this  was  built  by  the  Earl  of  Worcester  in  the  1 5th 
century,  and  enlarged  by  his  nephew,  Sir  Thomas  Lovell, 
after  which,  it  was  sometimes  known  by  the  name  of 
Lovell-place.  This  was  the  royal  residence  of  Edward  VI., 
of  Queen  Mary,  and  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  was  pulled 
down  in  the  time  of  Charles  II. 

"The  palace,"  as  it  is  still  called,  and  a  part  of  which 
yet  remains,  was  the  Manor-house  of  Enfield,  and  appears 
to  have  been  built  by  Edward  VI.  at  the  time  when  he 
gave  the  Manor  to  his  sister  Elizabeth,  who  resided  here 
whilst  Princess,  but  held  her  court  at  Elsynge-hall,  after 
she  came  to  the  throne.  Norden  records  with  exultation, 
"the  stately  and  most  princely  pallaces  of  Queene 
"  Elizabeth,"  and  speaks  of  "  Hir  Majesties  parkes 
"  exceeding  all  the  kingdome  of  Fraunce,  (if  the  discourse 
"be  true  betweene  an  Heraulde  of  England  and  a 
"  Heraulde  of  France)  where  it  is  affirmed  that  there  are 
"  in  all  that  region  but  two  parkes, — in  Mydlesex  there 
"are  ten  of  Her  Majesties, — Enfield  parkes  two." 


In  the  reign  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  the  Manor  of 
Enfield  belonged  to  Asgar,  Master  of  the  Horse.  When 
the  survey  of  Domesday  was  taken,  it  was  the  property 
of  Geoifrey  de  Magnaville,  or  Mandeville,  a  powerful 
Norman,  who  had  accompanied  William  to  England. 

His^£«±William  de  Mandeville,  gave  to  the  Priory  of 
^fi/w  Hurley,  in  Berks,  the  tithe  of  nuts,  "in  parco  suo  de 

"  Enfeld  in  frank-almoine,"  and  to  Trinity  Priory,  Aldgate, 
"  XL  carucates  bushii  per  ann.  in  bosco  de  Enefeld.  He 
married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Eudo  Dapifer,  (Steward  to 
the  Conqueror),  by  whom  he  had  a  son,  Geoffrey,  created 
Earl  of  Essex,  by  King  Stephen. 

"  Circa  haec  tempora  ROBERTUS  HUDUS  et  PARVUS 
"  JOANNES,  latrones  famatissimi  in  nemoribus  latuerunt  -  - 
"  Latronum  omnium  humanissimus  et  princeps  erat." 
[Majoris  Britan.  Histor.] 

Dr.  Stukely  says,  that  "  Robin  Hood  took  to  this  wild 
"  way  of  life,  in  imitation  of  his  grandfather,  Geoffrey  de 
"  Mandeville,  who,  being  a  favourer  of  Maude,  Empress, 
'•  King  Stephen  took  him  prisoner  at  St.  Albans,  and 
"made  him  give  up  the  tower  of  London,  Walden, 
"  Plessis,  &c.,  after  which  he  lived  in  plunder." 

In  resentment  for  this  reduction  of  his  power  and 
influence,  he  committed  (says  Camden)  the  most  violent 
ravages  on  the  King  and  his  party,  and  proceeding  to 
seize  and  pillage  Ramsey  Abbey,  was  shortly  afterwards 


mortally  wounded  at  the  Castle  of  Burwell,  which  he  had 
laid  siege  to.  He  was  carried  off  by  some  of  the  Knights 
Templars,  who,  putting  him  in  the  habit  of  their  order, 
carried  his  corpse  into  their  orchard  at  the  Old  Temple. 
But  as  he  died  under  sentence  of  excommunication,  they 
would  not  give  him  Christian  burial,  but  wrapping  him 
up  in  lead  (canali  plumbeo  inclusum)  hung  him  up  on  a 
crooked  tree.  At  length  the  sentence  was  taken  off  by 
the  application  of  the  Prior  of  Walden,  to  the  Pope,  and 
the  Templars  buried  the  body  obscurely  in  the  porch 
before  the  west  door. 

This  haughty  baron  inherited  above  one  hundred 
Manors,  with  the  constableship  of  the  tower  of  London. 
The  Monks  of  Walden  have  taken  care  to  embalm  .the 
memory  of  their  munificent  founder,  and  though  they 
acknowledge  him  to  have  committed  the  greatest  outrages, 
he  was  with  them  one  of  the  bravest  and  best  of  men. 
"  Erat  enim  vir  militaris  ac  Deo  devotus,  cujus  cordis 
"  area  virtutibus  nunquam  erat  vacua."  He  married 
Roisia  de  Vere,  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Oxford,  by  whom 
(according  to  Dr.  Stukeley)  William  Fitzooth  was  brought 
up,  and  he  marrying  their  daughter,  Joanna,  became  the 
father  of  Robert  Fitzooth,  commonly  known  as  Robin 
Hood.*  The  sons  of  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  dying 

*  The   traditional  bow  of  Robin    Hood,    (which    is  stated  by 
Ritson  to  have  been   preserved   with  peculiar    veneration)   is    in 


without  issue,  the  bulk  of  his  possessions  devolved  to 
Henry  de  Bohun,  in  right  of  his  wife,  Matilda,  sole 
daughter  and  heiress  of  Geoffery  Fitz  Piers,  who  was 
himself,  through  his  wife,  Beatrice  de  Say,  representative 
and  heir  of  the  Mandevilles.  Henry  de  Bohun,  constable 
of  England,  was  created  Earl  of  Hereford,  and  was  one 
of  the  Barons  of  Runnymede.  He  died  in  1220,  on  his 
voyage  to  the  Holy  Land,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Humphrey,  second  Earl  of  Hereford,  and  Earl  of  Essex, 
and  distinguished  by  the  title  of  "  The  Good."  By  his 
marriage  with  Maude,  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Eu,  in 
Normandy,  he  had  a  son,  Humphrey,  who  died  before 

possession  of  J.  W.  Ford,  Esq.,  and  would  tax  the  strength  of  any 
modern  archer  to  string  it — to  say  nothing  of  drawing  it  with  "a 
cloth-yard  arrow  "  to  the  head. 

Whatever  exaggeration  may  attach  to  the  stories  of  Robin  Hood 
shooting  an  arrow  "a  measured  mile,"  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
the  distances  reached  by  the  old  bowmen  were  far  beyond  anything 
which  modern  skill  or  strength  could  approach.  Drayton  says  that 
they  used  to  shoot  at  marks  full  800  yards,  and  the  statute  33  Henry 
VIII.  cap.  9,  made  it  penal  for  any  one  who  had  reached  the  age  of 
24,  to  shoot  at  any  less  distance  than  220  yards. 

Strutt  mentions  that  at  the  end  of  the  last  century  he  was  at  a 
meeting  of  the  London  Toxophilites,  "in  their  ground  near  Bedford 
Square,"  when  the  Turkish  Ambassador,  who  was  present,  com- 
plained of  the  shortness  of  the  enclosure,  and  going  out  into  the 
adjoining  fields,  he  shot  several  arrows  "more  than  double  the 
length  of  the  archery  ground,"  being  above  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 

Counter  Seal  of  Humphrey  de  Bohiui, 
4/7*  Earl  of  Hereford,   and  "yd  Earl  of  Essex. 

The  principal  shield  in  this  seal  bears  azure — a  bend  argent — 
cotised  and  between  six  lioncels  or.  On  either  side  is  a  small  shield 
charged  with  the  arms  of  Mandeville,  Earl  of  Essex—  quarterly  or. 
and  gules — from  which  arrangement  the  usage  of  quartering  is  said 
to  have  been  derived. 

The  de  Bohun  swan  was  a  badge  of  the  Mandevilles,  who  bore 
this  device,  along  with  the  Nevilles,  in  token  of  their  descent  from  a 
common  ancestor  Adam  de  Swanne,  or  Sweyn,  a  Dane. 

Geoffrey  Mandeville,  Earl  of  Essex,  was  buried  in  the  Temple 
Church,  where  may  be  seen  his  effigy,  with  a  shield,  on  which  his 
arms  are  sculptured — being  the  earliest  instance  known  of  a 
monument  with  an  armorial  bearing. 

Cough's  Sepulchral  Monuments, — p.  104,  Introd. 


his  father,  leaving  a  son,  Humphrey,  who  married 
Matilda,  daughter  of  William  de  Fienles,  and  had  one 
son,  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  who,  in  1302,  married 
Elizabeth  Plantagenet,  daughter  of  Edward  I.  The 
eminent  position  of  the  Bohun  family  at  this  time  is 
apparent  both  from  the  alliance  and  the  cause  that  led  to 
it,  as  set  forth  in  an  important  document,  which  states} 
that  there  having  been  great  dissention  between  the  King 
and  the  Earl's  father,  the  peace  and  tranquillity  of  the 
realm  might  be  secured  by  the  proposed  marriage- 

Counter  Seal  of  John  de  Bohim, 
Earl  of  Hereford,  and  4///   Earl  oj  Essex. 


Shortly  after  this  event,  he  surrendered  all  his  honours  and 
lordships  to  the  King,  who  granted  them  again  to  him 
and  his  heirs.  His  eldest  son,  John,  succeeded  him, 
who  married  Alice,  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Arundel,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Humphrey,  who,  in  1347 
obtained  the  royal  licence  to  fortify  and  embattle  his 
manor  houses  in  Essex,  Middlesex,  Wilts,  and  Gloucester- 
shire; of  these  ten  castles,  one  was  at  Enfield.  His 
nephew,  Humphrey,  was  the  eleventh  and  last  who  bore 
that  name.  He  died  in  1372,  leaving  two  daughters, 
Alianore  and  Mary  de  Bohun,  the  two  most  noble  and 
wealthy  heiresses  in  the  realm.  Alianore  married 
Thomas  de  Woodstock,  seventh  son  of  Edward  III., 
Earl  of  Buckingham  and  Essex,  afterwards  Duke  of 
Gloucester,  who  was  murdered  at  Calais  by  the  command 
of  his  nephew  Richard  II.,  in  1397.  "  I  was  informed," 
(says  Froissart)  "  that  he  was  on  the  point  of  sitting  down 
"to  dinner;  when  the  table  had  been  laid  and  he  was 
"about  to  wash  his  hands,  four  men  rushed  from  an 
"adjoining  chamber,  and  throwing  a  towel  round  his 
"neck,  strangled  him  by  two  pulling  at  one  end  and  two 
"  the  other.  When  he  was  quite  dead  they  carried  him 
"  to  his  bed  and  undressed  him,  placing  him  between  two 
"  sheets,  and  covering  him  with  a  furred  mantle, 
"  gave  out  that  he  had  died  of  a  fit  of  apoplexy."  His 
unfortunate  widow  survived  her  husband  for  a  period  of 
about  two  years,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Edmund's  Chapel, 
in  Westminster  Abbey,  according  to  the  directions  of  her 



will.  The  monumental  brass  upon  her  tomb,  and  that  of 
Joice  Lady  Tiptoft,  in  Enfield  Church,  are  among  the 
best  and  most  interesting  specimens  of  these  memorials, 
and  will  be  more  fully  described  hereafter. 

After  the  death  of  Alianore,*  in  1399,  the  Manor  of 
Enfield  was  inherited  by  her  sister  Mary,  who  was  married 
to  Henry  of  Lancaster,  the  son  of  John  of  Gaunt,  after- 
wards King  Henry  IV.  The  Manor  thus  vested  in  the 
crown  was  annexed  to  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  of  which 
it  still  continues  to  be  parcel. 

The  site  of  the  original  Manor-house  of  Enfield  has 
been  the  subject  of  much,  antiquarian,  research..  Camden 
says,  that. "  almost  in  the  middle  of  the  Chase  there  are 
the  ruins  and  rubbish  of  an  ancient  house  which  the 
common  people  from  tradition  affirm  to  have  belonged  to  * 
the  Mandevilles,  Earls  of  Essex."  This  site,  called 
Camlet-moat,  is  a  large  quadrangular  area,  overgrown 
with  briars  and  bushes.  When  measured  in  1773,  the 
length  was  150  feet.  At  the  north-east  corner  is  a  deep 
well,  paved  at  the  bottom,  in  is  pretended  lies 
an  iron  chest  full  of  treasure,  which  cannot  be  drawn  up 
to  the  top,  and  that  the  last  owner  to  whom  the  Chase 
belonged  being  attained  of  treason,  hid  himself  in  a. 
hollow  tree,  and  falling  into  this  well  perished  miserably.. 
This  tradition  is  probably  a  distorted  version  of  the  account 

*  This  unfortunate  Duchess  is  introduced  by  Shakespeare  as  one  of 
the  dramatis  personas  in  his  Richard  II. 


of  Geoffry  de  Mandeville,  which  has  been  given  above. 
Mr.  Lysons  (whose  attentive  investigations  were  assisted 
by  the  late  Mr.  Gough)  considers  however  that  this  spot 
was  more  probably  the  site  of  the  principal  lodge  and  the 
residence  of  the  chief  forester.*  The  tiles  scattered  over 
the  area,  the  well  and  the  traces  of  the  enclosures  and 
avenues,  would  seem  to  be  rather  the  works  of  the  1 5th 
or  i6th  centuries  than  of  any  earlier  period. 

It  appears  from  Dugdale's  Baronage,  and  from  MS.  in 
the  British  Museum,  that  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of 
Hereford,  obtained  in  1347,  the  King's  license  to  fortify 
his  Manor-house  in  Enfield,  as  mentioned  in  page  20,  the 
words  of  the  grant  are,  "  mansum  manerii  de  Enefelde 
muro  et  petra  et  calce  firmare  et  kernellare," — dated 
at  Guildford,  Dec.  22, — 21  Edward  III. 

In  a  meadow  to  the  east  of  the  Church  near  Nag's-head- 
lane,  there  is  an  oblong  area  of  3*55  acres,  (marked  1946, 
1947  on  the  ordnance  map)  surrounded  by  a  deep  and  wide 
moat  with  high  embankments.  The  south  side  is  132 
yards  long,  with  a  vallum  1 2  yards  high,  and  the  north 
side  1 60  yards  long  with  the  vallum  15  yards  high,  and  16 
yards  wide  at  the  base.  The  east  and  west  sides  are 
135  yards  long,  the  vallum  on  the  west  side  showing  an 
entrance  in  the  middle,  corresponding  with  another  in 

*  It  seems  to  be  so  indicated  in  a  "sketch  of  the  outlines  of  the 
Chase,  1658,"  in  the  centre  of  "the  great  square  convenient  for  the 
deer  to  feed  in."  ^., 


the  inner  vallum,  which  is  40  yards  long  at  the  east  and 
west,  and  96  yards  at  the  north  and  south.  The  moat  is 
from  10  to  12  yards  wide,  except  on  the  north,  where 
it  is  32  yards  wide.  At  the  north-west  corner  is  a 
mount,  indicating  a  small  keep,  and  opposite  to  it  on  the 
other  side  of  the  moat  is  a  deep  well.  It  is  probable 
that  this  moated  place,  which  was  included  in  some 
demesne  lands,  might  have  been  the  site  of  Humphrey 
de  Bohun's  castle,  and  that  when  the  manorial  residence 
was  removed  it  acquired  the  name  of  Oldbury,  by  which 
it  is  still  known. 

From  the  records  of  the  Duchy  it  appears  that  the 


Manor  of  Enfield  was  leased  to  private  individuals  in  the 
early  part  of  the  1 6th  century,  and  that  the  lease  reverted 
to  the  crown  at  the  latter  end  of  Henry  VIII. 's  reign. 
During  this  time  the  original  Manor-house  of  Bohun 
had  fallen  into  decay,  and  the  royal  children  were  brought 
up  at  Elsinge  Hall  (alias  Enfield  House)  belonging  to  the 
Manor  of  Worcesters. 

At  the  death  of  King  Henry  VIII.  his  son  Edward 
was  resident  in  the  Castle  of  Hertford,  and  his  daughter 
Elizabeth  at  Enfield.  The  Earl  of  Hertford,  the  young 
King's  maternal  uncle,  accompanied  by  Sir  Anthony 
Browne,  the  Master  of  the  Horse,  undertook  the  charge 
of  conducting  the  new  sovereign  to  the  metropolis. 
They  repaired  to  Hertford  Castle,  and,  without  apprising 
Edward  of  all  that  had  occurred,  removed  him  (probably 
on  Saturday,  the  29th  of  January,  1547)  to  Elsynge  Hall. 


Here,  in  the  presence  of  his  sister,  Edward  was  informed  of 
his  father's  death,  and  of  his  own  accession  to  the  crown. 
On  the  following  Monday  he  was  conducted  from  Enfield 
to  the  Tower  of  London.* 

It  was  in  the  garden  at  Elsynge  Hall  that  the  Earl  of 
Hertford  took  the  opportunity  of  communicating  to  his 
companion,  the  Master  of  the  Horse,  his  intention  to 
assume  the  office  of  Protector,  in  contravention  to  the  late 
King's  will,  which  had  designated  eighteen  executors 
with  equal  powers. 

We  are  told,  that  "  after  communication  in  discourse 
of  the  state,"  Sir  Anthony  "  gave  his  frank  consent  to  the 
proposal;"  upon  which,  as  we  learn  from  a  letter,t  of 

*  In  the  State  Paper  Office  is  a  letter  from  the  Earl  of  Hertford 
to  the  Council — "From  Envild  this  Sunday  night  att  xj  of  the 
clok."  He  writes,  "  We  intend  the  King's  Matie.  shal  be  a 
horsbak  to-morrow  by  xj.  of  the  clok,  so  that  bi  iij.  we  trust  His 
Grace  shal  be  att  the  Tower." 

t  "Myne  old  master,  the  master  of  th'  orsses,  albeit,  as  is 
commonly  known,  he  did  much  dissent  from  the  proceedings  in 
matters  of  religion,  yet  was  I  long  sins  by  himself  right  well  assured 
that  he,  commoning  with  my  Lordes  Grace  in  the  garden  at  Endfielde, 
at  the  King's  Majesties  cooming  from  Hartforde,  gave  his  franke 
consent,  after  communication  in  discourse  of  the  state,  that  His 
Grace  should  be  Protector,  thinking  it  (as  indede  it  was)  both  the 
surest  kynde  of  government  and  most  fyt  for  this  commonwelth." — 
Letter  of  William  Wightman  to  Cecill,  Literary  Remains  of  King 
Edward  VI.  ( printed  for  the  Roxburghe  Club,  1558^  p,  ccxlvii. 

"  Remember  what  you  promised  me  in  the  gallery  at  Westminster, 
before  the  breath  was  out  of  the  body  of  the  King  that  dead  is. 
Remember  what  you  promised  immediately  after,  devising  with  me 
concerning  the  place  which  you  now  occupy.  I  trust  in  the  end  to 
good  purpose,  however  things  thwart  now." — (Letter  of  Paget  to 
the  Protector  Somerset. ) 


Paget's,  Hertford  had  previously  "  devised"  with  Secretary 
Paget,  who  was  now  left  at  Court  to  arrange  matters 
with  the  other  counsellors. 

Edward  VI.  did  not  again  return  to  Enfield,  and  in 
1552  he  settled  the  Manor  of  Enfield  on  his  sister 
Elizabeth,*  at  which  time  he  probably  built  (or  re-built  on 
the  site  of  a  former  structure)  the  house  now  known  as 
"  The  Palace,"  for  her  use,  as  is  shown  by  the  initials 
E.  R.  on  the  walls  and  chimney  pieces,  and  the  words 
"  benevolentia  regis."  Dr.  Robinson  erroneously  states 
that  it  was  "  built  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.,  by  Sir 
Thomas  Lovell,  as  one  may  gather  from  the  arms"  citing 
Camden  as  his  authority.  The  reference  in  Camden  is 
clearly  to  Elsynge  Hall,  and  Gough's  edition  explicitly 
says  "  the  arms  of  Lovell  do  not  appear  on  the  Palace." 
Notwithstanding  the  great  alterations  it  has  undergone 
the  interior  still  preserves  some  vestiges  of  its  ancient 
magnificence,  and  a  part  of  one  of  the  large  rooms  on 
the  ground  floor  remains  nearly  in  its  original  state,  with 

*  In  April,  1557,  "  the  Princess  was  escorted  from  Hatfield  Hall, 
Hatfield  House,  to  Enfield-chase,  by  a  retinue  of  twelve  ladies,  in 
white  satin,  on  ambling  palfries,  and  twenty  yeomen,  in  green,  on 
horseback,  that  Her  Grace  might  hunt  the  hart.  On  entering  the 
Chase  she  was  met  by  fifty  archers,  in  scarlet  boots  and  yellow  caps, 
armed  with  gilded  bows,  each  of  whom  presented  her  with  a  silver- 
headed  arrow,  winged  with  peacocks'  feathers;  and  by  way  of 
closing  the  sports,  the  Princess  was  gratified  with  the  privilege  of 
cutting  the  throat  of  a  buck!" 


its  fine  fretted  pannels  of  oak  and  its  ornamental  ceiling 
with  pendants  of  four  spreading  leaves,  and  enrichments 
of  the  crown,  the  rose,  and  the  fleur  de  lis.  The  chimney 
piece  is  of  stone  beautifully  cut  and  supported  by  Ionic 
and  Corinthian  columns,  decorated  with  foliage  and  birds, 
and  the  rose  and  portcullis  crowned; — with  the  arms  of 
England  and  France  quarterly  in  a  garter,  and  the  royal 
supporters,  a  lion  and  a  dragon. 

Below  is  the  motto  "Sola  salvs  servire  Deo  sunt 
csetera  fraudes."  The  letters  E.  R.  are  on  this  chimney 
piece,  and  were  formerly  on  each  side  of  the  wings  of  the 
principal  building.  The  monogram  is  clearly  that  of 
Edward  VI.,  as  the  same  room  contains  part  of  another 
chimney  piece  which  was  removed  from  one  of  the  upper 
apartments,  with  nearly  the  same  ornaments,  and  the 
motto,  "  Vt  ros  svper  herbam  est  benevolentia  REGIS," 
alluding  no  doubt  to  the  royal  grant.  Several  of  the 
ceilings  in  the  upper  rooms  are  decorated  in  a  similar 
manner  to  those  below. 

It  appears  that  the  Queen  leased  the  Manor-house, 
"  the  Palace,"  in  the  year  1582,  to  Henry  Middlemore, 
Esq.,  for  fifty-one  years,  and  that  it  did  not  revert  to  the 
crown  during  her  reign. 

It  was  alienated  in  1629,  by  Charles  L,  to  Edward 
Ditchfield,  and  others,  trustees  for  the  City  of  London, 
who  afterwards  conveyed  it  to  Sir  Nicholas  Raynton,  and 
it  has  ever  since  remained  private  property.  Sir  N. 
Raynton  let  the  house  to  Sir  Thomas  Trevor,  one  of  the 


Barons  of  the  Exchequer,  in  whose  tenure  it  seems  to 
have  been  from  1635,  till  his  death  in  1656.  About  the 
year  1660,  "  the  Palace  "  was  let  to  Dr.  Robert  Uvedale, 
Master  of  the  Grammar  School,  who,  being  much 
attached  to  the  study  of  botany,  had  a  large  and  curious 
garden  in  which  he  cultivated  a  choice  collection  of 
exotics.  Among  others  he  had  a  cedar,  said  to  have 
been  brought  in  a  portmanteau  from  Lebanon,  by  one  of 
his  pupils,  and  planted  by  himself,  which  has  since 
become  much  celebrated  for  its  beauty  and  size,  being 
probably  the  largest  in  England,  and  but  little  inferior  in 
girth  to  the  largest  tree  on  Mount  Lebanon. 

It  was  destined  to  be  cut  down  by  the  late  Dr. 
Callaway  soon  after  he  purchased  the  Palace, — the  saw- 
pit  was  actually  prepared  and  the  trench  dug  round  it 
ready  for  the  axe,  but  at  the  earnest  request  of  the  late 
Mr.  Gough  and  Dr.  Sherwen  the  tree  was  spared. 
Although  it  has  suffered  much  from  storms  and  high 
winds,  it  is  still  a  magnificent  tree,  and  forms  a  con- 
spicuous object  from  many  parts  of  Enfield. 

In  1792  a  great  part  of  the  original  Palace  was  pulled 
down,  and  several  dwelling  houses  built  upon  the  site. 
It  formerly  consisted  of  a  centre  and  two  wings  facing 
the  west,  with  bay  windows  and  high  gables.  The  wings 
bore  the  arms  of  England,  with  supporters,  and  the  letters 
E.  R.,  the  same  as  on  the  chimney  piece  before  mentioned. 

After  the  death  of  Eliab  Breton,  the  descendant  of 
Sir  N.  Raynton,  this  property  was  purchased  by  Daniel 


Lister,  Esq.,  in  whose  family  it  still  remains.  It  was  for 
many  years  in  the  tenantcy  of  the  late  Dr.  May,  as  a 
first  class  boarding  school,  and  it  still  retains  all  its 
deserved  reputation  under  its  present  accomplished 
master,  W.  Nutter  Barker,  B.A.,  F.R.A.S. 

In  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  the  Manor  of 
Enfield  was  valued  at  ^50,  and  bore  the  same  value  in 
the  survey  of  Domesday.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  I. 
(1303)  it  was  valued  at  only  £34  3s-  l<^-  In  that  of 
Edward  III.  (1337)  its  extent  and  value  are  thus  de- 
scribed:— "A  capital  messuage,  135.  4d.;  a  garden  of 
herbs,  55.;  a  dove  house,  55.;  four  hundred  and  twenty 
acres  of  arable  in  demesne,  sixpence  an  acre ;  sixty-three 
acres  of  meadow,  35.;  and  thirty-nine  other  acres  of 
meadow,  one  shilling  only;  twenty-four  acres  of  pasture, 
35.;  a  park  called  "  The  Frith,"  or  Old  Park,  whence 
twenty  acres  of  underwood,  worth  33.  an  acre  might  be 
sold  annually;  another  called  the  Great  Park,  or  Chase, 
which  was  of  common  pasture  and  no  underwood,  worth 
505.  per  annum.  There  were  fish  ponds  also,*  whence 
fish  might  be  sold  every  seventh  year  to  the  amount  of 
15  marks." 

To  this  Manor  belongs  a  view  of  frankpledge;  courts 
leet  and  baron  are  held  in  Whitsun-week,  and  on 

*  Old  Pond,   New  Pond,   Sloper's  Pond,  Ranmey  Reach  Pond, 
and  Monkey  Mead  Pond,  all  long  since  drained  and  filled  up. 


November  5th,  when  a  constable  and  two  headboroughs 
are  chosen  for  the  town  quarter,  with  a  brander  and 
aleconner;  a  constable,  headborough,  and  brander,  for 
BulPs-cross  quarter;  and  two  headboroughs,  a  brander, 
and  a  hayward  for  Green-street.  The  annual  fines  did 
not  exceed  £16.  The  Court  Rolls  were  burnt  by 
accident  many  years  ago,  and  the  present  books  begin 
in  1705. 

The  value  of  the  fee  simple  of  these  quit  rents  was 
deducted  from  the  allotments  under  the  Enclosure  Act, 
and  their  estates  exonerated  and  for  ever  discharged, 
from  the  2Qth  September,  1803. 

THE    OLD    PARK. 

"  In  the  early  surveys  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield,  the 
Old  Park  (so  called  in  contradistinction  from  the  Little 
Park  or  New  Park,  near  White-webbs)  is  sometimes 
called  the  Frith,*  and  sometimes  '  Parcus  Intrinsecus,'  or 
the  Home  Park,  to  distinguished  it  from  the  Chase, 
which  was  called  '  Parcus  Extrinsecus,'  and  sometimes 
the  Great  Park." 

"  It  was  formerly  the  home  park  of  the  ancient 
Manorial  Palace  of  Enfield,  at  which  the  Princess 

*  P'RITH   is  used  by  Chaucer  for  a  wood,  an   open  space  among 


Elizabeth  resided.*  The  park,  with  '  the  hop  garden,' 
(designated  on  the  Ordnance  Map  as  Old  Park  Farm), 
and  the  'warren,'  was  granted  by  Charles  II.  to  George 
Monk,  first  Duke  of  Albe\marle,  in  1660.  It  was 
bequeathed  by  Christopher,  the  second  Duke,  together 
with  the  whole  of  his  great  estates,  to  his  cousin  and 
godson,  Christopher  Rawlinson,  Esq.,  of  Cark-hall, 
Lancashire,  (son  of  Curwen  Rawlinson,  M.P.  for 
Lancaster,  who  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Nicholas 
Monk,  Bishop  of  Hereford) — in  the  event  of  his  surviving 
the  Duchess.  Her  Grace  being  taken  ill,  Mr.  Rawlinson 
was  called  to  London,  but  was  seized  by  the  small-pox 
on  the  road,  and  died  one  month  before  the  Duchess. 
He  was  buried  in  the  north  transept  of  St.  Alban's  Abbey, 
where  a  marble  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory. 
The  property  thus  escheated  to  the  Crown;  it  was  again 
granted  by  King  William  III.,  in  the  first  year  of  his 
reign,  to  the  Earl  of  Rutland,  and  was  sold  in  1736  by 
Grace,  Countess  of  Granville,  to  Samuel  Clayton,  Esq., 

•  *  To  this  time  belongs  an  incident  which  is  recorded  by  George 
Puttenham  in  his  Art  of  Poesie,  and  which  is  "characteristic  of  the 
majesty  of  her  thoughts  as  well  as  her  actions."  When  she  came  to 
the  crown,  a  knight  who  had  behaved  insolently  to  her  when  Lady 
Elizabeth,  fell  upon  his  knees  and  besought  "her  pardon,  expecting 
to  be  sent  to  the  tower.  "Do  you  not  knowe"  (she  good- 
humouredly  replied)  "  that  we  are  descended  of  the  lion,  whose 
nature  is  not  to  harme  or  prey  upon  the  mouse,  or  any  other  such 
smalle  vermine." 


for  ^7000,  at  which  time  it  consisted  of  230  acres,  to 
which  33  acres  were  added  by  the  Enclosure  Act  of  1777. 
In  1825,  the  mansion  house  and  200  acres  were 
purchased  by  the  late  Mrs.  Winchester  Lewis,  and  a  part 
was  afterwards  resold.  It  is  now  the  property  and 
residence  of  her  son-in-law,  Edward  Ford,  Esq.,  a 
descendant  of  the  Rawlinson  family.  The  house  appears, 
from  the  survey  of  1650,  to  have  been  then  a  Ranger's 
Lodge,  at  which  time  it  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Crosby, 
and  valued  at  ^8  per  annum,  and  from  the  remains  of 
massive  foundations  in  every  direction,  must  have  been 
of  considerable  extent;  but  the  greater  part  of  the  original 
structure  has  long  since  been  pulled  down,  and  the 
remainder  transformed  into  a  comparatively  modern 

The  park  is  richly  wooded  with  oaks,  the  growth  of 
centuries,  from  which  three  hundred  and  ninety-seven 
were  selected  and  felled  for  the  Navy,  in  the  time  of  the 

The  lawn,  in  front  of  the  house,  is  mentioned  by 
Camden  as  the  site  of  an  ancient  Roman  Oppidum,  and 
is  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  a  circular  entrenchment, 
from  which  various  interesting  relics  have,  at  different 
times,  been  obtained." 

*  There  still  remain  in  the  Library  the  original  open  chimney 
and  hearth,  with  fire  dogs,  and  a  curious  old  "reredos,"  with 
figures  of  the  time  of  James  I. 


Chase  Park,  the  residence  of  Mrs.  Adams,  was 
originally  parcel  of  the  Old  Park.  The  former  house 
which  stood  near  the  entrance  lodge  from  Chase  Green, 
was  purchased  of  Mr.  Clayton,  in  1811,  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Cotton,  along  with  thirty-four  acres  of  land,  for  ^7027. 
In  1822,  he  sold  it  to  the  late  Mr.  Browning,  who  pulled 
it  down  and  built  the  present  mansion  in  its  stead.  Ten 
years  afterwards  Mr.  Browning  conveyed  the  estate  to 
his  son-in-law,  William  Carr,  Esq.,  who  had  previously 
purchased  of  Mrs.  Winchester  Lewis,  fifty-six  acres  of 
adjoining  land,  when  the  whole  property  was  thrown 
together,  and  the  present  park  laid  out. 

About  the  same  time  the  New  River  Company,  under 
a  mutual  agreement,  formed  the  ornamental  sheet  of 
water  in  front  of  the  house,  on  which  the  proprietor  has 
the  right  of  fishing  and  keeping  a  boat.* 

In  the  year  1859,  the  estate,  which  then  contained 
seventy-six  acres,  was  purchased  for  ^15000,  by  the 
late  Francis  Bryant  Adams,  Esq.,  the  husband  of  the 
present  owner. 

*  The  New  River  Company  having  failed  in  procuring  powers 
from  Parliament  to  construct  a  drain  to  divert  the  surface  water  of 
the  adjoining  lands,  for  which  the  parochial  authorities  had  refused 
permission,  obtained  leave  from  Mr.  Carr  to  take  the  drain  through 
his  estate,  which  was  done  at  a  cost  of  £2000,  the  lake  being 
excavated  by  the  Company  in  return  for  the  permission  granted 
to  them. 



The  estate  of  Chase  Side  House  was  originally  a  part 
of  the  Old  Park,  which  formerly  extended  as  far  as 
Enfield,  and  included  "  the  Palace,"  with  its  gardens  and 
curtilage.  After  these  had  been  alienated  by  the  Crown 
in  the  year  1629,  parts  of  the  freehold  adjoining  the 
street  were  sold  for  building  purposes  to  various  indi- 

This  part  of  the  town  was  then  known  by  the  name  of 
"  Enfield  Green,"  (the  present  Green  being  at  that  time 
unenclosed  chace),  and  within  this  century  several  trees 
were  still  standing,  marking  the  former  boundary  of  the 
Old  Park.  The  last  of  these,  a  noble  old  elm,  stood  in 
the  middle  of  the  open  space  at  the  top  of  the  town.  It 
was  greatly  injured  by  a  bonfire  on  the  5th  of  November, 
1836,  and  finally  blown  down  by^the  great  hurricane  on 
the  29th  of  the  same  month. 

Amongst  the  oldest  of  those  houses  which  can  be  now 
identified,  was  the  George  Inn,*  originally  a  private 
dwelling  house,  and  a  house  marked  upon  the  old  map 
of  1658,  where  Chase  Side  House  now  stands,  which 
was  possibly  that  of  Sir  Robert  Jason,  who  had  "  a 
mansion  at  Enfield  Green,  in  1686." 

This  house  was  bought  in  1826  by  the  late  Mr. 
Steadman,  who  afterwards  purchased  an  additional 

*  The  title-deeds  of  Mr.  Mathison  comprise  the  original  con- 
veyance of  this  house  from  Edward  Heath  to  Thos.  Taylor,  in  1666. 



quantity  of  land,  lying  within  the  bend  of  the  New 
River,  from  the  late  Mr.  Clayton,  and  subsequently  he 
re-built  a  great  part  of  the  house  as  it  now  stands, 
removing  the  wrought  iron  gates  and  the  piers,  with  their 
fine  floriated  vases  of  cast  lead,  from  the  front  facing  the 
road,  and  placing  them  within  the  grounds  as  an  entrance 
to  the  walled  garden. 

Mr.  Steadman's  widow,  afterwards  so  well  known  as 
Mrs.  Everett  for  her  hospitality  and  beneficence,  and  for 
the  liberality  with  which  the  beautiful  grounds  were 
constantly  thrown  open  whenever  they  could  contribute 
to  the  public  benefit  or  amusement,  died  1865,  and  the 
property  was  purchased  in  1867,  by  Phillip  Twells,  Esq., 
M.A.,  the  present  proprietor. 

The  estate  consists  of  thirty-five  acres  within  a  ring 

A  young  oak  in  these  grounds  has  an  interesting  history, 
which  is  worth  recording.  General  Pallisier  had  sent 
over  some  acorns  from  Algiers  to  Louis  Philippe,  by  whom 
they  were  presented  to  the  Queen,  and  Her  Majesty 
distributed  several  to  different  ladies  about  the  Court. 
One  of  these  was  given  by  Miss  Skerrett  to  Mrs.  Everett, 
who  planted  it  on  the  lawn,  where  it  has  reached  a  height 
of  twenty  feet,  the  stem  being  a  foot  in  diameter,  and  the 
spread  of  the  branches  eighteen  feet.  The  leaf,  which 
somewhat  resembles  that  of  the  beech,  remains  on  the 
tree  till  May,  when  the  young  leaves  appear,  thus  giving 
it  all  the  advantages  of  an  evergreen. 


"next  Enfield — 

"  A  Forrest  for  her  pride,  though  titled  but  a  Chace, 
"  Her  Purlewes,  and  her  Parks,  her  circuit  full  as  large 
' '  As  some  perhaps  whose  state  requires  a  greater  charge, 
"  Whose  Holts  that  view  the  East,  do  wistly  stand  to  look 
"  Upon  the  winding  course  of  Lee's  delightful  Brook." 

Draytoit's  Polyolbion — 16//<  Song. 

On  the  north  side  of  Enfield  Town  there  is  an  extensive 
tract  of  land  called  Enfield  Chase,  anciently  in  the 
possession  of  the  Mandevilles,  and  afterwards  of  the 
Bohuns,  their  successors,  but  now  belonging  to  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster,  since  the  marriage  of  Henry  IV.  to  Mary, 
daughter  and  ultimate  heiress  of  Humphrey  de  Bohun. 

Enfield  Chase  first  occurs  under  that  name  in  the  reign 
of  Edward  II.,  previously  to  which  it  was  generally  called 
the  "  Great  Park," — "  parcus  extrinsecus,"  or  the  outer 
park.  It  extends  into  several  adjoining  parishes,  and  is 
supposed  by  Lord  Lyttleton  to  have  been  a  tract  of  the 
ancient  forest  of  Middlesex. 

The  Chase,  together  with  the  Manor  of  Enfield,  was 
given  by  Richard  III.  in  1483,  to  Stafford,  Duke  of 
Buckingham,  as  a  reward  for  his  services  in  raising  him 
to  the  crown;  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  he  ever  took 
possession,  as  he  soon  conspired,  with  the  Bishop  of  Ely, 
to  dethrone  the  King,  and  being  betrayed  by  his  own 
servants,  he  was  taken  to  Salisbury  and  beheaded  in  the 
Market-place,  without  any  arraignment  or  trial. 


The  Chase  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  sovereign 
till  the  death  of  Charles  I.,  when  it  was  seized  by  the 
Commonwealth  as  public  property,  and  by  an  order  of  the 
House  of  .Commons,  was  surveyed  in  the  year  1650, 
when  it  was  reported  to  contain  7,900  acres,  and  its  value 
,£4,742  8s.  per  annum.  .  At  this  time  there  was  an 
abundant  quantity  of  deer,  which  were  valued  at  £150. 
The  oak  timber  (exclusive  of  2,500  marked  for  the  use  of 
the  navy)  was  valued  at  £2,100.  The  horn-beam  and 
other  wood  at  ,£12,100. 

In  November,  1652,  it  was  resolved,  "that  Enfield 
Chase  should  be  sold  for  ready  money;"  pursuant  to 
which  resolution  it  was  divided  into  parcels,  which  were 
sold  to  various  purchasers,  and  a  considerable  part  was 
inclosed,  and  several  houses  built.  The  proposed 
division,  according  to  the  plan  made  in  1650,  called 
"  Oliver  Cromwell's  Division-'  was  as  follows: — 

To  persons  entitled  to  common  rights  in        A.      R.    P. 
the  Parish  of  Enfield,  and  Enfield  Old 
Park        ...          ...          ...          ...          ...      1329     2     o 

To  ditto  of  Edmonton       ...          ...          ...       917     o     o 

To  ditto  of  Hadley  ...          ...          ...        240     o     o 

To  ditto  of  South  Mimms  and  Old  Fold 

Farm        ...          ...          ...          ...          ...        913     o     o 

Total  Allotment  to  the  Commoners  ...  3399  2  o 
Roads  over  His  Majesty's  Allotment  ...  140  o  o 
The  remainder  to  the  King  ...  ...  4360  o  o 

The  whole  contents  of  the  Chase 7899     2     o 


Much  discontent  was  excited  among  those  who  claimed 
the  right  of  common  which  caused  "  divers  riots  and 
unlawful  assemblies,"  and  also  "  manslaughter  and  other 
outrages."  These  were  suppressed  under  an  order  of  the 
House  of  Commons  (July  i8th,  1659,)  by  the  Sheriff  and 
Magistrates,  "  all  military  officers  and  forces  whatsoever 
"  being  required  to  aid  and  assist  the  said  Sheriff  and 
"  Magistrates."  Four  files  of  foot  being  sent  against  the 
insurgents  were  so  far  from  being  able  to  suppress  them, 
that  they  seized  ten  soldiers  and  made  them  prisoners,  on 
which  "  Mr.  Sheriff  Bateman,  according  to  order  of 
"  Parliament,  went  down,  attended  by  some  troops  of 
"  horse  in  a  readiness,  when  quiet  was  at  last  restored." 

In  the  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford,  there  may  be  found 
an  original  survey  of  the  Chase,  intituled,  "A  Description 
"  of  Enfield  Chase,  situate  in  the  Parish  of  Enfield,  and 
"  County  of  Middlesex,  as  the  same  is  now  divided 
"between  the  Commonwealth  and  the  Commons,  by 
"  Edmund  Rolfe  and  Nicholas  Gunter,  in  the  year  1658."* 
It  was  on  a  thick  parchment,  with  rollers.  There  are 
some  seats  mentioned  in  this  survey,  with  the  names  of 
their  possessors  at  that  time,  viz. — Captain  Nelthorp's. 
(called  the  West  Lodge),  Captain  Dauge's  (called  the- 
East  Lodge),  and  Captain  Kempe's  (called  the  South 

*  A  duplicate,  or  probably  the  original,  of  this  document,  much 
decayed  and  obliterated  by  age  and  damp,  is  in  the  possession  of 
the  Vestry  Clerk. 


Lodge).  Adjoining  the  Chase,  on  the  south,  were  the 
seats  of  Captains  Colvill,  Malyn,  Spinage,  Blake,  and 
Gladman.  On  the  east,  Forty  House,  one  mile  from 
Enfield,  the  seat  of  the  Wolstenholme  and  Breton  families ; 
and  adjoining  the  Edmonton  allotment,  the  seats  of 
William  Allton,  Esq.,  Mr.  Megg,  and  Edmund  Peeke,  Esq. 
(called  Belmont),  and  Sir  William  Ashurst's,  near  South 
Mimms  allotment,  the  seat  of  Colonel  Web. 

The  following  is  a  schedule  of  the  division  marked  on 
this  map,  with  the  quantity  of  land  contained  in  each. 







Greene  Oak  Plane 




The  Great  Scoots 




Faire  Feedings     .  .  . 




The  Little  Scoots... 




Great  Monkey  Mead 




East  Camelot 




Long  Hill... 




Noddin's  Well  Hill 




Great  Broad  Slade 




Leezing  Beech 




Little  Broad  Slade 




Horsey  Plane 




Little  Monkey  Mead 




Marke  Plane 




High  Beech 




Capt.  Coville's     ... 




On    South    Mims 

Merry  Hill 








Red  Clay  




New  Pond  Plane.. 




Matthew's  Plane 




Fenny  Slade 




Matthew's  Breake 




Plumridge  Hill     ... 




South  Coney  B.urrow 




Faire  Thorne 




Great  Hooks  Hill 




North  Camelot     ... 




Little  Hooks  Hill 




WestCamelot      ... 

1  10 



Mote  Plane 




Camelot  Hill 




Hart  Green 




Little  Lodge  Hill  16  2  o 

Den's  Lawne    ...  630 

Enfield  Common  1522  i  30, 
Common     of    the. 

Old  Parke       ...  31  I  30 
Edmonton     Com- 
mon       1224  2  15 

Hadley  Common  186  I  30 
Sir  F.  Allen's     ...  45  o  28 
South  Minis  Com- 
mon       1077  3  26. 

There  was  a  survey  of  the  Manor;  of  Enfield  in  1686, 
(deposited  in  the  office  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster), 
which  states  that  on  a  former  perambulation,  the  Chase, 
had  been  found  to  contain  7,6po  acres,  of  which  50*)  had, 
been  since  inclosed  in  Theobald' s-park.  This  inclosure 
was  made  by  King  James  I.t  while  he  resided  at 

West  Earvin* 




South  Barvin 




East  Barvin 




Pond's  Course    .. 




Cow's  Face 




Stroud  Head      .. 

•     "4 



North     Coney 


•      74 



Deep  Slade 

.     115 



Lodge  Hill 

.       86 



Old  Lawne 

•       34 



*  This  word  (erroneously  printed  "Baroin"  in  Robinson's 
History)  is  the  same  as  burrow,  or  warren,  being  the  past  participle 
of  Parian  (protegere.) 

"Foxis  han  borwin  or  dennes,  and  briddes  of  the  eir  han 
"  nestis,  but  mannes  sone  hath  not  where  he  shal  reste  his  hede." — 
\_Mattkeu  viii,  20.  Wicliffe's  translation.] 

t  The  King  gave  the  Parish,  for  these  500  acres,  the  estate  called 
King  James's  Charity,  at  North  Mimms,  which  was  sold  by  the 
Parish  under  the  authority  of  a  private  Act  of  Parliament. — Set  the 
Account  of  the  Charities. 


Theobald's.*  At  this  time  the  Chase  was  abundantly 
stocked  with  deer;  but  the  army  of  the  Parliament, 
during  the  civil  war,  destroyed  the  game,  cut  down  the 
trees,  and  let  the  ground  out  into  small  farms.  In  this 
state  it  continued  until  the  restoration,  when  young  trees 
were  planted,  and  the  Chase  was  again  stocked  with 

Upon  one  of  the  surveys  it  was  presented  that  the  fines 
for  the  Manor  of  Enfield  were  certain,  and  not  arbitrary. 
Every  heir  paid,  on  his  admittance,  one  year's  quit-rent 
as  his  fine  for  his  copyhold,  and  every  one  admitted 
upon  surrender  paid  two  years'  quit-rent  for  his  fine. 

"  There  are  no  heriots  belonging  to  this  Manor,  either 
to  freehold  or  copyhold  lands;  but  every  heir,  upon 
descent,  paid  to  His  Majesty,  for  a  relief,  one  year's  quit- 
rent  for  his  freehold  land."  There  are  no  other  rents 

*  In  the  year  1606  Sir  Robert  Cecil  (who  was  the  second  son  and 
successor  of  his  father,  Lord  Burleigh,  in  the  possession  of  the  manor 
of  Theobalds),  entertained  King  James  I.  and  Frederick  III.,  King 
of  Denmark,  there.  "The  King,  having  become  enamoured  of  this 
"  place  from  its  proximity  to  an  extensive  tract  of  open  country  favour- 
"able  to  the  diversion  of  hunting  (his  favourite  amusement),  he  pre- 
"  vailed  upon  his  Minister  to  exchange  it  with  him  for  his  Palace  of 
"  Hatfield,  in  the  County  of  Herts.  The  King,  having  obtained 
"  possession  of  this  manor,  enlarged  the  park  by  taking  in  part  of 
"  adjoining  Chase,  and  surrounded  it  with  a  wall  of  brick  ten  miles 
"  in  circumference." — ClutterlmcKs  Hertfordshire. 


and  services  except  fealty  and  suit  of  court,  and  the 
following  curious  fine: — 

"  Item,  of  Henry  Hunsdon,  for  two  parcells  of  meadow 
in  South  marsh,  whereof  the  one  containeth  three  roods, 
and  the  other  half  an  acre,  both  of  them  abutting  south 
upon  the  demesnes  of  the  mannour  of  Worcesters, 
called  the  nine  acres,  sometime  John  Banks,  -  -  per 
annum.  A  Red  Rose  at  Midsummer."* 

There  was  another  survey  of  the  Chase  in  1698,  when 
the  Earl  of  Stamford  was  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy,  by 
Hugh  Westlake,  Esq.,  Surveyor  of  the  Woods,  in  the 
south  part  of  the  Duchy,  in  order  to  a  fall  of  timber,  by 
which  several  new  ridings  were  to  be  formed,  and  a 
square  lawn  of  300  acres  for  the  deer  to  feed  in.  The 
money  arising  from  the  sale  of  this  timber  was  for  the 
King's  use,  who  granted  it  to  the  Earl.  In  consequence 
of  this,  261  acres  of  wood  were  to  be  cleared,  for  which 
one  John  Shelley  contracted  at  ^"1,044,  with  bond  and 
penalty  ^2,000. 

The  ridings  marked  out  when  the  Chase  was  to  be 
divided  into  farms  at  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth, 

*  Hatton  Garden  was  held  by  Sir  Charles  Hatton,  of  the  Bishop 
of  Ely,  by  a  similar  tenure,  of  "A  Red  Rose  at  Midsummer,"  the 
Bishop  reserving  to  himself  and  his  successors,  the  privilege  of 
walking  in  the  garden  and  gathering  twenty  bushels  of  roses  yearly. 


still  distinguished  by  hedges  and  ditches,  were*  Cock- 
fosters,  and  the  Ridgeway  from  the  gravel  pits  by  East 
Lodge  to  Ganna-corner. 

In  the  year  1766  the  largest  oak  on  the  Chase  was 
felled,  which  measured  thirty  feet  long,  and  contained 
three  tons,  or  about  t\vo  loads,  reckoning  a  ton  and  a 
half  to  a  load;  the  diameter  of  the  butt  end  was  three 
feet.  It  was  sold  for  £10. 

In  the  year  1777,  an  Act  of  Parliament  passed  for 
dividing  the  Chase,  intituled,  "  An  Act  for  dividing  the 
Chase  of  Enfield,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and  other 
purposes  therein  mentioned,"  and  assigning  allotments  to 
such  parishes  and  individuals  as  claimed  right  of  common 
which  rights  were  in  the  survey  of  1650  thus  defined: — 
herbage,  mast  age  for  swine,  green  boughs  to  garnish  horses, 
thorns  for  fences,  and  crabs  and  acorns  gathered  under  trees. 

Upon  this  occasion  an  accurate  survey  was  made  by 
order  of  Thomas,  Earl  of  Clarendon,  Chancellor  of  His 
Majesty's  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  intituled,  "  A  survey  and 
admeasurement  of  Enfield  Chase,  shewing  the  boundaries 
thereof,  and  the  lines  and  quantities  of  the  allotments 
assigned  and  set  out  to  the  several  parishes  and  estates 

*  An  obliging  antiquarian  correspondent  writes,  that  the 
name  of  "Cock  Fosters"  is  a  corruption  of  Bicoque  Forestier — 
Bicoque  (bi-kok)  petite  ville  de  peu  de  consideration,  petite  maison, 
— a  hut,  a  hovel. — Vile  oppidulum.  "Bicoque — a  little  paltry 
"town,"  &c. — (Cotgrave.) 


in  lieu  of  their  respective  rights;  with  the  roads  directed 
to  be  made  on  the  division  of  the  said  Chase,  made  and 
taken  in  obedience  to  an  order  of  the  Right  Honourable 
Thomas  Earl  of  Clarendon,  Chancellor  of  His  Majesty's 
Duchy  of  Lancaster,  in  the  months  of  August  and 
September,  1776,  by  F.  Russell,  His  Majesty's  Surveyor 
General  of  the  south  parts  of  the  said  Duchy,  and  Richard 
Richardson,  Land  Surveyor,  his  deputy,  and  since 
corrected,  according  to  the  Act  of  Parliament  of  the 
seventeenth  year  of  King  George  III.  for  the  division  of 
the  said  Chase;"  when  the  Chase  was  found  to 
contain,  including  the  roads,  lodges,  and  encroach- 
ments, 8,349  acres,  i  rood,  and  30  perches,  or  there- 
abouts, which  were  divided  and  allotted  in  the 
following  manner: — 

To  the  King,  3,218  acres,  2  roods,  20  perches ;  to  the 
Lodges,  313  acres,  3  perches  ;  to  be  enfranchised,  6  acres, 

2  roods,    i    perch;     to    the     Tithe-owners,    519    acres, 
32  perches ;  to  the  Manor  of  Old-fold,  36  acres,  3  roods, 
24  perches ;  to  the  Proprietors  of  the  Old  Park,  30  acres, 
15  perches;  to  the  Parish  of  South  Minims,  1,026  acres, 

3  perches ;    to   the   Parish  of  Hadley,  240  acres ;  to  the 
Parish  of  Edmonton,  1,231  acres,  2  roods,  6  perches;   to 
the  Parish  of  Enfield,  1,732  acres,  2  roods,  6  perches. 
The  greater  part  of  this  allotment,  viz.,     1,530    acres, 
remained  as  waste  land  until   1801,  when  the  inclosure 
took  place,  over   which   the   inhabitants   had   right    of 
common.       200   acres    of    the    1,732    acres,    2    roods, 


6  perches,  were  cultivated,  and  on  an  average,  in  1795 
were  worth  303.  an  acre,  but  let  out  on  lease  for  ninety- 
nine  years,  at  355.  an  acre,  in  1778,  producing 
.£333  143.  8d.  per  ann.  One-half  of  the  produce  was 
appropriated  in  aid  of  the  quota  to  the  Land-tax,  the 
other  to  the  reduction  of  the  Poor-rates,  and  these  200 
acres  were  tithe-free. 

The  calculations  for  Tithes  were  as  follow  : — 

A.    R.    p. 

The  Chase  contained           ....  8036     i  27 
The  Lodges 313     o     3 

Total,  including  roads  .  .  8349     i   30 

Titheable   part   of  Enfield          -A.       R.  p. 

allotment    ....   1532     2  6 

Edmonton  ditto      .         .         .   1231     2  6 

Hadley  ditto  ....     240     o  o 

Roads  on  the  residue      .  '      .     153     i  8 

3157     i   20 

To  be  clear  of  tithes  .....  5192     o   10 

One-tenth  of  which  for  tithe  is  .  .  .  519  o  32 
The  allotments  to  Hadley,  South  Mimms  (to  which  the 
Manor  of  Old-fold  belongs),  and  Edmonton,  were 
annexed  by  the  Act  to  those  parishes,  which  left  5,824 
acres  in  the  Parish  of  Enfield,  and  made  the  whole  extent 
of  this  parish  to  be  about  12,254  acres ;  and  at  the  time 
this  survey  was  made,  the  greater  part  of  the  Chase  was 
covered  with  wood. 


The  officers  belonging  to  the  Chase  were,  "  the  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  ;  a  Master  of  the  Game, 
Forester,  Ranger,  Keepers,  Woodward,  Steward,  Bailiff, 
Verderers  (who  were  annually  chosen  in  the  King's  Court 
of  the  Manor  of  Enfield,  a  sort  of  Supervisor  of  the 
Wood),  Receiver-General  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster) 
Auditor  of  ditto,  Attorney-General  of  ditto,  Clerk  of  the 
Revenues  of  ditto." 

The  joint  offices  of  ranger,  forester,  keeper  of  the  lodges, 
master  of  the  game,  and  chief  steward  of  the  manor, 
having  been  vest'ed  successively  in  the  persons  of  John 
Dudley,  Earl  of  Warwick,  Sir  Thomas  Wroth,  John 
Ashley,  Esq.,  Robert  Lord  Cecil,  William  Earl  of  Salis- 
bury, Charles  Viscount  Cranbourne,  Charles  Lord  Gerard 
of  Brandon,  George  Villiers  (the  younger),  Duke  of 
Buckingham,  the  Right  Hon.  Henry  Coventry,  and  Adam 
Loftus,  Viscount  Lisburne,  were,  in  the  year  1694, 
granted  to  Sir  Robert  Howard  for  fifty-six  years,  who,  the 
same  year,  assigned  all  his  right  in  the  grant  to  Sir 
William  Sca\ven,  of  Carshalton,  for  ^1,245. 

When  the  Chase  was  ordered  to  be  sold  by  the  Parlia- 
ment, during  the  interregnum,  the  sum  of  ,£1,051  is.  8d. 
was  ordered  to  be  paid  to  the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  who  then 
held  the  above  offices,  for  his  interest  therein,  and  in  the 
custody  of  the  parks,*  which  claims  were  allowed  on  the 
25th  of  December,  1651,  by  the  House  of  Commons. 

*See  Journals  of  the  House  of  Commons. 


In  the  year  1714  James  Bridges  (afterwards  Duke  of 

Chandos),  purchased  the  above  offices  for  the  unexpired 

'  term,  and  they  were  afterwards  vested  in  the  Marquis  of 

Buckingham,  in  right  of  his  wife,  who  was  the  daughter 

and  sole  heir  of  the  late  Duke  of  Chandos. 

The  whole  district,  called  Enfield  Chase,  was  dis-chased 
from  the  ist  of  January,  1779. 

The  form  of  the  Chase  was  very  irregular — its  north 
and  longest  side  was  nearly  straight,  as  was  also  its  west 
side ;  its  south  and  east  sides  were  full  of  angles  ;  its 
greatest  length  was  about  four  miles  and  a  half  from  east 
to  west,  that  is,  from  Parsonage-lane  to  Ganna-corner ; 
from  north  to  south,  from  Cattle-gate  to  Southgate,  about 
four  miles.  Its  shortest  length,  from  east  to  west,  that  is, 
from  Potter's-bar  to  Hadley-town,  two  miles  and  three- 
quarters.  On  the  north  side  it  abuts  on  Northaw- 
common,  with  which  it  communicates  by  Cattle-gate, 
Stock-gate,  Cooper's-lane,  and  Potter's-bar.  On  the  east 
it  adjoins  Enfield  parish,  its  outlets  to  which  are  White- 
webbs,  Clay-hill,  Cocker,  or  Crook-lane,  New-lane, 
Parsonage-lane,  and  Enfield-green,  or  the  Town  ;  on  this 
side  also  it  extends  into  Edmonton  parish,  communicating 
with  it  by  Winchmore-hill  and  Southgate. 

On  the  west  side  it  runs  up  to  the  north  road,  on  the 
edge  of  which  stands  Hadley,  and  part  of  the  Chase 
hereabouts,  under  the  name  of  Gladmore-heath,  or 
Monken-mead-plane,  was,  in  1471,  the  scene  of  a  decisive 
battle,  commonly  called  "  the  Battle  of  Barnet,"  between 


the  houses  of  York  and  Lancaster.  Although  this  battle 
has  been  generally  considered  to  have  been  fought  on 
the  road  to  Barnet,  yet  it  seems  pretty  certain  that  it  was 
fought  on  that  part  of  Enfield  Chace  formerly  called 
"  Monken,  or  Monkey-mead,"  which  was  near  Hadley 
and  South  Mimms  Common,  and  probably  the  armies 
extended  across  the  Barnet-road,  from  which  circum- 
stance, and  the  rebel  army  having  marched  directly 
from  Barnet  to  the  scene  of  action,  it  derived  the 
name  of  the  "  Battle  of  Barnet,"  though  it  was 
actually  fought  on  Enfield  Chace.  Cannon  were 
used  in  this  battle — "  Bothe  parties  had  goons  and 
"  ordinaunce,  but  the  Erie  of  Warwicke  had  many 
"moo  than  the  Kynge." — \Fleetwoocfs  M.S.  printed  by 
the  Camden  Soc.  p.  62]. 

"  In  this  battle  the  Erie  of  Warwyke  and  the  Markes 
"  Montague  were  slain.  The  Duke  of  Excetre  faugth 
"  manly,  and  was  gretely  despolede  and  woundede,  and 
"  lefte  naked  for  dede  in  the  felde  ;  and  so  lay  ther  from 
"  vij.  of  clokke  tille  iiij.  after  none,  which  was  taken  up 
"  and  brought  to  a  house  by  a  manne  of  his  owne,  and 
"  a  leche  brought  to  hym.  After  that  the  felde  was  don, 
"  Kynge  Edwarde  commanndyd  bothe  the  erle  of 
"  Wanvike's  body  and  the  lord  Markes'  body  to  be  putt 
"into  a  cart,  and  the  seide  ij.  bodyes  to  be  layede  in  the 
"  Chyrche  of  Paulis  on  the  pavement  that  every  manne 
"  myghte  see  them,  and  so  they  lay  iij.  or  iiij  days." — 
The  Warkworthe  Chronicle  (Camden  Soc). 


On  the  south  and  south-west,  the  Chace  abuts  upon 
Southgate  and  Barnet ;  the  outlets  to  which  are  by 
Southgate  and  Bohun,*  Bohon,  or  Bourngate.  It  is 
reported  to  have  had  four  Lodges,  though  properly  there 
were  but  three,  that  is  to  say,  the  East  Bailey-lodge,  the 
West  Bailey-lodge,  and.  the  South  Bailey-lodge ;  the  last 
of  which, 


is  situated  a  mile  and  a-half  west  of  Enfield  Town,  and 
was  for  some  years  the,  occasional  residence  of  the 
Earl  of  Chatham,  to  whom  it  was  bequeathed  with  a 
legacy  of  p£io,ooo.  Some  parts  of  the  grounds  are  said 
to  have  been  planted  by  his  own  hand.  A  story  is  told 
of  his  desiring  the  owner  of  a  windmill,  which  stood  on  a 
post  at  the  top  of  the  Windmill-hill,  to  paint  that  side 
next  South  Lodge  at  his  expense.  The  miller  did  so,  but 
when  his  Lordship  on  his  next  return  from  London 
looked  out  of  the  window  and  saw  the  mill  unpainted,  he 
sent  for  the  miller  to  remonstrate  with  him,  when  the 
miller  informed  him  that  the  wind  had  changed,  but  that 
he  was  quite  ready  to  paint  that  side  also  on  the  same 
terms.  The  mill  in  question  was  pulled  down  many 
years  ago,  and  the  present  one  erected  on  its  site.  The 
enclosure  annexed  to  this  lodge  in  1635,  was  stated  to  be 
sixty-five  acres,  two  roods. 

*  Probably  so  called  from  Humphrey  de  Bohun. 



West  Lodge  was  pulled  down  and  re-built  by  the  late 
Archibald  Paris,  Esq.,  in  1832,  the  walls  ha,ving  given  way 
several  inches  in  one  night.  Evelyn  thus  writes  of  it, 
June,  1676: — "I  went  with  my  Lord  Chamberlain  to  see 
"a  garden  at  Enfield  Town  (probably  Dr.  Uvedale's), 
"  thence  to  Mr.  Sec.  Coventry's  Lodge  on  the  Chase.  It 
"  is  a  very  pretty  place,  the  house  commodious,  the 
"gardens  handsome,  and  our  entertainment  very  free. 
"  That  which  I  most  wondered  at  was,  that  in  the  compass 
"  of  twenty-five  miles,  yet  within  fourteen  of  London 
"  there  is  not  an  house,  barne,  churche,  or  building, 
"besides  three  lodges.  To  this  lodge  are  three  great 
"  ponds,  and  some  few  enclosures,  the  rest  a  solitarie 
"  desert,  yet  stored  with  not  lesse  than  3,000  deer. 
"  These  are  pretty  retreats  for  gentlemen,  especially  for 
"those  who  are  studious  and  lovers  of  privacy."- 
( Evelyn's  Diary,  p.  419.) 


East  Lodge  is  described  in  the  survey  of  1650,  as  a  brick 
building,  covered  with  tiles,  and  was  occasionally  used 
by  Charles  I.  as  a  hunting  seat.  At  the  time  of  the 
Commonwealth  it  was  sold  to  John  Nelthrope,  Adjutant- 
General,  and  towards  the  end  of  last  century  it  was 
occupied  by  Alexander  Wedderburne,  who  succeeded 
Lord  Thurlow  as  Chancellor,  and  was  created  Earl  of 



Rosslyn.  It  was  afterwards,  for  many  years,  the  residence 
of  the  Elphinstones.  The  house  was  pulled  down  and 
rebuilt  by  G.  J.  Graham,  Esq.,  the  present  occupant. 
The  enclosure  annexed  to  this  lodge  in  1686,  was  thirty- 
eight  acres- 

The  Chase  was  formerly  considered  to  have  been  a 
sheep-walk,  belonging  to  the  family  of  Coningsby,  of 
Wales,  one  of  whom  having  been  complained  against 
for  having  too  many  sheep,  brought  up  a  parcel  of 
goats,  which  did  great  damage.  This  circumstance  it 
seems  gave  rise  to  the  right  of  sheep-walk  on-the  Chase, 
annexed  to  certain  farms  in  its  neighbourhood,  for  a 
certain  time  of  the  year.  Norden  says,  "  there  ariseth  a 
"  profit  unto  the  poore  inhabitants  there,  by  the  use  of 
"  the  Chase,  where  they  have  common  of  pasture  for  all 
"kinde  of  cattle,  pannage,  and  wood;"  but  the  Parish,  it 
seems,  thought  otherwise,  finding  itself  over-burthened 
by  numerous  and  disorderly  poor,  who  availed  them- 
selves of  the  privilege  of  the  Chase  to  support 
dissolute  lives  of  idleness  and  beggary.  The  deer  were 
stolen  and  exposed  for  sale  with  the  greatest  audacity; 
venison  could  be  purchased  cheaper  than  mutton ;  the 
poachers  were  sometimes  transported,  but  at  the  expira- 
tion of  their  time  returned  to  their  old  habits.* 

*  Nov.  I,  1762.— John  Batt,  of  Potter's  Bar,  was  committed  to 
Bridewell,  for  cutting  young  beech  trees  on  the  Chase,  and  carrying 
them  away  in  a  cart.  He  was  sentenced  to  be  publicly  whipped  in 


The  Parish  was  entitled,  under  the  Inclosing  Act  of 
1777,  to  a  certain  portion  of  the  Chase,  amounting  "to 
1,732  acres,  2  roods,  and  6  perches,  together  with  the 
encroachments,  timber  trees,  and  other  trees,  tellers  and 
sapplings  thereon,"  which  were  vested  in  the  Church- 
wardens, for  the  time  being,  and  their  successors,  in  trust, 
for  the  sole  benefit  of  the  owners  and  proprietors  of 
freehold  and  copyhold  messuages,  lands  and  tenements, 
within  the  Parish;  their  heirs  and  assigns,  and  their 
lessees,  tenants,  and  undertenants,  for  the  time  being 
entitled  to  right  of  common  or  other  rights  within  the 
Chase,  according  to  their  several  estates  and  interests 
therein.  In  1801  they  obtained  "an  Act  for  dividing 
"  and  inclosing  the  open  and  common  fields,  common 
"marshes,  and  lammas  grounds,  Chase  allotment,  and 
"  other  commonable  and  waste  lands  within  the  Parish," 

the  market  place,  at  Enfield,  once  every  month  during  his  imprison- 
ment.— (Gent.  Mag.) 

"On  Wednesday,  the  14,  a  woman,  an  old  offender,  was  conveyed 
"  in  a  cart  from  Bridewell  to  Enfield,  and  publicly  whipped  at  the 
' '  cart's  tail  by  the  common  hangman,  for  cutting  down  and 
"  destroying  wood  in  Enfield  Chase.  She  is  to  undergo  the  same 
"  discipline  twice  more." — (Public  Ledger,  1764.  ) 

As  late  as  1810,  a  public  house,  kept  by  one  Brocksop,  stood 
on  the  site  of  Mr.  Logsden's  coach  factoiy,  which  had  been  the 
recognised  depot  for  venison,  for  those  who  made  no  enquiries, 
according  to  the  old  forest  adage, 

"  Non  inquirendum  est,  unde  venit  venison." 


(41  Geo.  III.  1801);  and  the  same  have  been  divided 
and  allotted  accordingly,  among  the  tithe  owners,  lords 
of  manor,  and  proprietors  of  freehold  and  copyhold 
lands,  and  others  entitled  thereto. 

At  the  present  time  it  is  nearly  all  inclosed,  and  but 
little  of  its  original  appearance  remains  to  arrest  the 
attention.  The  deer  from  the  Chase,  which  were  very 
numerous,  were  taken  to  the  estate  of  the  Earl  of  Bute, 
at  Luton-park,  Bedfordshire.* 

The  "  Ancient  Chase,"  has  been  converted  into  tillage, 
so  that  almost  all  traces  of  its  ancient  state  have 
disappeared  under  the  axe  and  plough.  The  first 
attempts  to  improve  it  after  the  division,  were,  in 
general,  unsuccessful,  and  it  was  not  until  a  large 'amount 
of  capital  and  labour  was  expended,  that  any  great 
progress  began  to  be  made  in  its  cultivation ;  the  great 
obstacles  at  first  were,  the  expence  of  clearing  away  the 
wood,  which,  at  the  time  of  the  enclosure,  bore  -  (oak 
excepted)  a  very  low  price,  and  the  poverty  of  the  soil, 
which  was  mostly  a  thin  gravel  intermixed  with  clay. 
The  methods  adopted  were  draining,  paring,  burning, 
and  manuring  with  marie,  which  has  been  found  in  great 
abundance  and  of  a  fine  quality. 

At  the  time  of  this  enclosure,  a  large  portion  of  the 

*  The  last  red  deer  killed  on  Enfield-chase,  was  shot  by  William 
Mellish,  Esq.,  M.P.,  and  its  horns  are  in  the  possession  of 
E.  Ford,  Esq. 


Chase  remained  in  Woodland,  a  rude  yet  beautiful 
district,  browsed  by  deer  and  suited  to  the  pastimes  of  its 
former  possessors. 

The  neighbourhood  lost  much  of  its  picturesque  attrac- 
tion when  the  enclosure  took  place,  but  a  sylvan  wild 
of  this  extent  situated  in  the  vicinity  of  the  metropolis 
was  a  dangerous  source  of  mischief. 

While  the  moral  benefit  derived  from  the  change  can 
scarcely  be  doubted,  the  advantages  in  an  agricultural 
point  of  view  are  unquestionable.  Perhaps  the  only 
parts  of  the  Chase  now  remaining,  are  at  Hadley-com- 
mon,  the  "  Rough  Lot,"  at  1'rent  Park,  and  Winchmore- 
hill  wood. 


Trent  Park,  the  seat  of  R.  C.  L.  Bevan,  Esq.,  was 
formerly  the  residence  of  Sir  Richard  Jebb,  Bart.,  to 
whom  George  III.  granted  a  lease  of  200  acres,  of  which 
he  afterwards  purchased  the  freehold.  On  conferring  the 
dignity  of  baronet  on  Dr.  Jebb,  His  Majesty  gave  "the 
estate  the  name  of  Trent  Place,  in  commemoration  of 
the  great  medical  skill  by  which  the  life  of  his  brother 
had  been  preserved  in  his  severe  illness  at  Trent  in  the 
south  Tyrol.*  The  estate,  which  consists  of  above  a 

"  *  Before  the  decease  of  Sir  Edward  Wilmot,  physician  in  ordinary 
to  His  Majesty,  George  III.  being  indisposed,  ordered  Dr.  Jebb  to 
be  sent  for,  and  being  informed  that  it  was  etiquette  to  send  for  the 
physician  in  ordinary,  he  replied,  "don't  tell  me  of  your  ordinary  or 
"  extraordinary,  I  will  have  Jebb," — and  this  confidence  Sir  Richard 
ever  afterwards  enjoyed. 


thousand  acres,  covered  with  magnificent  timber,  the 
growth  of  centuries,  gives  -some  idea  of  what  Enfield 
Chase  must  have  been  in  its  primeval  state. 

The  moated  site  of  the  reputed  Manor  House  of 
Enfield,*  before  referred  to,  called  Camlet  Moat,  is  in 
this  park.  The  scene  is  thus  described  by  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  in  "  The  Fortunes  of  Nigel :" 

"The  sun  was  high  upon  the  glades  of  Enfield  Chase, 
"  and  the  deer  with  which  it  abounded  were  seen  sporting 
"  in  picturesque  groups  among  the  ancient  oaks  of  the 
"  forest,  when  a  cavalier  and  a  lady  sauntered  slowly  up 
"  one  of  the  long  alleys  which  were  cut  through  the  park 
"for  the  convenience  of  the  hunters.  The  place  at 
"  which  he  stopped  was  at  that  time  a  little  more  than 
"  a  mound,  partly  surrounded  by  a  ditch,  from  which  it 
"derived  the  name  of  Camlet  Moat.  A  few  hewn  stones 
"  were  there,  which  had  escaped  the  fate  of  many 
"  others  that  had  been  used  in  building  different  lodges 
"  in  the  forest  for  the  royal  keepers.  These  vestiges 
"  marked  the  ruins  of  the  abode  of  a  once  illustrious 
"but  long-forgotten  family,  the  Mandevilles,  Earls  of 
"Essex,  to  whom  Enfield  Chase  and  the  extensive 
"  domains  adjacent,  had  belonged  in  elder  days.  A  wild 

*  The  house  is  said  (Gent.  Mag.,   1737,  p.  643)  to  have   cost 
Sir  R.  Jebb  upwards  of  ^"19,000. 


"  woodland  prospect  led  the  eye  at  various  points  through 
"broad  and  apparently  interminable  alleys,  meeting  at 
"  this  point  as  from  a  common  centre." 

This  moat  is  said  also  to  have  been  the  lurking  place 
of  the  notorious  highwayman  and  robber,  Dick  Turpin, 
whose  grandfather,  one  Nott,  kept  "  The  Rose  and 
Crown,"  by  the  brook  (Bull  Beggar's-hole),  Clay-hill. 
The  moat  was  distant  but  a  few  miles  from  the  scene 
of  Turpin's  exploits  (Finchley-common),  whence  he 
could  easily  conceal  himself  in  such  a  place,  in  the  then 
wild  state  of  Enfield  Chase. 


Beech  Hill  Park,  containing  above  270  acres,  was  first 
enclosed  by  Francis  Russell,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster,  and  the  Board  of  Control  for  India.  He 
had  the  merit  of  first  suggesting  and  drawing  up  the  plan 
for  the  enclosure  of  Enfield  Chase,  in  recognition  of 
which,  and  his  other  services,  he  obtained  a  grant  of  this 
beautifully  situated  estate,  where  he  built  the  present 
house,  and  surrounded  it  with  extensive  plantations. 

After  his  death,  September  ist,  1795,  the  property  was 
purchased  by  the  late  Archibald  Paris,  Esq.,  who  added 
greatly  to  its  extent,  and  for  some  years  farmed  upwards 
of  2000  acres  on  the  Chase.  In  1841  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  the  late  General  Sir  Edward  Barnes,  (G.C.B. 
and  M.P.  for  Sudbury),  for  some  years  Commander-in- 


Chief  in  India,  and  Governor  of  Ceylon,  and  it  was 
afterwards  purchased  by  the  present  proprietor,  Charles 
Jack,  Esq.  For  many  years  after  the  enclosure,  the 
land  on  the  north  side  of  Beech  Hill  retained  much  of 
its  original  character,  but  the  last  remnant  of  the  old 
Chase  woodland  on  this  estate  was  cleared  by  Sir  Edward 
Barnes,  in  1845,  and  the  timber  sold  to  the  Great 
Northern  Railway,  which  was  then  constructing,  for 
sleepers  and  fencing. 


Chase  Lodge  was  formerly  the  residence  of  Thomas 
Holt  White,  Esq.,  a  nephew  of  the  Rev.  Gilbert  White,* 
the  gentle  author  of  "  The  Natural  History  of  Selborne," 
and  himself  an  accomplished  scholar,  well  known  as  a 
commentator  on  Shakespeare,  and  the  editor  of  Milton's 

*  The  father  of  Gilbert  White  married  Anne,  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Holt,  rector  of  Streatham,  after  whom  Mr.  Holt 
White  was  named.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  good  taste  of  the 
inhabitants  will  preserve  the  nomenclature  of  Holt  White's-lane,  and 
Hill,  by  which  they  have  so  long  been  known.  The  unhappy 
ignorance  of  some  proprietors  in  a  neighbouring  parish  has  changed 
the  picturesque  and  descriptive  name  of  "  Hanger,"  to  "  St.  Anne's 
Road  !"  thus  obliterating  the  last  memorial  of  the  old  forest  or 
"Hangre,"  of  Tottenham,  in  a  name  which  it  had  borne  for  above 
seven  centuries,  from  the  time  of  Malcolm,  King  of  Scotland. 


"  Areopagitica,  a  speech  for  the  Liberty  of  Unlicensed 
Printing."  The  estate  was  purchased  in  1862,  by 
Admiral  Tindal  (only  surviving  son  of  Chief  Justice  Sir 
Nicholas  Tindal)  whose  residence  it  now  is. 


Claysmore  was  purchased  in  the  year  1847,  by  James 
Whatman  Bosanquet,  Esq.,  the  descendant  of  an  old 
Protestant  family,  in  Languedoc,  from  whence,  on  the 
revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  they  escaped  to 
England — "  per  damna,  per  cgedes  " — and  were  natural- 
ized by  Act  of  Parliament.  The  estate  is  composed 
partly  of  an  allotment  from  the  Chace  made  to  Mrs. 
Hume,  who  built  the  present  residence,  and  partly  of 
other  enclosures  lying  between  the  "  Rose  and  Crown," 
and  the  "  Fallow  Buck."  Ten  acres  situated  at  "  More- 
hatch"  were  conveyed  in  1765,  by  Mary  Turpin,  probably 
connected  with  the  family  of  the  notorious  Dick  Turpin, 
whose  grandfather  is  said  to  have  kept  the  "  Rose  and 
Crown."  The  gipsy  character  of  the  original  population 
of  this  district  may  still  be  traced  in  the  features  of  some 
of  the  peasantry,  and  gipsy  encampments  are  yet  some- 
times seen  along  the  lanes  beyond  the  "  Fallow  Buck." 

In  1847  the  present  owner,  in  co-operation  with  the 
Vicar  and  other  gentlemen,  having  established  a  school 
at  Claysmore,  appropriated,  with  the  sanction  of  the 
Bishop,  a  building  near  Turpin's  land,  which  had  been 


fitted  up  as  a  private  chapel  by  the  former  owner,  for  the 
performance  of  afternoon  Sunday  service,  where  one  of 
the  Curates  preached  to  a  congregation  of  seventy  or 
eighty  people. 

This  chapel,  as  well  as  another  building  in  which  the 
fine  library  of  the  late  Lord  Chief  Justice  Tindal  had 
been  placed  by  his  executors,  were  burnt,  with  their 
contents,  by  the  acts  of  incendiaries;  and  not  less  than 
five  other  fires  occurred  in  the  neighbourhood  about 
the  same  time. 

The  late  owner  of  the  property,  Mr.  Edward  Harman, 
a  gentleman  of  cultivated  taste,  greatly  enlarged  and 
improved  the  residence,  especially  by  the  addition  of  a 
gallery,  sixty  feet  in  length,  with  a  carved  oak  screen 
and  panelling,  and  windows  of  stained  glass,  together 
with  a  corridor  adjoining,  seventy  feet  long.  The  large 
window  at  the  end  of  the  room  (expensively  set  in 
copper)  contains  some  fine  specimens  of  the  art  in  the 
1 3th  century,  and  one  of  those  in  the  corridor  is  composed 
of  sixteen  compartments,  technically  known  as  "  German 
Circles,"  dated  from  1565  to  1622,  the  central  figure 
(of  James  the  less)  being  a  gem  of  its  kind.  The 
picturesque  character  of  the  grounds  is  mainly  due  to 
the  taste  of  Mr.  Harman,  who  greatly  added  to  their 
beauty  by  extensive  plantations,  and  a  well  placed 
sheet  of  water.  A  long  avenue  of  elms,  lately  opened 
by  Mr.  Bosanquet,  forms  a  striking  feature  from  the 
garden  terrace. 



Nearly  adjoining  the  above  estate  is  Hill  Lodge,  the 
residence  of  Sir  Rowland  Macdonald  Stephenson,  a 
compact  property,  consisting  of  about  twenty-three  acres, 
and  commanding  a  beautiful  and  extensive  view  across 
the  Chase,  towards  the  Ridgeway  and  Trent  Park. 



"It  must  be  granted,  I  am  DUKE  of  Lancaster." 

Richard  II.,  A.  2,  S.  3. 

The  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  of  which  (says  Sir  Ed. 
Coke)  it  shall  be  necessary  to  show  the  beginning  and 
erection,  dates  from  1352,  when  Henry  Plantagenet 
(named  Grismond,  from  the  place  of  his  birth)  was 
created  Duke  of  Lancaster  by  Edward  III.  Duke  Henry  - 
died  of  the  plague  in  1361,  and  his  daughter  Blanche, 
who  was  married  to  the  celebrated  John  of  Gaunt, 
became  sole  heir  to  his  estate. 

"  At  the  Parliament,  holden  36  Edward'IIL,  the  King, 
in  full  parliament,  did  gird  his  son  John  with  a  sword, 
and  set  on  his  head  a  cap  of  furre,  and  upon  the  same  a 
circle  of  gold  and  pearls,  and  named  him  Duke  of 
Lancaster,  and  thereof  'gave  to  him  and  to  his  heires 
males  of  his  body,  and  delivered  him  a  charter." 

"  In  full  Parliament,  50  Edward  III.,  the  King  erected 
the  county  of  Lancaster  into  a  county  palatine.  It  is 
called  comitatus  Palatinus,  not  d  comite,  but  d  cotnitatu, 
and  a  palatio  regis,  because  the  owner  thereof  hath 


'jura  regalia/  as  fully  as  the  King  had  in  his  palace, 
from  whence  all  justice,  honours,  franchises,  and 
privileges,  flowed. 

"  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,  the  first  and 
last  of  that  name  had  issue,  two  daughters, — Eleanor, 
married  to  Thomas,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  Mary, 
married  to  the  Earl  of  Hertford,  Bolingbroke,  afterwards 
Henry  IV.;  and  by  2  Henry  V.  it  was  enacted  that  all 
mannors  and  hereditaments  which  descended  to  Henry  V. 
from  the  said  Mary,  his  mother,  should  be  dissevered 
from  the  Crown  of  England,  and  annexed  to  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster.  The  Duchy  thus  separated  from  the 
Crown,  was  by  Act  of  Parliment  assured  to  Edward  IV. 
and  his  heirs,  Kings  of  England ;  and  afterwards  it  was 
enacted,  i  Henry  VII.  that  the  King  and  his  heirs 
(without  adding  '  Kings  of  England ')  should  hold  and 
enjoy  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  separately  from  the  Crown 
of  England,  the  Duke  still  having  'jura  regalia;'  and  in 
this  state  doth  the  Duchy  stand  to  this  day,  the  King 
having  the  Duchy  as"  Duke,  and  not  as  King,  and  the 
title  and  possession  belonging  to  his  person  and  not  to 
the  Crown."  (Coke's  Institutes.) 

It  may  be  added,  on  the  authority  of  the  late  Lord 
Chief  Baron  Pollock,  that  the  reigning  Sovereign  is 
always  the  "  Duke  "  of  Lancaster.  "  King  and  Queen 
(Rex  and  Regina)  are  separate  titles,  but  Duke  (Dux) 
has  no  feminine,  Duchess  being  originally  only  a  title  of 


courtesy  given  to  a  Duke's  wife.*  Whoever  therefore 
holds  a  Dukedom,  whether  male  or  female,  is  a  Duke, 
and  as  the  Dukedom  of  Lancaster  is  held  with  'jura 
regalia,'  no  homage  is  done  or  can  be  required  in  respect 
of  it,  and  the  holder  is  not  necessarily  a  vassal  of  the 
Crown;  therefore  the  sovereign  can,  and  does,  hold  this 
Dukedom  of  Lancaster." 

*  The  word  appears  to  have  been  coming  into  use  in  the  time  of 
Skinner,  who  gives  "Duke"  "Dux,"  and  adds  "  Fr.  duchesse, 
dux  faemina." — (ETYM.  ANGLIC.)  " 

An  attempt  was  made  by  the  wives  of  the  bishops  to  claim  the 
courtesy  title  of  "  lady  "  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  and  again  in  that 
of  James  I.,  who  is  said  to  have  negatived  the  pretension  in  terms 
more  energetic  than  courteous, — "I  made  the  carles  lairds;  but  wha 
the  de'il  made  their  carlines  leddies?" 



The  Court  to  the  Duchy  has  the  power  of  deciding 
all  cases  belonging  to  it.  The  officers  are  a  chancellor, 
vice-chancellor,  attorney-general,  Queen's  serjeant  and 
counsel,  receiver-general,  clerk  of  council  and  registrar, 
coroner,  &c.* 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Chancellors  to  the  present 
time  : — 



Date  of  Appointment,  &c. 

Sir  Henry  de  Haydok    

Ralph  D.  Ergham,  Clerk  ... 
Thomas  de  Thelwall,  Clerk. 

Sir  JohndeYerborough,  Clerk 
Sir  Thomas  Stanley    

34  Edw.  -III. 

46  Edw.  III. 
51  Edw.  III. 

I  Richard  II. 
6  Richard  II. 

Chancellor  of  Henry,  first 
Duke  of  Lancaster. 

Bishop  of  Sarum 

Created  Chancellor  of  the 
County  Palatine  m  the 
month  of  April 

November  10,  pro.  tent. 

Sir  Thomas  Scarle  

6  Richard  II. 

November  2gth. 

Sir  William  Okey  

7  Richard  II. 


John  de  Wakering  

I  Henry  IV. 

William  Burgoyne,  Esq.     ... 

I  Henry  IV. 


*  "This  Court  owes  its  origin  to  Henry  IV.,  who,  deposing 
Richard  II.,  usurped  the  Crown,  and,  possessing  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster  in  right  of  his  mother,  was  seized  thereof  as  Duke,  as  well 
as  King.  But  imagining  his  right  to  the  Duchy  better  than  that  to 
the  Crown,  he  resolved  to  secure  the  same  by  separating  it  from  the 
Crown  ;  which  being  effected,  he  erected  this  Court  for  its  use, 
wherein  all  matters  of  law  and  equity  belonging  to  the  Duchy,  or 
County  Palatine  of  Lancaster,  are  heard  and  decided  by  the  Chan- 
cellor thereof. " — Pulleyn's  Etymological  Compendium. 




Date  of  Appointment,  &c. 

Sir  Thomas  Stanley  

6  Henry  IV. 

May  1  5th. 

John  Springthorpe,  Clerk  .. 
John  Woodhouse  

1  1  Henry  IV. 
i  Henry  V. 

March  3Oth. 
April  4th. 

John  Woodhouse,  continuec 
William  Troutbecke,  Esq  
Walter  Sherington,  Clerk  ... 

William  Tresham  

I  Henry  VI. 
2  Henry  VI. 

9  Henry  VI. 
17  Henry  VI. 

20  Henry  VI. 

January  2Oth. 
June  loth. 

February  i6th. 
May  7th—  Chancellor 
for  lift. 

July  3rd  —  Chancellor 

William  Tresham  

26  Henry  VI. 

in  reversion. 
November  1st. 

John  Say,  Esq  

f  7  Henry  VI. 

June  loth. 

John  Say,  Esq.,  continued... 
Sir  Richard  Fowler,  Knt.  ... 

Sir  John  Say,  Knt  

I  Edw.  IV. 
ii  Edw.  IV. 

17  Edw.  IV. 

June  1  6th. 

June  10.  —  Also  Chancel- 
lor of  the  Exchequer. 

November  3rd. 

Thomas  Thwaites  

1  8  Edw.  IV. 

April  2.  --Also  Chancel- 

Thomas Metcalfe  

i  Richard  III. 

lor  of  the  Exchequer. 
Tuly  1  7th. 

Sir  Reginald  Bray,  Knt.  ... 
Sir  John  Mordant,  Knt  
Sir  Richard  Empson,  Knt.  . 
Sir  Henry  Marney,  Knt.  ... 
Sir  Richard  Wingfield,  Knt. 
Sir  Thomas  Moore,  Knt.  .. 

Sir  William  Fitz  Williams, 
Knt.,    afterwards   Earl  of 

Sir  John  Gage,  Knt  

I  Henry  VII. 
19  Henry  VII. 
21  Henry  VII. 
i  Henry  VIII. 
14  Hen.  VIII. 
1  7  Hen.  VIII. 

21  Hen.  VIII. 
35  Hen  VIII 

September  I3th. 
fune  24th. 
October  3rd. 
May  1  4th. 
April  1  4th. 

December    3ist.  —  Made 
Chancellor  of  England. 

November  3rd. 
May  loth. 

Sir  William  Pagett,  Knt.  ... 
Sir  John  Gale,  Knt. 

i  Edw.  VI. 
6  Edw   VI. 

uly  1st. 
Tuly  7th. 

Sir  Robert  Rochester,  Knt.  . 

Queen  Mary 




Date  of  Appointment,  &c. 

Sir  Edward  Walgrave,  Knt. 

4  and  5  Philip 

June  22nd. 

and  Mary. 

Sir  Ambrose  Cave,  Knt.    ... 

I  Elizabeth. 

Sir  Ralph  Sa'dler,  Knt  

10  Elizabeth. 

May  1  6th. 

Sir  Francis  Walsingham,  Knt. 

19  Elizabeth. 

June  i  5th. 

Sir  Thomas  Henage,  Knt.  .. 

32  Elizabeth. 

Sir  Robert  Cecil,  Knt  

37  Elizabeth. 

October  7th. 

Sir  John  Fortescue,  Knt.  ... 

43  Elizabeth. 

September  i6th. 

Sir  Thomas  Parry,  Knt,  and 

13  James  I. 

May  27th. 

John  Daccomb,  Esq. 


Sir  John  Daccombe,  Knt.... 

14  James  I. 

June  5th. 

Sir  Humphrey  May,  Knt.- 

15  James  I. 

March  23rd. 

Edward  Lord  Newburgh    .. 

5  Charles  I. 

April  1  6th. 

William  Lord  Grey  of  Wake, 

February  loth,  1644. 

and  William  Lenthall,  Esq. 

John  Bradshawe  

August  1st,  1649. 

Thomas  Fell         


Sir  Gilbert  Gerard,  Bart.    .. 

J  J 

May  1  4th,  1659. 

Francis  Lord  Seymour  

12  Charles  II. 

July  gth. 

Sir  Thomas  Ingram,  Knt.  .  .  . 

16  Charles  II. 

July  2  ist, 

Sir  Robert  Carr,  Bart  

23  Charles  II. 

February  22nd. 

Sir  Thomas  Chickeley,  Knt. 

34  Charles  II. 

November  2  1st. 

Robert  Lord  Willoughby,  of 

I  William  and 

March  2ist. 



Thomas  Earl  of  Stamford.  .. 

9  William  III. 

May  4th. 

SirJohnLevesonGower,  Bart 

I  Queen  Anne. 

May  1  2th. 

James  Earl  of  Derby  

5  Queen  Anne. 

[une  loth. 

William   Lord   Berkley,     of 

9  Queen  Anne. 

September  2  1st. 


Henage  Earl  of  Aylesford  .  .  . 

I  George  I. 

Movember  6th. 

Richard  Earl  of  Scarborough 

2  George  I. 

March  I2th. 




Date  of  Appointment,  &c. 

Nicholas  Lechemere,  Esq.  . 

3  George  I. 

June  igth. 

John  Duke  of  Rutland  .... 

i  George  II. 

July  1  7th. 

George  Earl  of  Cholmondele 

8  George  II. 


Richard  Lord  Edgecumbe.. 

16  George  II 

December  22nd. 

Thomas  Earl  of  KinnoulL  . 

34  George  II 

February  27th. 

Tames  Lord  Strange   

3  George  III 

December  1  3th. 

Thomas   Lord  Hyde,   after 

1  1  George  III 

fune  I4th. 

wards  Earl  of  Clarendon. 

John  Lord  Ashburton  

22  George  III 

April  1  7th. 

Edward  Earl  of  Derby  

23  George  III 

August  29th. 

Thomas  Earl  of  Clarendon. 

24  George  III 

December  3ist. 

Charles  Lord  Hawkesbury.. 

27  George  III 

September  6th. 

Thomas  Lord  Pelham    

(4  George  III 

November  gth. 

Lord  Mulgrave    

14  George  III. 

une  6th. 

Earl  of  Buckinghamshire  .  .  . 

45  George  III. 

anuary  I4th. 

Dudley  Lord  Harrowby  

.5  George  III. 

uly  loth. 

Edward  Earl  of  Derby  

46  George  III. 

rebruary  I2th. 

The    Right    Hon.    Spencer 

7  George  III. 

Vlarch  3Oth. 


Earl  of  Buckinghamshire  ... 

2  George  III. 

lay  23rd. 

The    Right    Hon.     Charles 

2  George  III. 

une  23rd. 


The  Right   Hon.    Nicholas 

George  IV. 

rebruary  1  3th. 

Vansittart,  afterwards 

Lord  Bexley. 

Earl  of  Aberdeen,  K.  T.     ... 

George  IV. 

anuary  26th. 

The    Right    Hon.     Charles 

George  IV. 

une  2nd. 


Lord  Holland.  

William  IV. 

fovember  25th. 

The     Right     Hon.     Charles 

William  IV. 

December  26th. 

Watkin  Williams  Wynn.. 

Lord  Holland  

William  IV. 

pril  3rd. 

Earl  of  Clarendon  


r         ,j*MB 

'ctober  3  1st, 




Date  of  Appointment,  &c. 

The  Right  Hon.   Sir  George 

5  Victoria    ... 

une  23rd. 

Grey,  Bart. 

Lord  Granville  Charles 

5  Victoria    ... 

September  3rd. 

Henry  Somerset. 

Lord  Campbell    

o  Victoria  ... 

uly  6th. 

Earl  of  Carlisle    

3  Victoria  ... 

March  6th. 

The  Right  Hon.    Robert 

5  Victoria  ... 

Vlarch  1st. 

Adam  Christopher 

The    Right     Hon.    Edward 

6  Victoria  .  .  . 

December  3Oth. 

Strutt,  now  Lord  Bel  per 

Earl  Granville  

8  Victoria  ... 

une  2  1  st. 

Earl  of  Harrowby     .... 

1  8  Victoria  ... 

Vlarch  3ist. 

The   Right   Hon.    Matthew 

19  Victoria  ... 

December  7th,  1855. 

Talbot  Baines 

James  Duke  of  Montrose    .  .  . 

rebruary  26th,  1858. 

The  Right  Hon.  Sir  George 

une  22nd,  1859. 

Grey,  Bart.,  G.C.B. 

The    Right    Hon.    Edward 

fuly  25,  1  86  1. 

Cardwell,  M.P. 

The     Right     Hon.     George 

April  7,  1864. 

William  Frederick,  Earl  ol 


The     Right    Hon.     George 

January  26,  1866. 

Joachim  Goschen,  M.P. 

The   Right    Hon.    William 

July  10,  1866. 

Reginald  Earl  of  Devon 

The    Right    Hon.    Colone 

June  26,  1867. 

John  Wilson  Patten,  M.  P 

The    Right    Hon.    Thomas 

November  7th,  1868. 

Edward  Taylor,  M.  P. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Duf 

December  I2th,  1  868. 

ferin,   K.P.,  K.C.B.  (now 

Earl  of  Dufferin). 

The  Right  Hon.  Hugh  Cul 

August  gth,  1872. 

lingEardleyChilders,  M.P 

A-           .  ^»  —  * 


In  the  wardrobe  accounts  of  Edward  II.  it  is 
mentioned  that  "  the  King  kept  his  Christmas  this  year 
(1318)  at  the  palace  of  Westminster,"  and  on  that  day 
the  following  knights  received  sumptuous  presents  of 
plate  from  the  King,  viz.,  "  Sir  Bartholomew  de  Enefeld," 
&c.,  &c.  His  son,  John  de  Enefeld,  died  in  1350,  seized 
of  a  manor  in  this  parish,  and  his  widow,  Margaret, 
married  John  Wroth,  who  purchased  the  manor  in  1374, 
of  her  son,  Francis  de  Enefeld.  John  Wroth  leaving  no 
issue  on  his  death,  the  manor  descended  through  Sir 
John  Tiptoft,  to  his  son, 'the  learned  Earl  of  Worcester, 
Lord  High  Treasurer,  who  lost  his  head  on  the  scaffold 
for  his  adherence  to  the  House  of  York,  "  when  (says 
Fuller)  the  axe  did  at  one  blow  cut  off  more  learning 
than  was  left  in  the  heads  of  all  the  surviving  nobility." 
His  son  dying  without  issue,  the  manor  devolved  to  his 
sister  Philippa,  wife  of  Thomas,  Lord  Roos,-who  died  in 
1461,  and  their  son  Edmund  (whose  monument  in  the 
Parish  Church  is  hereafter  described)  also  dying  childless, 
in  1508,  the  estate  came  to  his  brother-in-law,  Sir  Thomas 
Lovell,  K.G.,  Privy  Counsellor  and  Treasurer  to  Henry 
VIII.  He  was  made  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  in  the 
first  year  of  Henry  VII.,  and  in  1502  became  Treasurer 
of  the  Household,  and  President  of  the  Council.  He  was 
one  of  Henry  VII. 's  executors,  and  Steward  and  Marshall 
of  the  House  to  Henry  VIII.  He  built  the  gateway  of 

Lincoln's  Inn,  on  which  he  placed  the  King's  arms,  along 
with  the  Earl  of  Lincoln's  and  his  o^vn.  His  badge  of 
the  -  rose  and  the  wing, — which  will  be  more  fully 
discussed  in  the  account  of  the  Parish  Church, — appears 
in  the  vaulting  of  the  choir  of  St.  George's  Chapel, 
Windsor,  as  well  as  on  his  stall-plate. 

Sir  Thomas  Lovell  died  at  his  house  here  (Elsynge 
Hall)  May  25th,  1524,  and  was  buried  in  the  priory  of 
Haliwell,  Shoreditch,  within  the  chapel  founded  by 
himself,  with  great  funeral  pomp.  The  following  curious 
items  occur  in  the  records  of  the  Herald's  College,  at  the 
close  of  a  long  description  of  the  ceremonies  "  down  at 
the  buryall  of  the  most  noble  knyght,  Sir  Thomas  Lovell, 
banneret,  and  knyght  of  the  most  Noble  Order  of  ye 
Garter,  on  whose  soule  God  pardon." 

"  Item, — It  is  remembered  that  the  day  he  came  from 
Enfyld  to  Holywell,  there  followed  a  carte  with  ale  and 
torches,  for  to  refresche  the  poore  people,  and  the  torches 
were  renewen  by  the  way. 

"  Item, — There  was  every  day,  while  he  \vas  at  Enfylde, 
200  poore  folks,  and  them  that  had  pence-a-piece,  and 
bread  and  meat. 

"  Item, — There  was  said  the  day  of  his  buryall  at 
Holywell,  140  masses. 

"  Item, — There  was  served  that  day  to  people  that  were 
ther,  400  messes  of  mete  and  above." 

Sir  Thomas  Lovell,  by  his  will,  dated-  October  i4th, 
1522,  gave  the  Manor  of  Worcesters  to  Thomas  Manners, 


Lord  Ros,  afterwards  first  Earl  of  Rutland,  who  married 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Lovell,  his  brother. 

In  1540,  the  Earl  of  Rutland  gave  the  manor,  along 
with  the  capital  messuage  of  Elsygne  Hall,  to  King  Henry 
VIII.,  and  it  was  settled  by  Edward  VI.  upon  his  sister 
Elizabeth.  It  was  afterwards  granted  by  the  Crown  to 
Robert  Cecil,  first  Earl  of  Salisbury,  who  died  seized 
of  it  in  1612. 

Lysons  and  Dr.  Robinson  state,  that  "it  is  not  certain 
at  what  time  it  was  alienated  by  the  Cecils,"  but  by  the 
deeds  at  Forty  Hall,  it  appears  to  have  been  conveyed 
by  the  second  Lord  Salisbury,  (July  4th,  1616)  to  Sir 
Nicholas  Raynton,  and  by  "  An  abstract  of  all  ye  landes 
"  and  tenements  appertaining  to  ye  estate  of  N.  Raynton, 
"  Esq.,  which  are  in  Endfield  in  ye  Co.  Middlesex,  being 
"  carefully  collected  by  compairing  up  ye  tennants,  and 
"by  perusing  severall  writeings,  &c.,  about  ye  year  1656," 
The  property  at  this  time  consisted  of, — -"Imprimis,  Forty 
"  Hall,  one  antient  howse  lately  ^new-built,  called  and 
"  knowne  by  ye  name  of  Forty  Hall,  with  close  adjoining, 
"  enclosed  by  a  brick  wall,  and  containing  by  estimation, 
"  six  acres,"  with  sundry  meadows  and  closes  duly 
specified,  containing  344  acres,  i  rood,  36  poles.  "  Also 
"in  ye  possession  of  ye  said  N.  Raynton,  Esq.,  one 
"very  ancient  house  called  ENFIELD  HOUSE,  (otherwise 
"  ELSYNGE  HALL)  with  ye  court  yards,  gardens,  orchards, 
"  &c.  adjoining,  one  antient  tenement  att  "  Wight-webbs 
'  adjoining  to  Endfield  Howse.  And  ye  piece  of  land 


"  called  ye  Warren,  and  ye  close  or  park,  called  ye  Little 
"  Park,  containing  375  acres,"  &c. 


The  present  mansion  or  manor  house  of  Forty  Hall, 
above  referred  to,  was  built  by  Sir  Nicholas  Raynton, 
from  the  designs  of  Inigo  Jones,  about  the  year  1629,  as 
appears  from  the  dates  on  the  leaden  pipes.  The  date 
of  1632  may  also  be  seen  near  the  top  of  the  buildings 
(probably  that  of  its  completion.) 

It  was  at  this  time  copyhold,  but  after  its  purchase  by 
Sir  N.  Raynton,  it  was  enfranchised  and  merged  in  the 
Manor  of  Worcesters. 

In  1787,  on  the  death  of  Eliab  Breton,  who  had 
married  the  heiress  of  the  Raynton  and  Wolstenholme 
families,*  the  whole  estate  comprising  above  1800  acres, 
and  then  considered  the  finest  and  most  compact  in 
Middlesex,  was  sold  in  sixty-five  lots  for  ,£50,000. 

*  Mr.  Breton  died  at  Forty  Hall,  December  igth,  1785,  in  his 
76th  year,  and  his  widow  died  January  aoth,  1790,  aged  80.  "  She 
"was  the  surviving  co-heiress  of  the  Wolstenholme  and  Raynton 
"  families,  whose  estate  ac  Enfield  (one  of  the  finest  in  Middlesex) 
"  she  conveyed  to  her  husband,  and  after  his  death,  saw  it  dismem- 
bered under  Mr.  Christie's  hammer  through  the  misconduct  of 
"  their  offspring." — Gent.  Mag.,  Jan.  1790. 


Forty  Hall,  with  159  acres  adjoining,  was  purchased  by 
.  Mr.  Armstrong,  and  on  his  death  in  1799,  by  James 
Meyer,  Esq.,  for  ^11,940.  It  is  now  the  property  and 
residence  of  his  great  nephew,  James  Meyer,  Esq.,  and 
consists  of  above  280  acres  within  a  ring  fence. 

11  The  interior  accommodations  of  the  house  (says  Dr. 
Robinson)  are  numerous  and  pleasant,  and  the  rooms  are 
well-proportioned  and  superbly  decorated."  The  beauti- 
ful tracery  work  of  the  pannelled  ceilings  is  especially 
deserving  of  notice.  The  fine  collection  of  pictures 
contains  "  A  Holy  Family,"  by  Rubens;  "  The  Miracu- 
lous Draught  of  Fishes,"  by  D.  Teniers;  "  The  Carnival 
in  the  Square  of  St.  Mark's,"  by  Canallctti;  "  The  Three 
Marys,"  by  Annibal  Caracci;  "  The  Toilet,"  by  Gabriel 
Metzu;  "  Uriah  conveying  the  letter  from  David,"  by 
Raphael,  from  the  Orleans  collection,  erroneously  as- 
cribed by  Dr.  Robinson  to  Albert  Durer;  "  The  Tower  of 
St.  Mark's,"  and  "A  Companion  of  the  Doge's  Palace,"  by 
Canaletti;  "  Christ  purifying  the  Temple,"  by  Bassano;. 
and  two  landscapes  by  Both,  from  the  Lansdowne 
collection.  There  is  also  a  fine  portrait  of  Sir  Nicholas 
Raynton  in  his  civic  robes  (1643)  supposed  to  be  by 
Dobson,  the  pupil  of  Vandyke. 

The  fine  old  gateway  of  the  stables  is  still  standing, 
and  is  a  characteristic  example  of  the  effect  which  Inigo 
Jones  could  give  to  the  simplest  design  by  the  judicious 
management  of  light  and  shadow,  and  the  solid  durability 
of  appearance  which  distinguish  all  his  works. 





"  Where  throngs  of  knights  and  barons  bold 
In  weeds  of  peace  high  triumphs  hold 
Of  wit  or  arms,  while  both  contend 
To  win  HER  grace  whom  all  commfcd." 


Great  antiquarian  and  historic  interest  attaches  to  the 
now  forgotten  site  of  Elsynge  Hall,  once  the  scene  of 
royal  magnificence,  and  thronged  with  the  sage  counsel- 
lors and  the  brilliant  courtiers  of  Elizabeth. 

Elsynge  Hall  was  for  several  years  the  residence  of 
Edward  VI.  and  his  sister  during  their  childhood,  and 
Holinshed  relates  how,  in  1543,  "  on  New  Year's-day  the 
"  noble  Scottish  prisoners  departed  from  London,  and 
"  roade  to  Enfield  to  see  the  Prince,  and  dined  there 
"  that  day,  greatly  rejoicing  to  beholde  so  proper  and 
"  towardly  an  ympe." 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  was  the  residence  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  after  she  came  to  the  throne.  It  is* 
distinctly  stated  by  Norden  to  have  been  "  builded  by  an 
Earle  of  Worcester,"  and  is  described  by  him  as  being 
a  "Howse  or  Palace  of  Queen  Eli.,"  in  his  map  of 
Myddlesex  (1593)1  where  it  is  represented  as  surrounded 


by  a  park-paling  enclosing  the  "  New-park,"  and  about  a 
mile  distant  from  the  town,  where  he  places  another 
similar  enclosure  for  the  Old-park,  which  adjoined  the 
Manor  House  of  Enfield.  Both  these  parks  are  marked 
in  the  same  way  in  Saxton's  map  (1579),  in  Speed's 
(1608),  and  in  the  famous  atlas  of  Blaeu,  the  pupil  of 
Tycho  Brahe  (a  sheet  of  which  is  worth  its  weight  in 

In  the  account  of  Sir  Thomas  Lovell's  funeral,  the 
house  is  stated  to  have  been  "  a  good  myle  distant  from 
the  Parische-churche."  Weever  ranks  it  among  the 
princely  houses  heritable  by  the  Crown ;  and  Vallance,  in 
his  tale  of  Two  Swannes,  calls  it  "Enfield  House  yt  longs 
unto  our  Queene." 

In  the  memoirs  of  Carey,  Earl  of  Monmouth,  it  is 
stated  that  in  the  year  1596,  the  Queen  came  from 
Theobalds  to  dinner  to  Enfield  House,  and  had  toils  set 
up  in  the  park  to  shoot  at  bucks  after  dinner. 

The  Court  was  resident  here  in  the  summer  of  1561, 
and  went  up  to  St.  James's  in  July,  on  which  occasion 
such  was  the  state  of  the  roads,  that  "  the  hedges  and 
ditches  were  cut  down  to  make  the  next  way  for  her." 
The  Court  was  again  here  from  September  8th,  to  the 
'22nd,  1561,  and  from  July  25th  to  3cth,  in  1564,  and 
in  July,  1568,  as  will  be  more  particularly  alluded  to  in 
the  life  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh. 

When  the  Manor  of  Worcesters  was  granted  to  the 
Cecils,  Elsynge  Hall  was  reserved  to  the  Crown,  but  in 


1641  it  was  sold  by  Charles  I.  along  with  the  "  Little 
Park  "  and  "  the  Warren  "  adjoining,  (part  of  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster)  to  Philip,  Earl  of  Pembroke  and  Mont- 

It  was  the  celebrated  widow  of  this  nobleman,  who 
was  said  by  Dr.  Donne,  to  "  know  well  how  to  discourse 
of  all  things,  from  predestination  down  to  slea-silk"  and 
who  wrote  the  spirited  letter  to  Sir  J.  Williamson, 
Secretary  of  State,  who  had  presumed  to  propose  a 
candidate  for  her  borough  of  Appleby : — 

"  I  have  been  bullied  by  an  usurper,  I  have  been 
neglected  by  a  court,  but  I  will  not  be  dictated  lo  by  a 
subject.  Your  man  shan't  stand. 

ANNE,  Dorset,  Pembroke,  and  Montgomery." 
It  is  the  fashion  of  these  enlightened  days  to  doubt 
every  thing  best  worth  believing,  and  the  authenticity  of 
this  letter  is  doubted  by  Lodge,  chiefly  on  the  ground 
that  "  no  instance  can  be  found  of  the  verb  stand  being 
used  at  that  time  in  the  sense  to  which  it  is  here  applied." 
It  may  be  found  so  used  in  the  life  of  Bishop  Sanderson, 
at  least  seven  times,  speaking  of  his  "  standing  "  for  the 
place  of  procter,  in  1614. 

The  baptism  of  five  of  her  children  is  recorded  in  the 
parish  registers. 

Elsynge  Hall  has  long  been  pulled  down,  but  its  site 
is  still  discernable  towards  the  bottom  of  the  avenue  at 
Forty  Hall,  between  the  house  and  the  Maiden- 
bridge-brook.  Here,  in  dry  seasons,  the  outlines  of  an 


extensive  fabric  may  be  traced  on  the  ground  by  the 
withering  of  the  grass; — the  remains  of  foundations  have 
frequently  been  dug  up,  and  about  the  year  1830,  under 
a  lime  tree  in  the  avenue,  an  unfortunate  bullock  fell 
through  the  decayed  brickwork  into  a  vault  below. 

In  addition  to  Forty  Hall  and  the  Manor  of  Worcesters, 
Sir  Nicholas  Raynton  purchased  "a  copyhold  house, 
"described  in  the  survey  of  Enfield  (says  Dr.  Robinson) 
"as  sometime  Hugh  Fortee's,  and  late  Sir  Thomas 
"  Gurney's,"  to  which  he  curiously  adds  that  Sir  Hugh 
Fortee  built  the  mansion  called  Forty  Hall,  between  the 
years  of  1629  and  1632,  and  gave  name  to  it.  Hugh 
Fortee  died  in  the  previous  century,  and  it  is  certain  that 
"  Forty  Hill "  was  known  by  this  name  at  least  as  early 
as  1564.  In  a  deed  of  that  date  (penes  H.  C.  B.  Bowles, 
Esq.)  a  parcel  of  land  is  described  as  being  bounded  on 
the  east  by  the  road  leading  from  Friday  Street  "  versus 


Myddelton  House  was  purchased  in  1724  by  Michel 
Garnault,  whose  descendant,  Daniel  Garnault,  died  un- 
married in  1809,  leaving  the  estate,  together  with  his 
shares  in  the  New  River,  to  his  sister  Anne,  wife  of  the 
late  Henry  Carington  Bowles.  The  present  villa  was 
built  in  1818,  by  this  gentleman,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
house  known  as  Bowling  Green  House,  and  was  named 
after  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton,  the  patriotic  but  ill-requited 


projector  of  the  New  River.  The  estate,  containing 
about  100  acres,  was  formerly  parcel  of  the  Manor  of 
Worcesters  and  of  Goldbeaters.  *  It  is  now  the  property 
of  H.  C.  B.  Bowles,  Esq.,  J.P.,  and  includes  a  site  of  some 
historic  interest,  from  its  connection  with  the  Gunpowder 
.  Plot.  "  A  tradition  which  (says  Lysons)  is  perhaps 
not  much  to  be  depended  upon,"  states  that  White  Webbs 
House  was  hired  by  the  conspirators  for  the  purposes  of 
their  plot. 

'  This  tradition  is,  however,  fully  substantiated  by  existing 
title  deeds,  and  by  the  following  extracts  from  the 
documents  of  the  State  Paper  Office,  which  also  identify 
the  locality  beyond  any  doubt. 

In  the  confession  of  "  John  Johnsonne  (alias  Guido 
Fawkes),  he  further  saith  that  the  Wednsday  before  his 
"  apprencon  he  went  forthe  of  the  towne  to  a  house  in 
"  Enfielde  Chase  on  this  side  of  Theobalds,  where  he 
"stayed  till  Sonday  night  following."  (9 — 10  Novem- 
ber, 1605.) 

The  report. to  the  council  of  the  search  of  "White 
Webbs  House,"  says,  "  the  search  ended  in  the  discovery 
"  of  Popish  books  and  relics,  but  no  papers  or  munitions, 

*  Goldbeaters  was  a  reputed  Manor  under  the  Manor  of 
Worcesters,  and  has  now  become  extinguished  and  merged  in 
various  freeholds.  In  an  abstract  of  a  survey  ot  Enfield,  1572, 
lands  called  Goldbeaters  are  described  as  belonging  to  Dr.  Huickf, 
with  a  quit  rent  of  75.  7d.  to  the  Queen. 


"  and  the  house  was  found  to  be  full  of  trap  doors  and 
"passages."  In  the  examination  of  "James  Johnson," 
it  was  stated  by  him  that  the  house  "  had  been  taken  of 
"  Dr.  Hewicke,  by  his  master,  Mr.  Meaze,  of  Berkshire, 
"(the  Jesuit  father  Garnet)  for  his  sister,  Mrs.  Perkins 
"(alias  Mrs.  Ann  Vaux)  that  Mrs.  Vaux  had  spent  a 
"  month  there,  and  mass  had  been  said  by  a  priest,  whose 
"  name  deponent  did  not  know." 

On  the  25th  February,  1606,  Johnson  described  the 
taking  and  furnishing  of  the  house,  and  said  that  Ann 
Vaux  had  kept  it  up  at  her  own  expense,  and  that  Garnet 
was  the  man  who  had  visited  it  under  the  names  of 
Meaze  and  Farmer. 

On  March  zist,  1606,  a  letter  written  in  lemon  juice— 
which  is  still  in  existence — was  intercepted  from  Mistress 
Vaux  to  Garnet,  then  prisoner  in  the  Tower.  It  was 
accompanied  by  a  pot  of  marmalade,  and  had  the  signifi- 
cant endorsement  (in  common  ink,)  "  I  praye  you  prove 
"  whether  these  spectacles  doe  fytte  your  sight."  Lysons 
states,  "  from  some  papers  communicated  by  Mr.  Gough  " 
that  Queen  Elizabeth,  in  1570,  granted  a  mansion  called 
White  Webbs  House,  to  Robert  Huicke,  her  physician 
in  ordinary  (and  principal  of  St.  Alban's  College,  Oxford). 
And  a  deed  in  the  possession  of  H.  C.  B.  Bowles,  Esq.  of 
the  same  year,  contains  the  grant  of  "  all  the  vaultes  and 
all  the  conduit  *  and  pipes  of  lead  laid  within  the  said 

*   Vide  White  Webb's  Park.— f  p.  83,). 


Chase  at  the  charges  and  expenses  of  our  servant  (Robert 
Huycke)  for  the  leading  and  conveying  water  into  the 
"  Nowe  Howse  "  of  our  said  servant,  "  abuttinge  in  parte 
'uppon  the  saide  Chase,  which  mansion  house  is  within 
the  parish  of  Endfield  in  our  saied  co.  of  Midd.," 
and  for  supplying  water  to  the  mansion  house,  gardens, 
ponds,  and  orchards. 

Old  White  Webbs  House,  which  was  evidently  of  con- 
siderable extent,  was  pulled  down  by  Mr.  Garnault,  in 
1790.  Its  site  extended  from  the  fields  numbered  254, 
255  (in  the  large  ordnance  map  of  the  parish)  across  White 
Webbs-lane  (formerly  known  as  Rome  Road)  to  those 
numbered  392,  396,  the  property  of  H.  Wilkinson,  Esq. 
The  remains  of  the  fish  ponds  and  orchards  are  still 
discernable,  and  the  ale  house  known  as  the  King  and 
Tinker  probably  still  retains  some  portions  of  the  old 
out-buildings.  With  this  little  beershop  is  popularly 
identified  the  ballad  of  King  James  and  the  Tinker,  the 
incident  of  which  is  supposed  to  have  occurred  during 
the  residence  of  James  I,  at  Theobalds. 

This  old  ballad  deserves  a  place  in  the  History  .of 
Enfield,  from  having  suggested  the  details  of  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  descriptions  in  modern  poetry. 

"  It  has  long  been  a  favourite  subject  with  our  ballad- 
"  writers  (says  Bishop  Percy)  to  represent  our  Kings 
"  conversing  by  accident  or  design,  with  the  meanest  of 
"  their  subjects.  Besides  the  song  of  the  '  King  and  the 
"  Miller,'  we  have  '  King  Edward  IV.  and  the  Tanner,' 


"  '  King  Henry  and  the  Soldier/  '  King  James  I.  and 
"  the  Tinker,'  £c."  (Reliques  of  Ancient  Poetry.) 

"  The  earliest  of  these  stories  (writes  Professor  Child) 
"  seems  to  be  that  of  '  King  Alfred  and  the  Neatherd,'  in 
"  which  the  herdsman's  wife  plays  the  offending  part,  and 
"  the  peasant  himself  is  made  Bishop  of  Winchester." 

The  verses  are  not  given  in  any  collection  of  old 
ballads,  though  they  may  be  found  in  a  few  chapbooks 
and  broadsides.  The  following  text  has  been  collated 
with  a  reprint  of  the  Percy  Society. 


And  now,  to  be  brief,  let's  pass  over  the  rest, 
Who  seldom  or  never  were  given  to  jest, 
And  come  to  King  Jamie,  the  first  of  our  throne — 
A  pleasanter  monarch  sure  never  was  known. 

As  he  was  a-hunting  the  swift  fallow  deer, 

He  dropt  all  his  nobles,  and  when  he  got  clear, 

In  hope  of  some  pastime,  away  he  did  ride, 

Till  he  came  to  an  ale-house  hard  by  a  wood-side,     . 

And  there  with  a  Tinkler  he  happened  to  meet, 
And  him  in  kind  sort  he  so  freely  did  greet ; 
"  Now  pray  thee  good  fellow,  what  hast  in  thy  jug, 
Which  under  thy  arm  thou  dost  lovingly  hug?" 

"  By  the  mass!"  quoth  the  Tinkler,  "  'tis  nappy  brown  ale, 
And  for  to  drink  to  thee  friend,  I  will  not  fail, 
For  although  thy  jacket  looks  gallant  and  fine, 
I  think  that  my  two-pence  as  good  is  as  thine." 


"By  my  soul!  honest  fellow,  the  truth  thou  hast. spoke," 
And  straight  he  sat  down  with  the  Tinkler  to  joke ; 
They  drank  to  the  King,  and  they  pledged  to  each  other, 
Who  had  seen  them  had  thought  they  were  brother  and  brother. 

As  they  were  a-drinking,  the  King  pleased  to  say, 

"  What  news,  honest  fellow?  come,  tell  to  me,  I  pray  ;" 

' '  There's  nothing  of  news,  except  that  I  hear, 

The  King  is  a-hunting  the  fair  fallow  deer, 

And  truly  I  wish  I  so  happy  may  be, 
While  he  is  a-hunting  the  King  I  might  see ; 
For  though  I  have  travelled  the  land  many  ways, 
I  never  have  yet  seen  a  King  in  my  days." 

The  King  with  a  hearty  brisk  laughter  replied, 
"  I  teil  thee,  good  fellow,  if  thou  canst  but  ride, 
Thou  shall  get  up  behind  me,  and  thee  I  will  bring 
To  the  presence  of  Jamie,  thy  sovereign  King." 

"  But  he'll  be  surrounded  with  nobles  so  gay, 
And  how  shall  we  tell  him  from  them,  Sir,  I  pray?" 
"  Thou  wilt  easily  know  him,  when  once  thou  art  there, 
The  King  will  be  covered,  his  nobles  all  bare." 

Then  up  got  the  Tinkler,  and  likewise  his  sack, 
His  budget  of  leather  and  tools  at  his  back  ; 
They  rode  till  they  came  to  the  merry  green  wood, 
His  nobles  came  round  him,  and  bare-headed  stood. 

The  Tinkler  then  seeing  so  many  appear, 
He  slyly  did  whisper  the  King  in  his  ear, 
Saying,  "They  are  all  clothed  so  gallant  and  gay,         «. 
"  But  which  amongst  them  is  the  King,  Sir,  I  pray?" 


The  King  did  with  hearty  good  laughter  reply, 
' '  By  my  soul,  my  good  fellow,  its  thou  or  its  I, 
The  rest  are  bareheaded,  uncovered  all  round," 
—  With  his  bag  and  his  budget  he  fell  to  the  ground 

Like  one  that  was  frightened  quite  out  of  his  wits, 
Then  up  on  his  knees  he  immediately  gets, 
Beseeching  for  mercy— the  King  to  him  said, 
"  Thou  art  a  good  fellow,  so  be  not  afraid  ; 

Come,  tell  me  thy  name  !"     "I  am  John  of  the  Dale, 
A  mender  of  kettles,  and  lover  of  ale." 
"  Then  rise  up,  Sir  John,  I  will  honour  thee  here, 
And  make  thee  a  knight  of  five  hundred  a  year." 

This  was  a  good  thing  for  the  Tinkler  indeed, 
Then  unto  the  Court  he  was  sent  for  with  speed  ; 
Where  store  of  great  pleasure  and  pastime  was  seen 
In  the  royal  presence  of  King  and  of  Queen. 

Sir  John  of  the  Dale,  he  has  land,  he  has  fee, 
At  the  court  of  the  King,  who  so  happy  as  he  ? 
Yet  still  in  his  hall  hangs  the  Tinkler's  old  sack, 
And  the  budget  of  tools  which  he  bore  at  his  back. 


•\\HITE    WEBBS    PARK. 

The  estate  of  White  Webbs  Park  was  purchased  by 
Dr.  Wilkinson,  on  the  sale  of  the  property  of  Mr.  Breton, 
in  1787.  It  was  then  known  by  the  name  of  White 
Webbs  Farm,  and  was  enclosed  within  the  pale  of  Forty 
Hall  Park,  from  which  it  is  divided  only  by  the  New 
River  and  the  brook.  At  this  time 'it  consisted  of  134 
acres,  but  has  been  increased  by  successive  purchases 
and  allotments,  to  250  acres,  100  of  which  are  woodland, 
and  covered  with  old  oaks  and  underwood,  the  remains 
of  the  original  Chase  or  forest.* 

The  top  of  the  hill  is  crowned  by-  a  dark  mass  of 
Scotch  firs,  and  the  whole  forms  a  conspicuous  and 
beautiful  object  from  the  surrounding  country. 

In  an  open  glade  at  the  bottom  of  this  wood  stands  a 
small  brick  building,  enclosing  a  circular  tank  or  well  of 
five  feet  diameter,  always  full  of  the  purest  water,  and 
transparent  to  the  bottom.  This  is  the  old  "  Conduit- 
house"  before  mentioned,  as  having  been  granted  by 
Queen  Elizabeth  to  her  physician,  Dr.  Huicke,  for  the 
supply  of  his  mansion-house  at  White  Webbs.  The 
texture  and  form  of  the  bricks,  which  are  unusually  thin, 

*  A  fine  old  badger,  probably  the  last  wild  one  in  Middlesex,  was 
killed  in  these  woods  in  the  summer  of  1848,  and  is  preserved  at 
Forty  Hall. 


and  the  peculiar  "  old  English  bond  "  of  the  brickwork 
indicate  great  age;  and  the  corners  of  the  building  have 
been  completely  worn  away  by  the  rubbing  of  deer  and 
cattle  during  upwards  of  three  centuries. 

The  present  mansion  was  built  in  1791,  by  Dr. 
Wilkinson,  and  has  been  much  enlarged  by  his  grandson, 
Henry  Wilkinson,  Esq.,  whose  fine  taste  has  enriched  it 
by  a  collection  of  works  of  art  of  the  highest  beauty  and 
rarity.  A  short  descriptive  catalogue  is  subjoined  of 
some  of  these  which  are  specially  interesting,  either  from 
their  associations  or  their  intrinsic  excellence. 

Outer  Hall. — Carved  ebony  cabinet,  surmounted  '  by 
engraved  bronze  tazza.  Terra-cotta  group  of  boys  in 
masques  by  Flaxman.  The  Entombment,  by  Clodion, 
(signed).  The  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  from  Verona. 
Colossal  busts  of  Sculpture  and  Poetry,  in  white  marble, 
from  the  Palace  of  the  Duchesse  de  Bern,  by  Crazzia 
Marinari  (1680).  Two  Figures  in  Suits  of  Damascene 
Armour.  Triptic  of  the  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  in 
ivory,  with  carved  ebony  frame. 

Inner  Hall. — Buhl  clock  finely  engraved,  from  Straw- 
berry-hill. Marble  bust  of  Aurelius.  Bust  of  Cassius, 
the  head  of  bronze,  the  bust  in  dark  marble.  White 
Marble  Vase,  with  death  of  Hector  on  pedestal,  with 
supporting  nymphs  and  sphinxes  in  grey  marble,  (height 
eight  feet).  Two  rosso  antico  busts  on  red  marble 


pedestals.     Terra-cotta  figure  of  Night.     Two  deep  blue 
jewelled  enamelled  Sevres  Jardinieres  (1790 — 5). 

Dining  Room.  —  Gainsborough,  —  Portraits  of  his 
Daughters.  Sir  T.  Lawrence, — Son  of  Colonel  Hill,  full 
length.  Velasquez, — Two  full  lengths,  Dukes  of  Monti 
Leonii,  from  the  Auldjo  collection.  Sant, — St  John,  after 
Raphael.  Plaque  of  the  Massacre  of  the  Innocents  in 
della  Robbia  ware.  Marble  alto  relief  of  David  and  his 
men  eating  the  shew-bread,  by  Donatelli.  Terra-cotta 
bust  of  Titian,  taken  in  his  life  time  by  his  friend 
Alessandrio  Vittoria,  the  Venetian  Senator.  Antique 
bust  of  a  Roman  Lady,  with  drapery  of  agate.  Oval 
silver  Salver  in  deep  repousse  work,  Androcles  and  the 
Lion.  Brazen  Wine  Cooler,  engraved,  by  Orazzia 
Fortezza  di  Sabenico.  Table,  supported  by  Sphinxes, 
old  Florentine  mosaic. 

Morning  Room. — Flora,  by  Marin.  Sevres  Plate, 
made  for  George  III.,  companion  plate  from  the7  royal 
manufactory,  Vienna.  Limoges  Enamel  of  Paulus  III.  in 
marble  frame.  Old  Dresden  Clock  of.  the  finest  white 
paste,  with  four  caryatides.  Ancient  Buhl  Commode. 
Ebony  and  Ivory  Inlaid  Cabinet.  Three  Portraits  in 
Enamel,  by  Bone.  Portrait  of  the  Empress  Catherine  of 
Russia,  and  companion  Portrait,  by  Rosalba.  Capo  di 
Monte,  Dresden  and  Berlin  Tazzas,  Ivories,  and  Minia- 
tures, by  Cosivay.  Carved  Ivory  Tray,  with  the  arms  of 
the  Dauphin,  set  with  Turquoises.  Fine  Venetian  Glass 
set  in  coral. 


Library. — Enamel,  by  Bone.  Ditto  of  the  Holy 
Family.  White  Marble  Clock,  by  Clodion.  Bronze  of 
young  Bacchus. 

Passage. — Portrait  of  Camilla  del  Orto,  by  Tintoretto. 
Portrait  of  Wilson,  by  himself  (from  Wanstead-house). 
Large  bronze  bas  relief  of  Hades  (from  the  Strozza 
collection).  Terra-cotta  St.  Andrew  on  the  Cross  (by 
John  of  Bologna).  Black  basaltic  bust  of  a  Boy  (from  the 
Marquis  Spinola's  Palace.)  Terra-cotta  bust,  by  Raphael. 

Drawing  Room^ — Cabinet,  nine  feet  high  of  white 
China  enamel.  Carved  ebony  ditto,  with  Group  in 
Delia  Robbia  ware.  Two  ditto,  inlaid  with  ivory,  with 
vases  of  early  Capo  di  Monti  (from  the  Duke  of 
Hamilton's  collection.)  Bronze  bust  of  the  grand  Conde 
(1621)  on  marble  pedestal,  by  Thorivaldson.  Buhl 
Table,  from  Strawberry  Hill.  Tazza  of  Rock  Crystal. 
Illuminated  missal  from  Newstead  Abbey ;  Ditto  bound 
in  embossed  silver  and  velvet.  Plate  of  Limoges  Enamel. 
Carved  Ivory  Magdalen.  Miniatures,  by  Cosway  and . 
Hopner,  &c.  Rock  Crystal  Tazza,  with  the  passage  of 
the  Red  Sea  exquisitely  engraved.  A  Child  and  Parrot, 
by  Greuze.  Cameo  of  Semiramis  (from  Strawberry  Hill). 
Louis  XIV.  and  Madame  de  Chianges,  by  Petttot. 
Miniature  of  Alfieri,  with  autograph  of  Lord  Byron. 
Etui,  with  Mounts  and  Enamel  of  the  Duchesse  de 
Montpensier,  by  Petitot.  Dish  of  Limoges  Enamel,  with 
Lot  and  his  Daughters.  Ancient  carved  Ivory  Group, 
cut  out  of  a  single  tusk.  Six  Limoges  Enamel  Cups  and 


Saucers.  Two  Bronzes,  from  the  collection  of  the  late 
Duke  of  York.  Castor  and  Pollux,  in  White  Marble, 
from  the  collection  of  the  Duke  of  Cambridge.  Ewer 
and  Basin  of  deep  blue  SevresJ  Antique  Cup  of  Cat's- 
eye,  with  jewelled  stem.  Two  Miniatures,  by  Cos-way. 
Ditto  of  Charles  I.  and  his  Queen  Henrietta.  Ditto  of 
Lady  Jersey,  by  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence.  Four  Plates 
from  the  Royal  Vienna  Manufactory.  Cups  and  Saucers 
of  Sevres,  Capo  di  Monti,  old  Dresden,  Berlin,  Buen 
Retiro,  and  Vienna.  A  jewelled  Limoges  Triptic — the 
birth  of  Christ.  •  Sofa  and  four  Chairs  of  old  Tournay 
tapestry.  Embroidered  ditto,  with  Screen  and  Footstool 
from  the  petit  Trianon,  fromerly  belonging  to  Marie 
Antoinette.  Twelve  magnificent  old  Venetian  Glasses, 
from  the  palace  at  Naples; — six  others  of  the  suite  are  in 
the  possession  of  the  Duchess  of  Wellington.  Two 
Bronze  busts  of  Sextus  V.  and  Clement  VII.,  of  the 
highest  art  and  workmanship. 

Staircase. — Hermandino,  Duke  of  Mantua,  by  Paul 
Veronese.  John  Locke,  by  Sir  G.  Kneller.  Elizabeth, 
Duchess  of  Norfolk,  by  Zuccharo.  Madame  du  Deffand. 
Large  Majolica  Plaque  of  the  twelve  Disciples  in  the 
porch  of  the  Temple,  (A.D.  1525.)  Virgin  and  Child  in 
della  Robbia  ware.  Bronze  bust  of  Columbus.  Portrait 
of  the  Marquis  Grimani,  by  Tintoretto.  Marble  bust  of  a 
Roman  Lady,  the  drapery  in  agate.  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul,  della  Robbia.  Large  Spanish  Cabinet  of  Tortoise- 
shell  and  Mother-of-pearl.  Lofty  Ebony  Cabinet,  with 


the  arms  and  portraits  of  the  Visconti  family.  Head  of 
Charity,  by  Sir  J.  Reynolds.  Landscape  by  Gainsborough. 
Large  Limoges  Enamel  in  Ebony  Frame.  The  Annun- 
ciation, carved  in  Amber,  with  border  of  Lapis  Lazuli. 
Two  terra-cotta  plaques,  by  Marin.  Miniatures  of 
Charles  I.  and  Henrietta  Maria,  with  ten  Nobles,  in 
Tortoise-shell  frame. 

Study. — Table  of  old  Roman  mosaic.  Antique  Desk 
of  Tortoise-shell  and  Mother-of-pearl.  Two  oak  Cabinets 
from  FonthilU 

Japan  Room. — Old  Dresden  Clock,  with  Landscapes. 
Chest  of  rare  old  Marquetry,  with  Limoges  Enamel. 

Red  Dressing  Room. — Terra-cotta  plaque  Of  the  Holy 
Family,  by  Giorgio  Marchioli,  1620. 

Green  Dressing  Room. — Four  magnificent  plaques  of 
old  Capo  di  Monti,  representing  the  four  seasons.  Two- 
oval  ditto  of  Night  and  Morning,  in  Ebony  Cabinet. 


The  seat  of  James  Pateshall  Jones,  Esq.,  is  situated  on 
the  south  side  of  Turkey-street.  The  estate,  which  is 
watered  by  the  New  River,  contains  upwards  of  fifty 
acres,  and  includes  the  house  and  grounds,  which  were 
for  more  than  a  century  the  property  and  residence  of  the 
late  Mr.  Phineas  Pateshall  and  his  ancestors,  and  after- 
wards of  his  grandson,  the  present  owner,  who  purchased 
the  adjoining  estates  in  the  year  1859,  and  blended  the 
two  properties.  In  the  following  year  the  public  road, 


which  wound  round  the  front  of  the  house,  was  diverted, 
under  an  order  of  the  Quarter  Sessions,  and  carried  in  a 
direct  line  across  Mr.  Jones's  land,  at  his  own  expense, 
by  which  a  great  improvement,  public  as  well  as  private, 
was  effected. 

The  families  of  Pateshall  and  Jones  (who  have  more 
than  once  intermarried),  are  among  the  oldest  residential 
proprietors  in  the  -parish.  Phineas  Pateshall  appears 
from  the  Duchy  Records,  as  quoted  by  Dr.  Robinson,  to 
have  held  a  house  and  land  "  at  Bull's  Cross,  near  Card's 
Bridge,"  in  1686,  as  copyhold  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield 
in  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster. 

Philip  Jones,  of  Barnard's  Inn,  the  great-grandfather  of 
James  Pateshall  Jones,  died  at  his  house  in  Green-street, 
Enfield,  now  the  residence  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Jones, 
his  grandson.  He  was  an  auctioneer  of  great  eminence 
in  London,  and  his  father,  Thomas  Jones,  was  the  first 
individual  who  practised  that  profession  in  this  country. 
(Gentleman's  Magazine,  -1778.,) 


The  Manor  of  Durants  belonged  in  the  reign  of 
Edwand  I.  to  Richard  de  Plessitis,  at  which  time  it 
appears  to  have  been  valued  at  £21  is.  n^d. 

In  default  of  male  issue  it  devolved  to  Thomas  Durant, 
whose  only  daughter,  Maude,  married  John  Wrothe,  and 
the  Manor  of  Durants,  to  which  that  of  Cartons  was  at 
an  early  period  annexed,  descended  to  their  son,  William 


Wrothe,  who  died  20  March,  9  HEN.  IV.*  after  which  it 
continued  in  the  Wrothe  family  for  many  generations. 
"  Sir  Thomas  Wrothe  was, "says  Fuller,  "of  the  Bedchamber, 
"  and  a  favourite  to  King  Edward  the  Sixth,  who,  (as  I 
"  am  informed)  at  his  death,  passed  out  of  the  armes  of 
"  him,  his  faithfull  servant,  into  the  embraces  of  Christ, 
"  his  dearest  Saviour.  Soon  after  Sir  Thomas  found  a 
"  great  change  in  the  English  Court,  but  no  alteration  as 
"  many  did  (to  their  shame)  in  his  own  conscience,  in 
"  preservation  of  which  he  was  fain  to  fly  beyond  the 
"  seas."  It  was  observable  (he  adds),  that  the  family  of 
this  man  who  went  away  for  his  conscience,  was  the  only 
family  in  Middlesex  out  of  all  those  mentioned  by  Norden, 
which  was  not  extinct  in  his  time  (1660).  A  curious 
letter  from  his  son,  Sir  Robert  Wrothe,  who  died  June  26, 
1605,  is  preserved  among  the  Lansdowne  manuscripts, 
which  vividly  depicts  the  state  of  the  country  round 
London  at  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

Sir  Robert  Wrothe  to  Mr.  Michael  Hickes.    Intelligence  concerning 

robbers  who  frequented  Layton  Heath  in  Essex. 
(M.S.  Lansd.  87  Art.  60  Orig.) 

My  very  good  frende,  Mr.  Hickes,  I  am  informed  that  now, 
towardes  these  darke  evenings,  there  are  sertaine  lewde  fellowes, 
sumtimes  horsemen,  somtimes  footemen,  disguising  themselves  with 
beardes  that  they  carry  aboute  them  in  their  pockets,  which  doe 

*  "  Ex  bundello  Inquisitionum  anno  2  Regis  Hen.  V.  num.  4,  in 
Turrc  Lond. 


frequente  and  use  aboute  Layton  heath  and  at  or  about  Snaresbrooke 
in  your  brother  Colstone's  walke.  I  have  appoynted  sum  espiciali 
spyall  of  them  to  bewray  them  and  to  know  them,  either  by  theire 
horses  apparell  or  otherwise,  and  I  hope  in  time  to  have  them 
discifared.  Yet  for  better  surety  thereof,  I  pray  you  lett  me  intreate 
you  to  speake  to  your  brother  Colstone  that  with  some  secresy  he 
woulde  take  such  order  with  sum  of  the  discreatest  keepers  he  hath 
that  towardes  eaveninges  they  woulde  have  an  eye  upone  the  heath 
and  about  Snaresbrooke  for  suoh  kinde  of  persons,  and  to  discry 
them  by  their  horses  or  otherwise  if  they  can.  They  come  not  above 
one  or  two  in  company  until  they  meete  about  the  heath,  and  when 
they  have  obteyned  that  they  come  for,  they  sever  themselves  in  the 
like  maner,  and  sum  times  sum  of  them  ride  over  by  Temple  Mill, 
where  I  pray  you  take  likewise  secret  order  with  the  miller  that  he 
woulde  keepe  his  gate  shute  up  in  the  nighte  ;  besides  sumtimes 
they  ride  over  by  Hackney  ;  and  yf  they  doe  discry  any  of  them  that 
I  may  have  notice  thereof,  and  I  double  not  but  to  have  them 
quickly  apprehended,  for  I  have  notice  of  sum  of  their  hauntes. 
And  so,  with  my  commendations  to  your  good  wiffe,  I  will  bid  you 

Lucton  the  i6th  of  October,  1599. 

Your  assured  frende, 


One  of  them  usethe  to  ride  on  a  whit  mare.  Let  them  have  a 
diligent  care  if  they  doe  see  any  such  man.  To  my  verie  loving 
friend  Mr.  Michaell  Hicks,*  at  his  house  at  Duckett  or  elsewhere. 

*  Mr.  Hickes,  afterwards  Sir  Michael  Hickes,  was  Lord  Burghley's  secretary. 

The  old  Manor  House  of  Ducketts,  in  the  parish  of  Tottenham,  and  formerly 
said  to  have  been  in  Hornsey,  still  remains  with  part  of  its  surrounding  moat  ; 
a  fine  old  stone  chimney  piece  of  the  i6th  century,  bearing  the  Tudor  rose  in  the 
centre  of  its  frieze  was  removed  a  few  years  ago,  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of 
J.  W.  Ford,  Esq. 


The  family  of  Wrothe  became  extinct  with  Sir  Henry 
Wrothe,  the  grandson  of  Sir  Thomas,  to  whose  exile, 
during  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  Fuller  again  refers  in 
his  dedication  to  Sir  Henry  of  part  of  his  Church  History. 

"  Hence  it  is  that  I  have  seen  in  your  ancient  house 
"  at  Durance,  the  crest  of  your  armes  (viz.,  a  lion's  head 
"  erased)  with  the  extraordinary  addition  of  sable  wings, 
"  somewhat  alluding  to  those  of  bats,  to  denote  your 
"  ancestour's  dark  and  secret  flight  for  his  safety.  How- 
"  ever,  God  brought  him  home  again  on  the  silver  wings 
"  of  the  dove,  when  peaceably  restoring  him  in  the  dayes 
"  of  Q.  Elizabeth  to  his  large  possessions." 

On  the  death  of  this  Sir  Henry  Wrothe,  in  the  year 
1673,  the  manor  was  sold  by  his  executors  for  the  sum  of 
^8,900,  to  Sir  Thomas  Stringer,  whose  son,  William, 
dying  in  1723,  bequeathed  the  estate  to  his  wife  Margaret, 
daughter  of  Lord  Chancellor  Jeffreys.  After  various 
successive  changes  it  was  purchased  in  1793  by  Newell 
Connop,  Esq.,  in  whose  family  it  still  remains. 

The  Manor  House  stood  on  the  east  side  of  the  high- 
road between  Ponder' s-end  and  Green-street,  but  it  was 
burnt  down  at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  at  a  meeting 
of  tenants  by  imprudently  heaping  logs  on  the  hall  fire. 
The  entrance  was  by  a  large  gateway,  with  a  postern, 
flanked  by  extensive  barns  and  outbuildings,  and 
approached  by  a  bridge  of  one  arch,  across  the  moat 
which  surrounded  it.  Judge  Jeffreys  is  said  to  have 
occasionally  resided  here  with  his  daughter,  and  two  or 


three  portraits  of  him  were  formerly  in  the  picture 
gallery,  one  of  which  was  for  many  years  to  be  seen  at 
the  White  Hart  Inn  at  Ponder's-end,  but  it  has  long 
since  disappeared. 


In  the  reign  of  Hen.  VI.  the  Abbot  of  Thorney  had 
lands  in  this  parish  known  as  Cranes,  which  were  then 
valued  at  seven  marks  per  ann.  In  1686  they  were  the 
property  of  Sir  Thomas  Stringer,  and  they  still  belong  to 
the  Manor  of  Durants. 


The  Manor  of  Elsynge,  or  Norris,  appears  to  have  no 
connexion  beyond  its  name  with  Elsynge  Hall.  It  is  said 
to  have  been  situated  in  Welsh's-lane  (now  Lock-lane),  and 
was  held  of  the  king  in  capite  by  Stephen  Wilforde,  who 
died  in  1547.  The  property  was  sold  in  1708  by  Richard 
Wilforde  to  Robert  Mackeris,  whose  representatives  hold 
one-third,  the  remainder  being  held  by  the  Connop 
family  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield  at  a  fee  farm  rent  of 


The  Manor  of  Suffolks,  also  situated  near  Ponder's 
End,  was,  in  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century,  held 
under  ..the  crown  by  Sir  Richard  Parr,  comptroller  of  the 
household.  In  the  year  1798,  it  was  sold  to  Newell 
Connop,  Esq.,  and  became  merged  in  the  Manor  of 


-MANOR    OF    CAPKl.S. 

Honeylands  and  Pentriches,  alias  Capels,  are  joint 
manors,  and  were  formerly  part  of  the  possessions  of  Sir 
Giles  Capel,  who,  in  exchange  for  other  lands,  conveyed 
them  to  the  crown  in  1547.  Capel  House,  the  residence 
of  James  Warren,  Esq.,  is  situated  at  Bull's  Cross,  near 
the  site  of  the  old  manor  house,  which  along  with  the 
estate  was  sold  by  Queen  Elizabeth  in  1562  to  William 
Home,  merchant,  and  after  passing  through  the  hands  of 
various  successive  purchasers,  became  (in  1793)  the  pro- 
perty of  the  late  Rawson  Hart  Boddam,  Esq.,  some  time 
governor  of  Bombay.  Mr.  Boddam  pulled  down  the  old 
manor  house,  reserving  little  more  than  the  stables,  and 
transferred  its  name  of  Capel  House  to  his  own  villa, 
which  is  said  to  occupy  the  site  of  some  of  the  out-build- 
ings of  the  Palace  of  James  I.  at  Theobalds.  Tradition 
says  that  an  old  cross  formerly  stood  near  this  spot,  from 
which  the  name  of  Bull's  Cross""  is  derived.  The  old 
manor  house  stood  near  a  field  now  called  North  Field, 
where  there  are  still  the  vestiges  of  an  old  garden,  with 
three  remarkable  old  trees — a  willow,  a  plane,  and  a 

Capel  House,  with  its  estate  of  thirty-one  acres,  was 
purchased  in  the  year  1840  by  James  Warren,  Esq.,  the 
uncle  of  the  present  proprietor. 

*  Called  "  Bedell's  Cross"  in  a  conveyance  of  land  to  John  fforde, 
23  Ed.  IV  (1483). 



Enfield  Court  is  the  residence  of  Colonel  Alfred 
Plantagenet  Frederick  Charles  Somerset,  J.P.,  and 
Deputy  Lieutenant.  The  estate,  which  contains  about 
eighty  acres,  is  partly  freehold  and  partly  copyhold  of 
the  Manor  of  Worcesters,  and  was  devised  to  Colonel 
Somerset  by  his  godfather,  the  late  General  Martin.  At 
the  Battle  of  Waterloo,  Lord  John  T.  H.  Somerset  (a 
younger  son  of  the  Duke  of  Beaufort),  then  an  officer  in 
the  23rd  Light  Dragoons,  saved  the  life  of  his  comrade, 
Gen.  Martin,  by  his  gallantry,  and  on  the  birth  of  his 
son  (5  Sept.,  1829),  the  general  undertook  the  office  of 
sponsor,  and  dying  unmarried  in  1852,  left  this  estate 
and  the  bulk  of  his  large  property  to  his  godson. 

•  The  original  structure  dates  from  the  latter  end  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  since  which  time  it  has  received 
many  successive  additions  ;  the  southern  wing  having 
been  rebuilt  by  the  present  owner  in  1864,  at  which  time 
the  grounds  adjoining  the  street  were  planted  ;  the  public 
footpath  which  formerly  ran  between  the  house  and  the 
lawn  being  diverted  with  the  consent  of  the  Vestry, 
and  under  an  order  of  the  Quarter  Sessions.  The  Riding 
House,  which  was  erected  in  1858,  is  a  spacious  building 
63  feet  in  diameter,  and  well  known  to  the  public  from 
the  liberality  with  which  it  has  at  all  times  been 
freely  lent  for  their  use  or  recreation.  The  garden  on 
the  west  front  of  the  house  still  bears  traces  of  having 


been  originally  laid  out  in  the  time  of  William  III.,  with 
its  broad  ten-ace  walk  four  hundred  feet  in  length,  and 
what  were  once  the  clipped  yews  and  hollies  of  the  Dutch 
style  of  gardening.  At  the  bottom  of  this  walk  stands 
the  quaint  and  picturesque  summer-house,  a  small 
building  two  stories  high ;  and  an  oblong  fish-pond, 
crossed  by  a  bridge,  the  remains  of  the  former  canal. 
The  accompanying  engraving  is  copied  from  a  curious  old 
painting  taken  in  the  last  century. 


On  the  west  side  of  the  road  at  Ponder's-end,  opposite 
South-street,  stands  an  ancient  mansion  called  Lincoln 
House,  said  to  take  its  name  from  the  Earls  of  Lincoln,* 
of  whom  Henry  and  Thomas,  the  second  and  third  earls, 
resided  here  from  1600  to  1612.  From  the  arms  which 
were  formerly  in  the  windows  it  appeared  to  have  been 
the  property  of  Henry  Howard  Viscount  Bindon,  and 
afterwards  of  Sir  Thomas  Coventry,  Lord  Keeper,  and  of 
George  Villiers,  first  Duke  of  Buckingham.  The  house 
was  a  buttressed  brick  building,  with  marks  of  great 
antiquity.  Under  one  of  the  windows  between  two  marble 
pillars  there  was  in  1750  a  tablet  inscribed  R.L.  1520. 

*  LYSONS. — Mr.  Gough,  however,  says  that  this  house  was  the 
house  of  the  Bishops  of  Lincoln,  "or  of  that  other  William  of 
"  Wickham,  Bishop  of  that  diocese,  who  was  born  here." 

(Cough's  Camden,  Vol.  it'.,  p.  107 .) 


The  interior  of  the  house,  which  was  very  irregular, 
contained  several  ornamental  ceilings.  The  hall  and 
other  rooms  were  wainscoted,  apparently  of  the  date  of 
James  I.,  and  the  windows  richly  ornamented  with  stained 
glass.  One  of  these  contained  the  arms  of  Howard  with 
seven  quarterings  (gules,  a  bend  between  6  cross  crosslets 
fiche'e  argent)  with  the  supporters  and  crest  of  Howard 
and  a  viscount's  coronet — motto  "  Quod  videri  vis  esto" — 
underneath  "Henry  Howard,  1584."  Another  shield 
bore  "Sable,  a  fesse  ermine,"  between  three  crescents, 
or,  with  the  Coventry  crest,  and  below  "  Thomas 
Coventrye  Miles  Dims  Gustos  magni  sigilli  Angliae 
anno  1627."  On  a  third  was  the  arms  of  Villiers 
quartered  with  Pakeman,  Bellers,  Howby,  and  Kirkby. 
A  great  part  of  the  house  was  burned  down  a  few  years 
ago,  and  has  been  rebuilt. 


Late  the  residence  of  John  Smart,  Esq.,  was  built  by 
William  Bridgen,  of  an  ancient  family  in  Bridgenorth, 
Shropshire,  many  years  Alderman  of  Farringdon  Within. 
He  contested  the  Mayoralty  with  Beckford  in  1761,  when 
the  latter  was  elected.  He  became  Lord  Mayor  in  1764, 
and  died  at  Bridgen  Hall,  October,  1779,  his  death  being 
accelerated  by  attending,  at  the  request  of  his  friend 
John  Wilkes,  the  election  of  Recorder  to  the  City,  when 
he  gave  a  casting  vote  for  Serjeant  Adair.  He  was  buried 
in  the  Parish  Church  of  Enfield,  his  pall  being  supported 



by  six  Aldermen,  the  Recorder  attending  as  chief  mourner. 
His  nephew  Edward  Bridgen,  F.R.S.,  was  treasurer  to  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  married  Martha,  daughter  of 
Richardson,  whom  she  is  said  to  have  assisted  in  writing 
Clarissa.*  Bridgen  Hall  was  for  many  years  the  residence 
of  William  Linwood,  Esq.,  the  brother  of  Miss  Linwood, 
so  justly  celebrated  for  her  "  surile  pictures,"  some  fine 
examples  of  which,  including  a  Madonna  della  Sedia  after 
Raphael,  are  in  the  possession  of  David  Henry,  Esq.,  at 
Forty-hill.  Such  was  the  trouble  taken  by  Miss  Linwood 
to  obtain  the  nice  gradations  of  tone  and  colour,  that  she 
took  her  worsteds  over  to  Paris  to  the  Gobelins  manu- 
factory, and  there  dipped  them  with  her  own  hands  into 
the  different  vats  of  dye  to  ensure  the  exact  shades 
and  tints  which  her  work  required.  These  wonderful 
specimens  of  needlework  comprised  many  copies  from 
old  masters,  some  of  which  had  the  highest  artistic  merit. 
The  most  remarkable  perhaps  was  the  "  Salvator  Mundi," 
from  the  original  by  Carlo  Dolci,  belonging  to  the 
Marquess  of  Exeter.  For  this  work,  said  to  be  the  finest 
copy  in  existence  of  that  celebrated  picture,  the  Emperor 
Alexander  offered  her  three  thousand  guineas.  It  is  now 
in  the  collection  of  Her  Majesty  at  Windsor. 

*  ' '  Mr.  Richardson  is  dead  of  an  apoplexy,  and  his  second 
"daughter  has  married  a  merchant."  20  July,  1762.  Boswell's 
Life  of  Johnson,  vol.  I.  p.  359. 



The  ancient  Roman  Road,  delineated  on  the  old 
country  maps  as  the  ancient  Erm  en-street,  or  military 
road,  led  through  part  of  the  Chase  in  its  passage  to 
Hertford ;  coming  from  Cripplegate,  or  Moorgate,  it 
passed  through  Newington,  thence  through  several  green 
lanes  to  the  east  of  Hornsey,  entered  Enfield  Chase,  and 
proceeded  thence  through  Hatfield  to  Hertford.  This 
was  the  road  by  which  the  Londoners  marched  with  King 
Alfred  at  their  head  against  the  Danes,  in  the  year  895, 
to  a  strong  hold  or  fortification  built  by  them  at  Hertford. 
After  the  low  lands  towards  the  River  Lea  had  been 
drained,  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Edmonton  first 
made  the  road  from  Hornsey  through  Tottenham  and 
Edmonton,  and  so  on  to  Enfield,  whence  it  was  continued 
to  Bull's  Cross,  Hoddesdon,  and  Ware.  "After  the  Barons' 
war  (says  Camden)  against  King  John  was  waxed  hot,  the 
town  of  Ware  turned  London  highway  to  it,  whereas 
before  it  was  but  a  little  village,  and  known  by  a  friery." 

The  public  highways,  staked  out  by  the  Commissioners 
under  the  Act  of  Parliament,  41  George  III.,  chap.  143, 
called  the  "  Enfield  Inclosure  Act,"  of  the  width  of  forty 
feet,  are  Ponder's-end-road,  over  Southbury-field,  the 
East  Barnet-road,  the  Ridgeway-road,  the  Hadley-road, 
Parsonage-road.  New-lane-road,  Theobald's  Park-road, 
and  East  Lodge-road,  &c.,  the  expenses  of  their  formation 
and  repair  for  two  years  being  defrayed  by  the  sale  of 


part  of  the  enclosed  land,  after  which  time  they  were  to 
be  kept  up  and  repaired  by  the  parish.  Such,  however, 
was  the  state  of  these  roads  within  the  last  fifty  years, 'that 
the  late  Lady  Elizabeth  Palk,  who  resided  at  the  Rectory, 
was  accustomed,  when  she  intended  to  call  on  Mrs. 
Elphinstone,  at  East  Lodge,  to  send  out  men  two -or  three 
days  in  advance,  to  fill  the  ruts  with  faggots  to  enable  her 
carriage  to  pass.  Within  living  memory  it  was  possible 
to  travel  from  Hadley  Church  through  Enfield  Chase, 
Epping  and  Hainault  Forests,  to  Wanstead  without  ever 
leaving  the  green  turf,  or  losing  sight  of  forest  land. 

NOTE. — There  are  in  Enfield  3  miles  4  furlongs,  no  yards,  of 
turnpike  roads  which  have  been  thrown,  by  the  late  Act,  upon  the 
parish,  the  repairs  of  which  are  estimated  at  £1,480  per  annum. 


King  Edward  I.  by  a  Charter,  dated  1303,  granted 
licence  to  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  and  his  wife  (Elizabeth, 
Countess  of  Holland  and  the  King's  daughter),  and  their 
heirs,  to  hold  a  weekly  market  on  Mondays,  at  Enfield. 

James  I.,  also,  by  writ  of  Privy  Council,  dated  the 
1 7th  of  April,  1619,  granted  to  certain  parties  therein 
named,  and  their  assigns,  one  market  in  Enfield  every 
Saturday.  It  appears  that  the  latter  grant  established  a 
Court  of  Pie  Poudre,  and  all  liberties,  free  customs,  tolls, 
stallage,  &c.,  a  market-house,  shambles,  shops,  and  stalls, 
in  trust  for  the  poor.  The  site  of  the  market-place,  with 
the  market-house  and  the  profits,  and  the  houses  formerly 
standing  on  the  west  side,  belong  to  the  Parish,  and 
are  vested  in  trustees  for  any  general  use  that  concerns 
the  Town  and  Parish.  The  market,  however,  from  various 
causes,  fell  into  decay;  though  several  attempts  have 
subsequently  been  made  to  revive  it. 

The  present  Market-cross  was  erected  by  subscription 
in  1826,  at  a  cost  exceeding  ^200,  from  the  design  of 
the  late  Mr.  John  Hill. 

The  Market-house  was  formerly  a  wooden  building  of 
an  octagonal  form,  supported  by  eight  columns  and  a 
central  pillar.  There  were  also  a  portable  pillory  and 
stocks  in  the  Market-place,  both  of  which  have  been  long 
removed.  The  present  stocks  are  in  the  iron  railing 
surrounding  the  police  station. 


The  Charter  (of  which  a  translation  is  appended)  also 
granted  a  license  to  hold  two  annual  fairs,  of  three  days 
each,  beginning  respectively  on  the  i4th  of  August  and 
the  zgth  of  November. 

"A.D.  1303,  8th  April, 

3ist  Edward  I.,  at  Lenton. 

"  Edward,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  England, 
Lord  of  Ireland,  Duke  of  Guienne,  to  his  Archbishops, 
Bishops,  Abbotts,  Priors,  Earls,  Barons,  Justices,  Sheriffs, 
Reeves,  Ministers,  and  all  his  Bailiffs  and  faithful  people, 
Know  ye,  That  we  have  granted,  and  by  this  our 
Charter  have  confirmed  unto  our  trusty  and  beloved 
Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex,  and. 
Elizabeth,  Countess  of  Holland,  our  very  dear  daughter, 
his  wife,  that  they  and  the  heirs  of  their  bodies  begotten 
for  ever,  may  have  a  market  every  week,  on  Monday,  at 
their  Manor  of  Enfield,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and 
2  Fairs  there  every  year,  namely,  one  to  last  three  days, 
to  wit : — on  the  eve  and  on  the  day,  and  on  the  morrow 
of  St.  Andrew  the  Apostle;  and  the  other  Fair  to  last 
during  other  three  days,  to  wit : — on  the  eve  and  on  the 
day,  and  on  the  morrow  of  the  Assumption  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  Mary ;  unless  such  markets  and  such  fairs  be  a 
nuisance  of  the  neighbouring  markets  and  neighbouring 
fairs.  Therefore  we  will,  and  strictly  command  for  us  and 
our  heirs,  that  the  said  Humphrey  and  Elizabeth,  and  the 
heirs  of  their  bodies  begotten  for  ever,  shall  have  the 


aforesaid  markets  and  fairs  at  their  Manor  of  Enfield, 
with  all  liberties  and  free  customs,  to  like  markets  and 
fairs  pertaining,  unless  such  markets  and  fairs  be  to  the 
nuisance  of  the  neighbouring  fairs,  as  aforesaid,,  these 
being  witnesses  : — 

The  Venble.  Father  Antony,  Bishop  of  Durham. . 

Th  omas  Earl  of  Lancaster. 

William  de  Castellon. 

Robert  de  la  Warde,  Steward  of  our  Household. 

Eustace  de  la  Hacche. 

Phillip  de  Varney. 

John  de  Merk,  and  others. 

Given  under  our  hands  at  Lenton,  on  the  8th  of  April, 
in  the  jist  year  of  our  reign,  by  the  King  himself. 

Y  de  BROKENFORD,  relating." 

Of  these  the  St.  Andrew's  Fair  was  once  much  cele- 
brated as  a  fair  for  cheese,  immense  quantities  of  which 
were  brought  from  Essex  and  other  places,  but  it  is  now 
chiefly  resorted  to  by  horse  dealers  and  cattle  jobbers. 

The  August  Fair,  which,  from  some  unknown  cause, 
had  latterly  been  held  in  September,  had  long  ceased  to 
answer  any  legitimate  purposes  of  trade,  and  had  become 
a  source  of  immorality  and  disorder,  and  a  growing 
nuisance  to  the  inhabitants.  This  was  so  generally  felt 
that  in  the  year  1868  a  memorial  was  signed  by  100  of 
the  leading  inhabitants  and  tradesmen,  including  the 
names  of  all  the  magistrates,  clergy,  and  ministers,  stating 
the  above  facts,  and  praying  that  such  steps  should  be 


taken  as  were  needful  for  its  suppression.  This  memorial 
was  submitted  to  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  the  Secretary 
of  State,  and  the  Commissioner  of  Metropolitan  Police  ; 
in  consequence  of  which  the  Commissioner  applied  for  a 
summons  to  the  Chief  Steward  to  show  the  right  and  title 
of  the  Duchy  to  hold  such  fair.  Her  Majesty  having 
graciously  waived  any  claims  under  the  supposed 
authority  of  the  Charter,  the  Steward  was  directed  (on 
application  to  the  Duchy),  to  abstain  from  offering  any 
objection  which  might  prevent  the  Justices  from  adjudi- 
cating, and  when  their  judgment  was  pronounced  against 
the  legality  of  the  Fair,  Her  Majesty  was  pleased  to 
acquiese  in  that  decision.  In  consequence  of  this  judg- 
ment, the  following  notice  was  posted  by  the  directions 
of  the  Commissioner : — 


"  Notice  is  hereby  given,  that,  in  pursuance  of  the  Act 
passed  in  the  third  year  of  the  reign  of  Her  Majesty 
Queen  Victoria,  intituled  "  an  Act  for  further  improving 
the  police  in  and  near  the  Metropolis,"  the  Fair  usually 
holden  upon  certain  ground  called  Enfield  Town,  owned 
by  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  and  occupied  by  Edward 
Letchworth,  Chief  Steward  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield,  in 
the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  and  situate  in  the  Parish  of 
Enfield,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  has  been  declared 
unlawful,  and  a  copy  of  the  declaration  by  the  Justices  of 
the  Peace  for  the  district  of  Enfield  to  that  effect  is 


hereunto  subjoined ;  any  attempt,  therefore,  to  hold  such 
Fair  in  future  will  subject  offenders  to  a  penalty  not 
exceeding  ten  pounds,  or  in  default  of  payment  to  three 
months'  imprisonment  in  the  House  of  Correction. 

The  Commissioner  of  Police  of  the  Metropolis. 
Metropolitan  Police  Office, 

4,  Whitehall  Place,  2 ^th  August,  1869." 

COPY    OF    DECLARATION    under   2    and   3    Viet, 

cap.  47,  sec.  39. 

"Whereas  it  hath  been  duly  made  to  appear  to  us, 
James  Meyer,  Edward  Ford,  James  Whatman  Bosanquet, 
and  Henry  Carington  Bowles  Bowles,  Esquires,  four  of 
Her  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace  acting  in  and  for  the 
district  of  Enfield,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  sitting  at 
the  office  for  Petty  Sessions  at  Enfield  Town,  in  the  said 
county  of  Middlesex,  and  within  the  Metropolitan  Police 
District,  that  the  Commissioner  of  Police  of  the  Metropolis 
did  direct  Alexander  Manson,  one  of  the  Superintendents 
belonging  to  the  Metropolitan  Police  Force,  to  summon 
Edward  Letchworth,  the  Chief  Steward  of  the  Manor  of 
Enfield,  in  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  in  the  said  county, 
and  acting  for  the  said  Duchy  of  Lancaster  as  the  owner 
of  certain  ground  called  "  Enfield  Town,"  situate  in  the 
Parish  of  Enfield  in  the  said  county  and  district  aforesaid, 
whereon  a  certain  Fair  called  the  "  Enfield  Fair,"  has 


been  usually  holden  on  the  22nd,  23rd,  and  24th  days  of 
September  in  each  year  without  lawful  authority,  to  show 
the  right  and  title  of  such  owner  to  hold  such  Fair  ;  and 
whereas  on  this  thirteenth  day  of  August,  1869,  Edward 
Letchworth,  the  Chief  Steward  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield, 
in  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  acting  as  such  for  the  said 
Duchy  of  Lancaster  as  the  owner  of  the  said  ground, 
having  been  duly  summoned  to  appear  before  us  this  day, 
as  is  now  proved  before  us  as  having  been  duly  served 
with  the  said  summons  (not  less  than  eight  days  before 
this  day),  and  now  being  duly  called  does  not  appear 
before  us,  the  said  Justices  sitting  in  Petty  Sessions  afore- 
said, in  pursuance  of  the  said  summons,  and  in  that  behalf 
issued,  to  show  the  right  and  title  (if  any)  of  such  owner 
to  hold  the  said  Fair ;  and  we,  the  said  Justices,  having 
heard  the  case,  and  no  sufficient  cause  to  believe  that  the 
said  Fair  has  been  lawfully  holden  having  been  shown  to 
us,  we  do  hereby  declare  such  Fair  altogether  unlawful. 

Given  under  our  hands,  at  the  office  for  Petty  Sessions 
at  Enfield,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  this  thirteenth 
day  of  August,  one  thousand,  eight  hundred  and  sixty-nine. 

(Signed)  JAMES  MEYER. 



Some  little  opposition  was  excited  by  the  publication 
of  this  notice,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to  hold  the  Fair 
as  usual,  when  one  of  the  booth-holders  was  taken  into 


custody.  On  the  hearing  of  the  case,  an  elaborate  judg- 
ment was  pronounced  by  Philip  Twells,  Esq.,  re-affirming 
the  illegality  of  the  Fair,  as  declared  by  the  Justices,  and 
committing  the  defendant  to  one  day's  imprisonment. 
The  defendant  was  accordingly  walked  into  the  cell  at 
the  Station-house,  and  then  liberated. 

This  being  the  last  fair  in  the  Metropolitan  district 
which  was  suppressed  under  the  provisions  of  the  Act, 
some  interest  may  attach  to  this  record  of  the  proceedings, 
which  we  have,  therefore,  given  in  full. 



The  "  Enfield  Races,"  formerly  held  on  the  marshes  at 
the  bottom  of  Green-street,  were  first  established  in  the 
year  1788,  and  on  the  23rd  and  24th  of  September  two 
£$o  plates  were  run  for.  These  races  were  carried  on 
for  some  years,  but  failing  in  interest  they  were  discon- 
tinued after  several  attempts  to  revive  them.  It  was  at 
these  races,  on  September  ist,  1790,  that  the  notorious 
pickpocket,  George  Barrington  (whose  real  name  was 
Waldon),  was  apprehended  for  robbing  Henry  Hare 
Townsend,  Esq.,  of  Bruce  Castle,  Tottenham,  of  a  gold 
watch.  He  was  taken  before  the  Bench  at  the  Angel  at 
Edmonton,  and  committed;  tried  on  the  i6th  September, . 
and  sentenced  to  seven  years  transportation.  Being  a 
man  of  some  education  and  considerable  abilities  he 
became,  after  the  expiration  of  his  sentence,  superintendent 
of  the  convicts,  and  chief  officer  of  the  police  at  Para- 
matta. On  the  opening  of  a  theatre  at  Sidney  in  1796, 
he  composed  the  prologue,  containing  the  well-known 
lines  : — 

True  patriots  all ! — for  be  it  understood 
We  left  our  country  for  our  country's  good  ! 

On  Monday,  October  i2th,  1801,  this  race-course  was 
the  scene  of  an  extraordinary  tumult.  "  The  intended 
battle  between  Belcher  and  Burke,  which  was  to  have 
taken  place  this  day  in  Enfield-marsh,  was  prevented  by 


the  very  proper  interposition  of  Mr.  Ford,*  who  issued  his 
warrant  against  them,  and  on  Sunday  night  Belcher  was 
taken  into  custody  by  Townsend,  the  Bow-street  officer. 
At  an  early  hour  on  the  day  appointed,  the  road  to  Enfield 
was  crowded  with  horses  and  carriages  of  every  descrip- 
tion— hackney  coaches,  loaded  within  and  without,  and 
pedestrians  without  number,  but  more  particularly  the 
refuse  of  London,  many  of  them  armed  with  bludgeons, 
and  by  one  o'clock  it  was  supposed  that  no  fewer  than 
twenty  thousand  had  assembled.  Several  magistrates  of 
the  neighbourhood  attended  with  volunteer  associations, 
and  the  yeomanry  cavalry  of  Hertfordshire,  with  their 
field-pieces,  who  presently  separated"  the  crowd.  The 
scene  of  action  was  then  shifted  into  Waltham-marsh,  in 
Essex,  the  spectators  being  conveyed  over  the  Lea,  where 
they  waited  in  vain,  and  then  began  to  disperse. "- 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  p.  952. 

A  fair  or  meeting  for  gambols  and  rustic  sports  is 
mentioned  by  Dr.  Robinson  as  held  at  Easter  and  Whit- 
suntide (but  now  long  discontinued),  at  "Bull-beggars 
Hole,"  near  the  Rose  and  Crown  at  Clay-hill.  "  Bull- 
beggar"  is  explained  by  Skinner  as  "  larva  manducus," 
(i.e.  hobgoblin).  Scot,  in  his  (i  Discoverie  of  Witchcraft," 
says,  "  They  have  so  fraide  us  with  bull-beggars,  spirits, 
witches,  &c.,  that  we  wereafraide  of  our  owne  shad  owes." 

*  Afterwards  Sir  Richard  Ford,  M.P.,  the  father  of  "Spanish 
Ford,"  well  known  as  an  author  and  contributor  to  the  Quarterly 
Review,  as  well  as  for  his  fine  gallery  of  old  masters,  and  his 
unrivalled  collection  of  majolica  and  rare  porcelain. 



The  Petty  Sessions  are  held  weekly,  on  Friday,  at 
eleven  o'clock,  a.m.,  at  the  Court-house,  in  Enfield.  The 
Bench  consists  of  the  following  Justices,  any  two  of 
whom,  acting  together,  have  jurisdiction  as  a  Police 
Magistrate,  under  the  Metropolitan  Police  Acts: — 



COLONEL  ALFRED  P.  F.  C.  SOMERSET,  Dep.-Lieut. 





The  police  force  in  Enfield  consists,  at  the  present 
time,  of  one  Inspector — Inspector  Robert  Gould ;  four 
Sergeants, — Sergeant  25,  Joseph  Appleford;  Sergeant  441, 
Edwin  Adams  (Enfield  Town);  Sergeant  22,  William 
Macnamara;  Sergeant  32,  William  Coote,  (Enfield  High- 
way), and  thirty-six  Constables ; — one  sergeant  and  two 
constables  being  mounted. 

There  are  two  Police  Stations,  one  at  Enfield,  and  the 
other  at  Enfield  Highway,  and  also  one  at  Potter's  Bar 
which  takes  some  of  the  outlying  parts  of  the  parish 
towards  South  Mimms. 

The  Superintendent,  Mr.  Alexander  Manson,  resides 
at  Kentish  Town  Police  Station,  which  is  the  divisional 
office  of  the  Y  division,  and  with  which  telegraphic 


communication  has  lately  been  established  from  the 
Enfield  Station,  and  messages  can  be  sent  through  the 
Commissioners'  Office,  Scotland  Yard,  to  all  parts  of 
the  Metropolis  within  a  radius  of  fifteen  miles  of 
Charing  Cross. 

A  new  Station  is  now  building  in  the  London  Road, 
the  first  bricks  of  which  were  laid  on  the  27th  March, 
J873,  by  James  Meyer,  Esq.,  J.P.,  the  Rev.  G.  H. 
Hodson,  Vicar,  Mr.  John  Purdey,  Vestry  Clerk,  Inspector 
Gould,  and  Mr.  Creed,  Overseer. 

A  Divisional  Detective,  P.C.  Nathaniel  Aldridge  is 
stationed  at  Enfield. 



The  custom  of  perambulation  is  said  by  Spelman  to 
have  been  of  heathen  origin,  and  to  be  an  imitation  of 
the  feast  called  Terminalia,  which  was  dedicated  to  the 
god  Terminus  as  the  guardian  of  fields  and  landmarks. 
Plutarch  states  that  it  was  originally  instituted  by  Numa 

The  perambulation  of  Enfield  was  made  every  seventh 
year  (though  it  is  doubtful  if  the  custom  is  a  very  old  one) 
the  expenses,  including  "  refreshments,"  being  paid  out  of 
the  Church  Rates.  The  last  perambulation  took  place 
in  January,  1858,  and  after  being  so  long  in  abeyance,  it 
may  be  hoped  that  the  practice  will  not  be  renewed.  The 
publication  of  the  large  Ordnance  Map — which  is  legal 
evidence  of  the  boundaries — has  entirely  superseded  any 
real  benefit  which  may  once  have  attached  to  this 
custom,  too  often  resulting  in  drunkenness  and  serious 
disturbance  of  the  peace. 

It  was  usual  here,  as  in  other  parishes,  to  "  bump " 
adults  and  to  whip  boys  at  different  stations  to  make 
them  remember  the  line  of  boundary.  In  1830,  the 
performers  in  an  adjoining  parish  bumped  an  unlucky 
angler  whom  they  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Lea,  for 
which,  however,  he  brought  an  action,  and  obtained  ,£50 
damages.  In  Chelsea  the  authorities  seem  to  have  been 
more  considerate,  the  churchwardens'  books  (1679) 


containing  the  entry,  "  Given  to  the  boys  that  were 
whipt  45.'* 

The  following  details  are  taken  from  the  plan  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Purdey,  the  Vestry  Clerk. 

I.— Beginning  at  the  bridge,  near  the  nine-mile  stone,  in  -the 
London  Road  called  the  red  bridge: 

2. — From  the  red  bridge  over  the  pales  in  a  bevel  line  to  the 
cross  in  Mr.  Moorat's  garden  wall  over  the  same,  from  thence 
through  the  garden  over  the  second  wall,  and  continue  along  the 
second  garden  to 

3. — An  oak  with  a  cross  at  the  edge  of  the  New  River;  cross  the 
river,  and  in  a  bevel  line  along  Grove  field  to 

4. — The  oak,  with  a  cross  adjoining  to  the  stile  leading  from 
the  grove  to  the  river  ;  from  thence  along  the  hedge  of  Mr.  Carr's 
field  and  little  orchard,  and  in  front  of  Mr.  Ford's  house  through 
the  long  pond  to 

5. — An  old  horn-beam  stump,  with  a  cross  along  the  hedge  of  the 
wood  to  the  brook  ;  cross  the  same,  and  along  the  bank  to 

6 — A  cross  in  the  ground,  where  a  beech  tree  with  a  cross  formerly 
stood;  then  westward  to  a  small  oak  in  the  hedge  with  a  cross: 
continue  along  the  hedge  to  a  sallow  ; 

7-  — Then  southward  to  a  cross  in  a  small  oak  in  the  brook :  along 
the  brook  to 

8. — Green  Dragon-lane  ;  along  Old  Park  hedge  to 

9. — Filcap's  gate,  a  cross  in  the  gate-post  :  continue  along  the 
hedge  of  the  Old  Park  to 

10. — The  corner  of  Mr.  Clayton's  allotment  of  thirty  acres  :  along 
south-west  hedge  to 

ii. — The  Edmonton  fence,  dividing  the  Enfield  and  Edmonton 
commons :  along  the  fence  to 

12. — Cross  the  road  to 

I3-— The  gate  and  rails  parting  the  two  commons;  along  the 
Enfield  fence  to 


14- — The  comer  of  the  tythe  allotment  in  a  straight  line  to 

15. — Part  of  South-lodge  allotment,  being  the  cow-house,  yard, 
&c. ;  cross  the  road  in  a  straight  line  to  • 

16. — A  cross  in  South-lodge  fence  ;  along  the  north-east  fence  to 

17. — The  end  of  the  old  inclosure;  along  the  fence  of  the  new 
inclosure  to  (a  cross' in  post  the  corner  offence)  at 

18. — From  thence  to  the  corner  ;  at 

19. — And  from  thence  to  the  old  inclosure  (a  cross  in  an  oak  and 
a  cross  in  post  the  corner  offence);  to 

20. — Along  the  old  fence  to 

21. — The  beginning  of  the  other  new  intake  directly  opposite 
the  Sheep's-head,  Temple  ;  along  the  new  fence,  and  across  gravel- 
pit-pond  to 

22. — From  thence  along  the  fence  until  you  come  opposite  to 

23. — The  corner  of  tythe  allotment  ;  cross  the  road  to  No.  23. 
(By  this  means  the  whole  of  the  South-lodge  and  inclosures  are, 
perambulated) ;  along  the  tythe  fence  to 

24. — About  four  feet  on  the  outside  of  Mr.  Bevan's  park  pales  ; 
continue  in  a  straight  line  westward  along  Russel's  riding  to 

25. — From  thence  southward  along  the  fence  joining  to  Edmonton 
common,  in  a  south  direction  to 

26. — And  from  thence  along  the  fence  to 

27. — The  old  Chase  hedge  ;  along  same  to  a  cross  in  gate  post  by 
the  side  of  the  road  leading  from  Southgate  to  Potter's-bar  ;  cross 
the  road  into  Lord  Feversham's  shrubbery  ;  across  same  to  a  cross 
in  an  oak  over  the  garden  pales,  to  a  cross  in  post  of  the  fence  over 
the  same  wall  in  a  straight  line  to  the  opposite  fence  ;  over  same, 
and  over  the  brick  walls  into  the  kitchen  garden  to  a  post  E.  P.  28  ; 
then  cross  through  the  kitchen  garden  door  to  an  elm,  and  over  the 
centre  of  the  grass  plat  in  front  of  Lord  Feversham's  house;  along 
the  fence  of  Lord  Feversham's  garden  to  a  cross  in  the  post  at  the 
end  of  the  fence  ;  over  the  pales  across  the  field  in  a  bevil  line  to  a 
cross  in  the  post  at  the  corner  E  P  ;  along  the  pale  fence  to 


-  28. — A  bend  in  Mr.  Barne's  pales  over  the  same  in  a  straight  line 
to  the  north-east  corner  of  his  house,  and  over  the  lawn  to  a 
post  E.P. 

29.— Cross  over  the  pales,  and  the  road  to 

30. — From  thence  in  a  straight  line  across  Mr.  Alexander's  field  to 
post  E.  P. 

31. — Over  the  pales  and  wall,  and  thro'ugh 

32. — His  south-west  corner  window  of  his  house,  and  out  at  the 
opposite  one  ;  then  in  a  straight  line  to 

33. — A  cross  in  a  post  No.  33  in  the  field  ;  along  the  field  to  the 
ditch  ;  along  the  same  to 

34. — A  cross  in  post  No.  34,  from  thence  in  a  straight  line  over 
the  hedge  to  No.  35  ;  through  the  pond  and  yard  of  Mr.  Wragg's  to 
the  garden  fence  and  post  36  ;  by  a  pale  fence  across  the  garden 
over  the  wall  into  the  yard  ;  through,  the  same,  over  the  wall  into 
the  garden,  across  the  lawn,  to  a  cross  in  the  plate  and  through  Mr. 
Frank's  offices,  towards  a  cross  in  a  stone  in  the  garden  wall ;  along 
the  back  front  of  the  house  over  the  late  Mr.  Idle's  fences  to 

37. — A  cross  on  a  post  by  the  barn  in  the  front  of  the  house  J 
over  the  same,  and  across  his  yards  to 

38. — A  cross  on  the  shed  belonging  to  the  Cock  ;  over  same,  to  a 
post  No.  39  ;  cross  the  yard,  take  in  part  of  the  pond,  then  by  the 
side  of  Nixon's  cottage  fence  ;  along  Mr.  Parker's  field  to  No.  40  ; 
to  an  ash  tree  in  the  corner  of  the  garden  ;  along  the  field  fence  to  a 
post  No.  4!  ;  continue  round  the  field  to  a  post  No.  42  ;  cross  over 
the  road  in  a  line  northward  to  a  cross  in  the  ground  by  the  stile 
near  to  Mr.  Cater's  park  (by  which  you  take  in  a  piece  of  ground 
which  lays  open  to  Hadley  common,  which  is  also  claimed  by  that 
parish);  along  the  fence  westward  to  the  bend 

43. — Then  over  Mr.  Cater's  park  pales,  in  a  bevil  line,  to  a  stake 
by  the  corner  of  the  pond 

44. — A  cross  the  great  pond  north-westward  to  the  grip 

45-  — Then  in  the  contrary  direction  to  a  post  in  a  hedge  to 


46.  — The  park  pales ;  continuing  along  the  same  to  the  point 
47- — Then  by  the  gate  to 

48.— Adjoining  the  north  of  Camlot  way  (part  of  Enfield  is  sur- 
rounded by  Mimms  and  Hadley  parishes);  from  48  continue  along 
the  east  part  of  the  south  fence  of  the  allotment  to  the  Minister  of 
Hadley  (which  is  in  Hadley  parish),  to  the  south-east  corner  of 
Mount-pleasant  inclosures  at 
49. — Here  the  parish  of  Enfield  begins  again. 
From  thence  to  50,  51,  and  52,  which  are  the  different  angles  'of 
the  fences  belonging  to  Mount-pleasant  inclosures,  the  whole  of 
which  are  in  the  parish  of  Enfield.  You  now  go  along  the  west  part 
of  the  south  fence  of  the  allotment  to  the  Minister  of  Hadley  (which 
is  in  Hadley  parish),  till  you  come  to 

S3- — The  east  corner  of  the  south  fence  of  the  late  Mr.  Nutting's 
field  ;  along  the  garden,  from  thence  to  a  post  ;  then  to 
54. — The  pond  ;  cross  the  same,  and  in  a  straight  line  to 
55- — The  drain  along  the  hedge  through  the  late  Mr.  Nutting's 
second  garden,  the  late  Rev.  Mr.  Garrow's,   and  Colonel  Dury's 
fields  to 

56. — The  garden  wall  of  the  late  Colonel  Dury  ;  over  the  same, 
and  in  a  bevil  line  to 

57. — The  north  wall  of  the  garden  ;  over  the  same  to 
58. — Cross  the  line  to  a  barn  (now  nearly  clown),  cross  the  garden 
where  the  mill  formerly  stood,  to  the  corner  of  the  garden  at 

59. — Along  the  footpath  in  the  front  of  the  Windmill  and  Two 
Brewers  alehouses  to 

60. — The  corner  of  the  old  fence  now  adjoining  to  the  allotment 
for  Old  Fold  Manor  ;  along  the  fence  to 
61. — Round  the  corner  to  the  angle  at 
62. — Then  along  the  fence  adjoining  to  an  allotment  to 
63. — The  end  of  that  allotment ;    round  the  fence  adjoining  to  the 
Minister  of  Hadley's  allotment  to  No.  53  (where  you  begun);    this 
and  Dr.   Green's  are  all  that  are  in  the  parish  of  Enfield,  and  are 


wholly  surrounded  by  the  parishes  of  Hadley  and  South  Mimms. 
From  53  you  come  to  52,  along  the  south  fence  to  Mount-pleasant, 
back  to  48,  the  north  corner  of  the  gate  of  Camlet  way,  across  the., 
field  northward  to 

64. — Along  the  fence  to 

65. — And  from  thence  along  the  fence  to  the  road  leading  to 
Gannick  corner,  at 

66. — Along  the  fence  adjoining  the  road  to  the  gate. 
67. — Cross  at  the  gate  to  a  cross  in  an  oak  tree. 
68.  — Along  the  bevil  fence  to 
69. — Then  in  a  straight  direction  to 

70. — In  the  road  from  Cattle-gate  ;  cross  the  road  eastward  to  the 
angle  at 

71. — From  thence  along  the  north  side  of  the  road  by 
72. — Near  Cooper's-lane  to    73,  to  the  late    Mr.    Hammond's, 
Potter's-bar  ;  from 

73. — The  small  garden,  cross  the  yard  and  garden  to  a  cross  in 
his  pales 

74. — Then  to  the  corner  of  the  field  at 

75.  — An  old  oak  pollard  tree  in  the  county  ditch  along  the  ditch 
to  Cooper's-lane  gate ;   cross  the  road  and  down  the  ditch  to  71  ; 
from  thence  along  the  ditch  to 
76.—  Cattle-gate. 

A  cross  in  Cattle-gate,  over  the  hedge  and  across  the  pond  ;  along 
the  shire  ditch  to  a  post  under  the  window  of  Mr.  Millard's  stable, 
through  same,  over  a  shed,  through  the  second  shed,  along  the  fence 
to  a  post  E.P.,  into  a  field  along  the  same. 

A  cross  in  an  oak,  then  across  a  little  pond,  a  post  E.P.,  to  the 
lane  leading  to  Mr.  Pulley's  fields,  to 

A  cross  in  an  oak  along  Shire-ditch  to  the  straight  lane  to 
A  cross  in   Mr.   Pulley's  wall  by  the  front  door  ;  in  at  the  door, 
and  out  at  the  opposite  door,  over  the  corner  of  the  wall  to 


A  cross  on  an  elm  tree  stump  at  the  bottom  of  Mi.  Pulley's  field, 
a  post  No.  57  to 

A  cross  in  an  ash  pojlard,  to  a  pos.t  E.P., 

A  cross  in  an  horn-beam  over  the  hedge  ;  continue  along  same  to 
a  post,  and 

A  cross  in  an  oak  ;  from,  thence  in  a  bevil  line  across  the  field  to 
a  post  in  the  hedge,  and  a  cross  in  an  oak  pollard  over  the  same 
hedge  ;  across  the  lane  to  a  cross  on  an  elm  tree  in  fence,  into  Mr. 
Gray's  first  field  in  a  straight  line  to  a  post  at  the  bottom  thereof,  by 
a  small  ash  over  the  hedge  across  the  meadow  to 
,  A  cross  on  a  small  oak  post  over  the  fence  ;  along  the  fence  to  a 
cross  in  the  oak  pojlard  in  the  fence  to 

A  cross  on  a  small  oak  in  late  Sloman's  field,  to  a  post. 

A  cross  in  a  small  oak  in  the  straight  row  to 

A  cross  in  the  same  row  to  a  mark  on  an  oak  pollard  going  into 
the  lane  ;  cross  the  lane  over  the  hedge  to 

A  cross  in  an  oak  to 

A  cross  in  a  post,  and  along  in  a  straight  line  to  an  oak  in  latc 
Mr.  Goring's  first  field,  to 

A  cross  in  post,  in  second  field,  to 

A  cross  in  post  in  the  said  field,  at  the  corner,  over-  the  hedge  in 
a  bevil  line  to  a  post  in  the  field,  by  the  gate  at  the  bottom  of  the 
lane  leading  from  White-webbs  to  Mr.  Goring's. 

A  cross  in  the  gate-post ;  cross  the  lane  to  a  post  in  the  opposite 
field  to 

A  cross  in  an  horn-beam  in  a  nook,  to 

A  cross  in  the  post  at  the  end  of  the  field  over  the  hedge,  to 

A  cross  in  the  post ;  cross  the  field  in  a  bevil  line  to 

A  cross  in  the  post,  and  at  a  cross  in  an  oak  pollard  ;  then  turn 
to  the  right  about  ten  yards,  and  then  turn  to  the  left,  continue 
along  the  south  side  of  the  fence  of  the  field  to 

A  cross  in  a  post ;  then  along  the  fence  to  a  post  at  the  comer  of 
the  field  over  the  hedge,  along  the  fence  to 

A  cross  in  the  ground  to  a  post. 

Along  the  fence  to  a  cross  in  an  oak  pollard  in  the  fence  ;  along 
the  same  to 

A  cross  in  an  oak  pollard,  and 

A  cross  in  post  at  the  corner  of  the  field  over  the  hedge,  along  the 
fence  to 

A  cross  iiv  an  elm  tree  over  the  little  pond  to 
.  A  cross  in  post  in  the  next  field,  along  the  fence  to 

A  cross  in  an  elm  tree  in  the  corner. 

A  cross  in  the  pales  in  Hullock's  lane  near  by  the  stile,  up  the 
ditch  across  the  river  to  the  sluice,  along  the  county  drain,  the 
middle  of  the  shire  ditch  field,  or  Rushey  meadow  to 

A  cross  in  the  post  by  the  waste  gate  near  a  bridge,  dividing  Mr. 
Prescott's  and  Mr.  English's  fields,  to  a  post  with 

A  cross,  then  to 

A  cross  in  a  post,  to 

A  cross  in  a  post  over  the  hedge,  and  along  the  fence  to 

A  cross  in  an  oak  pollard  j  continue  along  the  fence  to 

A  cross  in  an  ash,  along  the  ditch  to 

A  cross  in  an  elm  near  the  corner  of  the  house  to 

A  cross  on  the  wall  of  the  farm  buildings  of  the  late  Richard 
Dyson,  south  of  and  near  to  the  Waltham-cross  turnpike  gate. 

A  cross  in  a  post  in  the  road  near  the  garden  pales  j  cross  the 
road  through  the  late  Mr.  Plume's  premises  to  corner  of  the  house 
and  garden  to  a  post  E. P., 

A  cross  in  an  elm  tree  in  the  fence,  along  the  same  to  a  cross  on  a 
tree  in  the  second  field  ;  along  the  fence  to  a  cross  in  an  oak  pollard 
over  the  hedge  j  along  county  ditch  to  a  dyke  j  cross  over  the  same  j 
along  shire  ditch  to  Cheshunt  boundary  post  by  the  side,  of  Ches- 
hunt  mill  river  ;  over  river  into  Ramney-marsh,  then  northward 
along  the  eastern  bank  of  the  said  river  to  the  north  fence  of  the  late 
Mr.  Johnson's  allotment  adjoining  Cheshunt  parish  ;  along  the  said 
fence  eastward  to  the  new  cut ;  cross  over  same  into  Little  Ramney 


Marsh,  and  round  the  same  to  the  entrance  of  the  new  cut  into  the 
river  Lea  ;  across  the  new  cut,  along  the  western  bank  of  the  river 
Lea  in  a  southward  direction  to  the  union  of  the  Cheshunt  and 
Enfield  mill  rivers  with  the  river  Lea  ;  cross  same  and  continue  along 
the  western  bank  of  the  river  Lea  to  the  Government  foundery  of 
small  arms  ;  through  the  same  in  the  direction  of  the  Old  Barge- 
river,  by  the  back  part  of  Mr.  Gunner's  residence,  and  continue 
along  the  said  river,  taking  in  a  small  island,  No.  1422,  to  a  house 
formerly  the  King's  Head,  now  belonging  to  Mr.  Beckett,  continuing 
southerly  along  the  said  river  to  the  south  boundary  fence  of  the 
marsh,  dividing  Chingford-marsh  from  the  allotment  to  Trinity 
College  in  South  marsh  ;  along  the  said  fence  westwardly  and  south- 
westwardly  to  Mar  Dyke  ;  along  Mar  Dyke  (which  is  taken  into  the 
parish),  to  the  Mill  river  over  the  same  ;  along  the  fence  of  land  late 
belonging  to  Mrs.  Nash  to  the  lock  of  the  new  cut  over  the  same  ; 
along  the  fence  of  the  allotments  of  the  late  Mrs.  Nash  and  the  late 
Matthew  Robinson,  and  the  old  inclosure  of  Mr.  William  Allington, 
into  the  turnpike-road  from  London  to  Ware  (which  fence  from  the 
Mill  river  to  the  said  turnpike-road  is  bounded  on  the  south  by 
Edmonton),  cross  the  turnpike-rood,  along  the  fences  of  the  allot- 
ments of  the  late  William  Mellish,  Esq.,  in  west  field  and  Haydon's 
field  to  the  old  inclosure  of  the  late  Mr.  Mellish,  called  Bradley 
Moor  ;  along  the  fence  of  the  same  to  the  allotment  of  the  late  Mr. 
Mellish  in  Joan  Potter's  field  ;  along  the  fence  into  the  park  of  the 
late  Mr.  Mellish  ;  cross  the  great  pond ;  then  to  the  red  bridge  in  the 


There  are  fewer  antiquities  and  traditions  of  interest 
connected  with  Enfield  than  might  have  been  expected 
in  a  place  of  such  ancient  repute,  whose  annals  record  so 
many  distinguished  and  historical  names. 

In  addition  to  those  given  in  the  general  history,  the 
following  may  be  briefly  mentioned. 

On  the  south  side  of  Nag's  Head-lane,  near  Ponder's- 
end,  is  a  deep  well,  probably  the  brick  conduit  noted  in 
Ogilby's  roads  1698,  and  known  by  the  name  of  Tim 
Ringer's  Well — (King's  Ring  Well,  2076  in  the  ordnance 
map), — which  was  formerly  considered  infallible  as  a 
remedy  for  inflammation  of  the'  eyes.  Dr.  Robinson 
alludes  to  a  tradition  that  a  convent  or  old  religious 
house  once  stood  here,  but  he  was  unable  to  obtain  any 
-accurate  information. 

There  is  a  small  square  moat — (1876  in  the  ordnance 
map) — surrounding  a  mound  covered  with  trees,  about 
half-an-acre  in  extent,  to  the  south-west  of  the  town,  near 
Old  Park  Farm,  but  its  history  is  unknown.  A  coin  of 
Antoninus  Pius  was  found  here. 

In  September,  1820,  an  earth ern  vessel  containing 
about  seventy  silver  and  brass  coins  of  different  Roman 
emperors,  was  ploughed  up  in  Carterhatch-lane.  In  a 
gravel  pit  in  Broomfield,  human  bones,  nails,  coins,  and 
small  earthenware  vessels,  have  been  frequently  found, 
and  in  1816  several  Roman  urns  and  skeletons  were 


discovered.  The  fragments  of  a  Roman  As,  a  fibula  or 
buckle,  and  some  nondescript  pieces  of  bronze,  were  dug 
up  about  twenty  years  ago  in  cutting  a  drain  through  the 
fosse  of  the  old  encampment  at  Old  Park,  and  at  the 
same  time  a  broken  "  quern,"  or  handmill  for  grinding 
corn,  made  of  a  fine  breccia,  or  "  pudding  stone." 

In  Windmill  Field  large  painted  tiles  have  at  different 
times  been  turned  up  by  the  plough,  and  also  some 
sepulchral  urns,  in  one  of  which  were  found  three  gold 

In  1755  Sir  P.  Thompson  sent  to  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  a  supposed  Pyx*  for  the  Host,  curiously 
enamelled,  which  was  found  in  digging  a  pond.  A  few 
years  ago  a  beautiful  and  very  perfect  bottle  of  Roman 
glass  was  found  at  Forty  Hill,  in  making  some  excavations 
in  the  grounds  of  David  Henry,  Esq. 


Above  a  century  ago  a  very  mysterious  affair  happened 
in  that  part  of  Enfield  known  as  the  Wash,  which 
caused  great  excitement  in  the  country.  The  circum- 
stances are  here  briefly  stated : — Elizabeth  Canning, 
a  servant  girl,  had  been  on  a  visit  to  her  uncle,  and  on 

*  Possibly  the  "pyxt"  mentioned  in  the  subsequent  inventory  of 
Church  goods. 


her  return  in  the  evening  was  attacked,  in  Moorfields, 
by  two  men,  who  robbed  her,  and  gave  her  a  blow 
which  made  her  insensible  ;  they  aftenvards  dragged  her 
along  the  high  road  until  they  came  to  the  house  of  one 
Mother  Wells,  at  Enfield-wash,  where,  she  said,  one  Mary 
Squires,  an  ugly  old  gypsy,  confined  her  in  a  room 
after  being  shut  up  there  twenty-eight  days,  and  fed  upon 
nothing  but  bread  and  water,  she  at  length  effected  her 
escape.  On  arriving  in  London  she  told  her  tale  to  two 
gentlemen,  with  whom  she  had  lived  as  servant ;  she 
made  a  deposition  before  a  magistrate,  but  omitted  many 
circumstances  she  had  mentioned  before,  and  added  many 
others,  stating  that  she  had  been  robbed  in  Wells's  house 
by  a  travelling  gypsy,  and  that  Virtue  Hall,  a  young 
girl,  stood  by  while  her  stays  were  cut  off. 

In  consequence  of  these  charges,  Squires,  Wells,  and 
Hall  were  apprehended.  Hall  was  discharged,  but 
Squires  was  committed  for  the  robbery,  and  Wells  for 
aiding  and  abetting.  Hall  was  again  apprehended  on  a 
warrant  obtained  from  Mr.  Justice  Fielding,  who,  after  six 
hours'  examination,  not  giving  credit  to  her  story,  was 
about  to  commit  her,  when  she  begged  to  be  heard,  and 
said  she  would  tell  the  whole  truth,  the  substance  of 
which  was  that  Canning  had  been  robbed  at  Wells's 
•  house,  as  she  declared.  On  this  Squires  and  Wells  were 
brought  to  trial  at  the  Old  Bailey,  and  convicted  on  the 
evidence  of  Hall.  Wells  was  sentenced  to  be  burned  in 
the  hand  and  imprisoned,  and  Squires  to  be  hanged. 


Canning's  story  was  considered  so  extraordinary  and 
inconsistent  in  so  many  points,  that  many  persons  were 
of  opinion  that  it  was  an  imposition  altogether.  After  the 
trial,  new  matter  of  suspicion  arose,  and  in  the  course  of 
further  inquiries,  before  the  Lord  Mayor,  ample  evidence 
was  obtained  of  the  innocence  of  Squires,  and  the  guilt  of 
Canning  for  perjury.  The  result  of  these  enquiries  was 
laid  before  the  King,  who  referred  the  whole  matter  to 
the  Attorney  and  Solicitor-General  (Sir  Dudley  Ryder 
and  the  Earl  of  Mansfield,  then  William  Murray,  Esq.) 
and,  from  the  weight  of  evidence  adduced,  they  obtained 
His  Majesty's  pardon  for  Squires,  and  Wells  was  dis- 
charged. Canning  was  then  arraigned  at  the  Old  Bailey, 
and  took  her  trial  on  a  charge  of  wilful  and  corrupt 
perjury,  which  lasted  seven  days,  when  the  alibi  of 
Squires  was  proved  by  one  of  the  most  extraordinary 
chains  of  evidence  ever  brought  before  a  court  of 
justice.  Canning  was  found  guilty  and  sentenced  to  one 
month's  imprisonment  and  seven  years'  transportation. 

Such  is  the  summary  of  a  story  which  divided  the 
country  into  two  parties,  called  the  Egyptians  and  the 
Canningites.  Canning's  was,  however,  the  popular  party, 
and  the  mob  was  zealously  attached  to  her  interest ; 
violent  outrages  occurred ;  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sir  Thomas 
Rawlinson,  was  insulted,  and  his  windows  broken,  and 
even  his  life  threatened.  Several  hundred  pounds  were 
subscribed  by  the  friends  and  partisans  of  Canning  pre- 
viously to  her  leaving  for  America,  whither  she  was 


allowed  to  transport  herself,  which  enabled  her  to  form  a 
very  advantageous  matrimonial  alliance  with  a  planter 
there  ;  she  died  about  the  year  1773. 

The  proceedings  in  this  extraordinary  trial  lasted  from 
January  2,  1753,  to  May  30,  1754,  and  such  was  the 
public  interest  excited,  that  upwards  of  40  volumes  and 
pamphlets  were  published  on  the  subject. 

It  is  singular  that  there  should  have  been  no  haunted- 
house  in  the  parish.  "  Formerly  (says  Bourne  in  his 
antiquities)  almost  every  place  had  one.  If  a  house  was 
built  in  a  melancholy  situation,  or  in  some  old  romantic 
manner,  or  if  any  particular  accident  had  happened  in  it, 
a  murder  or  a  sudden  death,  or  such  like,  to  be  sure  that 
house  had  a  mark  set  on  it,  and  it  was  afterwards 
esteemed  the  habitation  of  a  ghost."  The  most  diligent 
enquiry  has  been  unsuccessful  in  tracing  the  vestige  of 
one  here,  though  the  Chase  was  formerly  notorious  as 
the  residence  of  witches. 

The  Witch  of  Edmonton,  in  the  fine  drama  of  Ford 
and  Dekker,  was  a  true  story,  and  the  unfortunate  old 
woman,  who  was  condemned  and  executed  for  witchcraft 
in  1622,  was  a  denizen  of  the  Chase. 

It  is  a  pity  that  the  name  of  the  sensible  and  kind- 
hearted  magistrate*  who  endeavoured  to  save  her,  and 
whose  better  judgment  puts  the  good  Sir  Matthew 
Hale  to  shame,  should  not  have  been  preserved. 

*  Perhaps  "  Mr.  Justice  Clark,"  who  took  bail  for  the  "conjurer." 


In  the  year  1590  a  gang  seems  to  have  been  discovered 
"squatting"  on  the  south  borders  of  the  Chase,  when  they 
were  dislodged  by  a  hue  and  cry.  The  constable  having 
"  comraaunded "  the  servants  of  Sir  Humphrey  Weld 
(afterwards  Lord  Mayor,  and  the  father  of  Sir  John 
Weld,  of  Arno's-grove,  who  built  and  endowed  the 
Church  at  Southgate),  and  being  accompanied 
with  bloodhounds,  "  and  many  moe,  made  serche 
"for  certen  men  which  were  about  the  arte  of 
"  witchcrafte  or  conjuringe."  The  descriptive  catalogue 
of  their  apparatus  is  too  curious  to  be  omitted.  Having 
succeeded  in  capturing  one  of  them,  "  with  certen  lattyn 
"boqkes  aboute  him,  which  are  to  be  sene,  and  he  being 
"  carried  to  the  constable's  house  and  there  kept,  we,  with 
"  divers  others,  retorned  to  their  cabbyn,  which  they  had 
"  made  under  a  great  tree,  with  certen  cirkells  on  the 
"  ground  within  the  said  cabbin,  and  one  of  the  said 
"cirkells  was  laid  about  with  parchment  written  uppon 
"  with  crosses,  and  by  the  said  cabbyn  we  found  a  stoole 
"  with  divers  pottes  by  the  same  stoole,  and  a  redd  cock 
"  beinge  dead  by  it,  and  againste  the  said  stoole  a  fayre 
"  cristall-stone  with  this  word  (j$aih<Ut)  written  on  yt. 
"  Also  a  parchment  writinge  with  three  or  four  scales  of 
"  yellowe  waxe  at  the  same.  We  founde  also  in  the  same 
"  cabbyn  a  cope,  a  sirpler,  a  crowne,  a  scepter  gilt,  and  a 
"fair  broad  sword  ready  drawen,  being  set  upp  against 
"  the  tree,  and  diverse  other  bookes  and  writinges,  and  a 
"  pece  of  brasse  gilded,  with  diverse  letters  graven  uppon 
"  it,  and  powders  and  rattes-bane,  whiche  the  parti  e  that 


"  fled  strawed  in  the  waye,  disappointinge  thereby  our 
"  bloudd-hounde.  And  the  partie  which  we  tooke,  had 
"  about  him  the  picture  of  Christe  on  the  Crosse, 
"  hanginge  behinde  his  back  under  his  doublet,  and  on 
"the  same  stringe before  him,  the  picture  .of  serpentes  or 
"  such  like.  And  the  said  partie  was  brought  by  the 
"  constable  before  Mr.  Justice  Clark,  to  be  examined,  and 
"  we  understand  that  the  said  conjurer  is  let  goe,  uppon 
"  suerties  to  answere  the  same  at  the  next  Sessions." 

["  Information  taken  touchinge  certeine  conjurers. 
"  Septem.  21,  1590."  From  the  Domestic  Series,  State 
Paper  Office.] 

The  following  inventory  of  Church  goods  is  taken  from 
the  Public  Records  in  the  Augmentation  Office. 

[Church  Goods,  Middlesex,  Miscellaneous  Book, 
No.  498.  Hundred  de  Ossulstone.] 

The  certificate  and  presentment  of  the  jury  of  all  the 
goods,  plate,  ornaments,  Juells  and  Bells,  belonging  and 
appteyning  to  the  Churche  of  Enfylde,  w'hin  the  Countie 
of  Middx,  as  well  conteyned  w'hin  the  Inventory  taken 
by  the  King's  Maties  Comyssyoners,  as  also  other  -goods 
belongyng  to  the  same  Churche  at  this  present  third  daye 
of  August  in  the  vjth  yere  of  the  reigne  of  or  sovereigne 
Lorde  King  Edward  the  vjth  by  the  grace  of  God  King 
of  England  ffraunce  and  Ireland,  defender  of  the  faith, 
and  in  erthe  of  the  Churche  of  England  and  also  of 
Ireland  the  Supreme  head. 

Enfylde. — 


Imprimis  one  Crosse  of  sylver  and  gilte  p'sell  of  berall, 
conteyning  in  weyght  liiij.  ouncs. 

Item,  in  other  platte  as  chalessis,  sensers,  ^  the   number 

a  pyxt  and  a  paxe,  conteyning  in  weight  >  °  chahsses 
1 '  I  and  censers 

vnj  owncs  and  v.  J   uncerteine. 

Item,  a  vestment  deacon  and  subdeacon  wth  the  cope 
of  tynsall  coller  yellow,  the  forest  of  imagery  worke 
wrote  wth  the  nedle  with  sylke  and  gold. 

Item,  a  vestment  decon  and  subdeacon  wlh  the  cope  of 
crymsen  velvet  the  offerace*  of  blevve  velvet. 

Item,  a  vestment  of  blacke  velvet  the  deacon  and  sub- 
deacon  of  blacke  sylke  wth  blewe  bokelyd  gartyers. 

Item,  a  vestment  of  blewe  damaske,  wrought  wl  tynsall, 
and  a  cope  of  blewe  damaske,  the  offeras  redd  velvet. 

Item,  a  cope  of  sade  yellowe  sylke,  full  of  ymagery 
Worke  of  golde. 

Item,  a  vestment  of  redde  sylke  and  one  deacon  wlh 
twoo  copes  of  the  same  full  of  flowers. 

Item,  a  cope  of  white  sylke  and  a  vestment  of  the  same 
wthout  any  abbe,  stoll  or  phanell.t 

Item,  a  blewe  velvet  vestment. 

Item,  a  cope  of  blewe  velvet. 

Item,  a  cope  of  blewe  satten  of  Bryghes  vvh  flowers. 

Item,  a  vestment  of  blacke  chamlett. 

*  Orfrays,  gold  embroidery  (Chaucer). 

t  Fannel — a    maniple, — a    scarf  worn    about    the    left   arm   of  a 
priest,— \Phillips,  —  World  of  Words.'} 


Item,  t\voo  vestments  of  \vhyte  bustyen. 

Item,  a  vestement  of  deacon  and  sub-deacon  of  sylke 
of  dyvers  colors,  the  offeras  of  redde  velvet. 

Item,  a  vestment  deacon  and  subdeacon  of  sylke  and 
dyvers  colors,  the  offeras  of  grene,  redde,  and  whyte  velvet 
wth  barrys  of  gold. 

Item,  a  vestement  of  blewe  chaungeable  sylke  the  offeras 
of  redd  satten  of  Bridgs. 

Item,  a  clothe  to  hange  before  the  Aulter  of  satten  of 
Brigs  collor  grene  and  rede. 

Item,  a  nother  hanging  of  whyte  damaske  wh  paynes  of 

Item,  two  Corperasis  casis  of  tynsull  and  velvet. 

Item,  a  crosse  clothe  of  redde  sylke  wh  ymagery  worke. 

Item,  a  payer  of  orgonse,  and  foure  bells  in  th  steple. 

Item,  the  weyght  of  the  fyrst  bell  by  estymacion,  eight 
hundred,  the  second  bell  xii  hundred,  the  third  bell  xvj 
hundred,  the  iiijth  xxij  hundred. 

Item,  a  cloke  streking  on  the  greate  bell. 

Item,  a  sawnce*  bell  of  twoo  hundred  weight. 

Item,  vj  pounds  of  redye  money  in  the  churche  box  of 

For   the   two   following   curious    documents   we    are 
indebted  to  the  courtesy  of  Arthur  Sawyer,  Esq. 

*  "  It  is,  perhaps,  that  sauncing  bell 
That  tolls  all  in  to  heaven  or  hell. " 

Sir  Walter  Raleigh. 


Copy  of  William  Aylviartfs  Will  of  1582,  by  which  he 
leaves  20  pence  to  the  parish  of  Enfield  to  buy  a  Bible. 

"  In  the  name  of  god  amen  anno  dom  —  primo  de 
mensis  decembris.  I  william  aylward  of  Endfield  in  ye 
counte  of  midde,  maltman,  being  sike  in  bodiebutin  mynde 
perfect  and  in  good  reaymembrance — Thanks  be  given 
to  god  for  yt.  Doe  -ordaine  and  make  this  my  laste  will 
and  testamente  in  manner  and  forme  followinge  thereto. 
I  doe  comitte  my  soulle  into  the  hands  of  Allmightie  god 
the  Father  and  to  Jesus  Christe  his  sonne  and  my  redemer, 
by  whome  1  doe  acknowledge  all  my  synnes  to  be 
foregeven  and  pardoned, — and  my  bodie  I  doe  give  unto 
the  yerthe  at  the  tyme  appointed,  and  as  for  those  worldlie 
goodes  which  god  hath  lente  me  I  doe  in  this  manner  of 
wise  bestow  them,  (viz)  I  doe  geve  unto  the  cherche  of 
Endfelld  to  the  byinge  of  a  Bible  xxd.  Itm  I  doe  geve 
unto  Agnes  Redlington  one  litle  Featherbed,  one  cheste, 
and  two  pewter  platters,  and  also  I  doe  geve  her  xxd. 
Item  I  doe  geve  unto  Alice  Sansome  one  Featherebedd. 
The  residue  of  all  my  goodes  and  chattells  asv  well 
moveable  as  unmoveable  whatsoever,  I  do  geve  unto 
margerette  my  wife,  whom  I  dooe  orddane  constitute  and 
make  my  only  lawfull  and  sole  executrice  of  this  my  laste 
will  and  testamente,  and  she  to  retreave  and  take  as  well 
all  mye  debts  as  are  owyinge  unto  me,  otherwise  all  those 
debts  as  I  doe  owe,  and  to  se  my  ffuneralles  dischardged 
acordinge  to  the  true  meaninge  therein  expressed,  in 
witness  whereof  I  have  sette  my  hand  the  dale  and  yeare 


above  written — william  aylward  his  marke — witness  myself 
(leonard  Thickedimy  minister.") 

Presentation  of  Endowments  and  Church  Expenses 
(about  A.D.  1500,). 

We,  Willm.  Bull,  Robert  Curtes,  John  Hodge,  and  John 
Cordell,  Gardians  and  Churchwards  of  the  parish  Churche 
of  Enefelde  in  the  Countie  of  Midd.  Doe  present  and 
certifie  what  Chauntreys,  Hospitals,  Colleges,  Free 
Chapells,  fraternities,  Brother  hodds,  gwyldes,  and 
stipendary  preestes  be  within  the  said  Churche  and  by 
what  name  they  and  any  of  them  are  known  or  called  as 
hereafter  p'ticulerlry  shall  appear. 

First  we  the  said  gardians  doe  present  and  certifie  that 
there  is  within  the  said  churche  a  Brotherhood  founded 
by  the  pa'ssh'es  of  the  said  parish  called  ye  lady  Brother- 
hood, of  the  mere  devosion  of  the  said  [  .  .  .  ]  to 
the  intent  to  maynteyne  the  [  .  .  .  ]  of  God  w't'n 
the  said  C  [  .  .  .  ]  to  kepe  a  preest  there  to  syng  the 
[  .  .  .  .  ]  of  God  to  the  glorye  of  him  and  other  the 
holy  company  of  heaven,  towerds  which  maynteyning 
there  is  given  to  the  said  Churche  as  hereunder  ensueth. 

Item  we  present  that  there  is  given  to  the  said  brother- 
hood by  John  Ford  late  of  the  said  parish  yeoman,  one 
close  three  acres  of  groune,  as  by  the  deade  by  the  said 
John  Forde  bearing  date  the  —  daye  of  November  in 
the  second  year  of  King  Richard  the  thirde,  appears — 
the  yerely  extent  whereof  extendeth  to  n'^-rrrrtj.  xjs. 


Further  there  is  given  to  the  said  Brotherhed  by  Maude 
Hamond  late  of  the  same  par'he  Widowe,  one  tenement 
situate  in  -South  Strete  in  the  said  par'he,  as  by  her  last 
will  and  testament  more  planyly  apperethe,  the  yerely 
extente  wherof  amounteth  to  vijs. 

Item  there  is  also  given  by  one  Walter  Forde  late  of 
the  same  par'he  yoman,  one  tenement,  to  the  intent  to 

kepe  one  obit  for  ever for  the  same  Walter,  as  by  the 

last  will  and  testament  of  the  same  Walter,  bearing  Date 
the  xij  of  September  in  the  iiij  year  of  the  reigne  of  King 
Edward  iiij  appereth, — the  yerely  extent  whereof  ex- 
tendeth  to  xiiij.iiij. 

Item  there  is  given  by  one — Rotherhm  of  the  same 
pa'h  deceased  one  tenement "to  kepe  an 

NOTE. — "Chanteries  consisted  of  salaries  allowed  to  one  or  more 
priests  to  say  daily  masse  for  the  soules  of  their  deceased  founders 
and  their  friends ;  these  were  adjectives  not  able  to  stand  of  them- 
selves, and,  therefore,  united  to  some  parochial,  collegiate,  or 
cathedral  church. 

"  Free  chappells,  though  for  the  same  use  and  service,  were  of  a 
more  substantiall  and  firm  constitution,  as  independent  of  themselves. 

"  Colledges  were  of  the  same  nature  but  more  considerable  in 
bignesse,  building,  number  of  priests,  and  endowments." 

These  were  all  abolished  by  Act  of  Parliament,  I  Ed.  VI.  cap.  14, 
"  that  the  said  lands  might  be  altered  for  better  uses — viz,  erecting 
grammar-schools,  &c.,  &c. , — the  Parliament  bestowed  them  on  the 
King  by  his  councell  to  dispose  of  the  same  accordingly." 

Fuller's  Church  History,  &c.,  p.  350. 


obitt"  (this  passage  obliterated  and  inserted  in  another 
hand),  the  yerely  extent  whereof  is  xs. 

Item,  there  is  also  given  by  one  Thomas -Aylward  late 
of  the  said  par'he  maltman,  4  acres  and  [ .  .  .  ]  of  meade 
as  obytt,  as  by  his  last  will  more  plainly  appereth,  the 
yearly  extent  whereof  extendeth  to  vs. 

Ther  is  given  by  John  Forde  to  the  said  brotherhedd, 
one  tenement  with  a  garden,  which  one  Robert  Brown 
hathe  taken  from  same  brotherhed,  about  iiij  yeres  last 
past,  the  yerely  extent  wherof  can  not  [  .  .  .  .  ] 

Item,  ther  is  given  to  the  said  by  one  Mystres  Wheler 
late  of  London,  widdowe,  one  maser  wth  a  band  of  silver 
and  gilt,  worth  vis.  viijd. 

Item,  there  is  purchased  by  the  Prsshns  of  the  said 

Par'he,  one  hous  called  the   churche  hous   wth  a  croft 

behynd  the  same,  the  yearly  extent  wherof  is  xv.  [.     .     .] 

There  is  given  by  Hugh  Forde  ij  croftes  of  lande  and 

i  acre  of  land,  the  yerely  extent  amounteth  to  iiijs. 

SUMMA  iijl.  xiijs. 

Deductions  and  paymente  going  oute  of  the  said 
fundes  and  rente,  as  hereafter  ensueth. 

First  there  is  paid  and  going  oute  of  the  said  one 
close  and  iij  acres  of  grounde,  for  quite  rent  to  the  chief 
lorde  by  the  year  ijs. 

Item,  paid  for  an  obyte  to  be  kept  for  the  said  Walter 
Forde  every  year  ijs.  id. 

Item,  paid  for  an  obyte  to  be  kept  for  the  said  [.  .  .] 
rotherum  by  yere  ijs.  id. 

Item,  paid  for  an  obite  to  be  kept  for  the  said  Thomas 
Aylward  by  year  ijs.  id. 

Item,  paid  for  an  obyte  to  be  kept  for  the  said  Hugh 
Forde  by  year  ijs.  id. 

Item,  paid  to  John  Obredyman  prest,  for  his  wages  by 
ere  vil.  xiiis.  iiijd. 

Item,  paid  to  Edmond  Godesman  for  his  wages,  synging 
for  the  said  brotherhood  by  yere  vil.  xiiis.  iiijd. 

So  remayneth,  De  claro  towards  the  repdtions  of  the 
said  Church  and  maynteyneing  of  Devyne  service. 

Item,  as  touching  other  lends,  tents,  juelle,  plate,  or 
ornamente  other  than  these  before .  expressed  we  have 

So  that  the  said  pr'sshen's  pay  and  disburse  of  their 
devocon  over  and  above  the  said  iijl.  xiijs.  .  .  . 

[N.B. — The  Chantrey  lands  above-mentioned  appear 
to  have  been  sold  after  the  Reformation  to  John  Hulson 
and  Bartholomew  Broxey,  and  the  lands  and  tenements 
for  obits  to  John  Hulson  and  William  Pendrede.] — (Sale 
of  Chantrey  lands,  Augmentation  Office.) 

'•  A  Book  of  Surveys  of  Enfield,"  among  the  records 
at  Hadley,  gives  some  interesting  particulars  of  the 
"Survey  of  the  Manor  and  Chace  of  Enfield,"  26  March* 
2  Chas  i  (1635),  and  again  8  Oct.,  i  Jas.  n  (1685). 

It  is  stated  in  the  first  of  these  that  there  was  "  no 
perfect  and  exact  survey  now  extant," — and  from  the  pre- 
sentments it  would  appear  that  Charles  I.  suffered  much 
loss  from  the  malfaisance  of  his  officers  and  tenants,  every 


©ne  seeming  disposed  to  help  himself  to  the  Royal 
property,  as  if  he  scented  the  "grim  feature"  of  the 
coming  rebellion, 

"  Sagacious  of  his  quarry  from  afar." 

"John  Withering,  Esq.,  hath  a  grant  from  His  Majesty 
"  of  a  water  mill  in  His  Majesty's  Chace  of  Enfield,  at 
"  New  Pond,  for  which  he  payeth,  or  ought  to  pay,  per 

"  annum  xxvs And  there  is  two  windmills 

"  .  .  .  .  whereof  the  one  ....  at  Bacon's- 
"  hill  is  pulled  down  and  carried  away  by  one  Michael 
"  Grigg,  of  Hadley,  Esq.,  and  that  there  is  or  ought  to  be 
"paid  to  His  Majesty  for  the  same  twenty  shillings  per 
"annum." — The  fences  which  "ought  to  be  repaired"  by 
sundry  tenants,  are  "in  much  decay,"  and  "Charles 
"  Crosby,  deputy  to  John  West,  Esq.,  keeper  of  ye  West 
"  Bailey  walk,  doth  use  to  fell  and  sell  all  ye  wood 
"  within  ye  new  rails,  for  his  own  benefit,  contrary  to  ye 
"  lease,  to  ye  great  prejudice  of  His  Majesty's  tenants 
"  there." 

It  is  also  presented, — that  besides  the  King's  Majesty's 
tenants  and  the  inhabitants  of  Enfield,  various  interlopers 
"  there  commoned  and  so  still  do,  but  by  what  right  we 
"  do  not  justly  know,"  and  it  is  recommended  that  "  their 
"  pretended  rights  of  common  be  examined  in  ye  Duchy 
"  Court." 

The  boundaries  of  that  part  of  the  Chase,  now  annexed 
to  the  parishes  of  Edmonton  and  Hadley,  are  thus 
described  : — "  From  thence  to  High  Wood  Gate  als 


Winchmore  Hill  Gate,  and  so  by  ye  ring  ditch  to  a 
tenement  of  Sir  John  Moore's,  Kt,  in  ye  occupation  of 
Charles  Tanner,*  then  to  a  tenement  of  Sir  Lewis  Palmer,* 
Kt,  and  so  to  a  new  brick  tenement  of  ye  said  Sir  John 
Moore's,  then  to  a  tenement  of  Basil  Firebrace,  .... 
by  the  ring  ditch  to  Southgate,  and  from  thence  taking  in 
ye  cottage  in  ye  occupation  of  John  Petts  ....  to 
ye  ash  tree  where  the  three  parishes  meet  at  ye  lane  end, 
and  so  along  ye  ring  ditch  to  ye  lane  leading  to  East 
Barnet,  where  a  gate  formerly  stood  leading  into  ye 
Chace,  taking  in  ye  Bush  Fair  house  and  four  more 
tenements,  by  the  house  of  Wm.  Peck,  Esq.,  .... 
ye  house  of  Robert  Norris,  ....  by  the  hedge  of 
East  Barnet,  to  a  cottage  formerly  Sir  Roger  Wilbraham's, 
parcel  of  Ludgraves,  in  Hadley  parish,  .  .  .  thence 
to  the  Blew  House,  ....  the  New  Pond  Head, 
.  .  .  .  by  the  hedge  of  Hadley  unto  ye  house  of 
Will.  Nicholls,  called  Capon's  House,  .  .  .  and  so 
to  Hadley  Church-yard,  and  so  north  and  west  to  ye 
Windmill,  belonging  to  ye  Lordship  of  Enfield,  and  so 
by  ye  Highway  to  Summer  Pool,  als  Sugar  Well,  from 
thence  along  a  great  bank  to  Gannick  Corner." 

*   Probably  "  Tanner's-end  "  and  "  Palmer's-green. " 



The  neighbourhood  of  Enfield  is  richer  in  its  ornitho- 
logy and  botany  than  might  have  been  expected,  from 
its  close  vicinity  to  the  metropolis.  The  following  lists 
have  been  compiled  from  actual  observation,  and  may 
be  depended  upon  for  accuracy. 


' '  The  ousel-cock,  so  black  of  hue, 

With  orange-tawney  bill, 
The  throstle  with  his  note  so  true, 

The  wren  with  little  quill ; 
The  finch,  the  sparrow,  and  the  lark, 

The  plain-song  cuckoo  gray. " 

Midsummer  Ni%h($  Dream. 


Falco  haliaetus. — Osprey.  In  1865,  a  pair  of  Ospreys 
were  seen  almost  daily  for  many  weeks,  at  Forty-hill. 
These  birds  frequented,  at  the  time,  the  lake  in  the 
grounds  of  J.  D.  Taylor,  Esq.,  at  Southgate,  where  they 
were  often  seen  to  catch  fish,  which  they  carried  to  the 
mast-head  of  the  pleasure  boat,  and  devoured.  Another 
specimen  was  seen  at  White  Webbs,  in  September,  1867, 
and  about  the  same  time  at  Forty-hill. 


Falco  per egr inns. — Peregrine  Falcon.  A  fine  female 
was  shot  at  Trent-park,  in  the  autumn  of  1871,  and 
is  in  the  possession  of  Wilfred  Bevan,  Esq; — this  is 
the  true  falcon  of  falconry.  The  male,  or  "  tercel,"  is 
much  smaller. 

Fako  tinnunciilus. — Kestrel.  Of  not  uncommon  occur- 
rence, and  breeds  in  the  district. 

Falco  nisus. — Sparrow-hawk.  Still  occasionally  seen, 
and  rarely  breeds. 


Strix  Otus. — Long  Eared  Owl.  Very  rare.  A  specimen 
was  obtained  a  few  years  since,  by  W.  S.  Parker,  Esq. 

Strix  flammea. — Barn,  or  White  Owl.  Breeds  in 
several  places. 

Strix  ahtco. — Tawney  Owl. 


Lanius  Coilurio. — Redbacked  Shrike.  A  common 
summer  visitant. 


Musticapa  grisola.  — Spotted  flycatcher.  The  last  to 
arrive  of  our  summer  visitors.  An  egg  of  the  cuckoo 
was  found  in  the  nest  of  this  bird  some  years  since, 
by  ].  W.  Ford,  Esq.  Its  occurrence  in  the  nest  of  this 
species  has  not  hitherto  been  recorded. 


Turdus  viscivorus.  — Missel  Thrush. 

Muscicapa  pilaris. — Fieldfare.  The  Fieldfare,  or  Red- 
wing, roosts  in  very  large  flocks  in  some  of  our  young 
plantations  during  the  winter  months. 


Turdus  musicus.  —  Throstle,  or  Mavis;  Song  thrush. 
„       iliacus.  —  Redwing. 
„       merula.  —  Blackbird,  or  Ouzel. 
„       torqtiatus.  —  Ring  Ouzel.      An   occasional   au- 
tumn visitant. 

Accentor  modularis.  —  Hedge  Sparrow. 
Sylvia  mbecula.  —  Robin  Redbreast. 
„      cinerea.  —  White-throat. 
„      curruca.  —  Lesser  White-throat. 
„      phcenicurus.  —  Redstart. 

„  locustella.  —  Grasshopper  Warbler.  Not  very 
numerous,  and  from  its  retiring  habits,  rarely  observed. 
A  specimen  was  noticed  in  the  grounds  of  Alderman 
Chain's,  Sep.,  1870. 

Sylvia  phragmitis.  —  Sedge  Warbler. 
„      arundinacea.  —  Reed  Warbler. 
„        luscinia.  —  Nightingale.       This   bird  was  until 
lately  so  common  that  one  of  the  lodges  on  the  Chase,  — 
taken  for  the  season  by  a  well-known  M.P.,  —  was  given 
up  after  a   few  weeks'  tenancy,  on  the  ground  that  his 
family    could    get    no   sleep    "for  the   singing   of  the 

Sylvia  atricapilla.  —  Blackcap. 

„  hortensis.  —  Garden  Warbler.  More  plentiful  in 
some  seasons  than  others. 

Sylvia  sibilatrix.  —  Wood  Wren.     Of  rare  occurrence  in 
the  woods. 


Sylvia  trochilus. — Willow  Warbler. 

„      ntfa.— Chiff  Chaff. 
Saxicola  rubicola, — Stonechat. 

„        rubetra. — Whinchat.     The  nest  of  this  species 
is  occasionally  found. 

Saxicola  cenanthe. — Wheatear. 

Regulus  cristatiis. — Golden  Crested  Wren. 


Parus  major. — Great  Tit,  or  Titmouse. 
„      carulcus. — Blue  Tit,  or  Tomtit. 
„      ater.—  Cole  Tit. 
,,     palustris. — Marsh  Tit. 
„      caudatus. — Longtailed  Tit. 


Bomby cilia garrula — Bohemian  Waxwing.  A  very  rare 
winter  visitant.  A  specimen  was  shot  at  Cockfosters, 
Dec.  29th,  1866,  in  which  season  several  flights  of 
this  bird  were  recorded. 


Motacilla  yarrdlii. —  Red  Wagtail. 

„         boarula — Grey   Wagtail.      A  winter   visitor. 
„         eampestris.    —  Ray's     Wagtail,    or    Yellow 


Anthus  Arboreus. — Tree  Pipit. 

„       pratensis. — Meadow  Pipit,  or  Titlark. 



Alauda  arvensis. — Skylark. 

„       arborea. — Woodlark.     Far  from  common. 


Emberiza  miliaria. — Common  Bunting.     The  rarest  of 
these  species. 

Emberiza  schxniclus. — Blackheaded  Bunting. 

„  citrinella. — Yellow     Bunting,    or     Yellow- 



Fringilla  cxlebs. — Chaffinch. 

„         montifringilla. — Brambling.      In  autumn  and 
winter, — one  occurred  at  Enfield-lock,  in  1871. 

Fringilla  montatta. — Tree  Sparrow.     A  casual  straggler. 
„        domestica. — House  Sparrow. 
„        chloris. — Greenfinch. 

„  coccothraustes, — Hawfinch,  or  Grosbeak. 
This  species  is  perceptibly  on  the  increase.  Though 
one  of  the  shyest  of  British  birds,  it  has  three  times 
built  in  yew  trees  on  the  lawn  at  Old-park,  within 
twenty  yards  of  the  house.  The  nests  were  composed 
of  dry  maple  twigs,  or  roots,  with  a.  few  stray  fragments 
of  white  lichen  in  the  lower  part,  and  so  open  and 
loose  in  construction  that  the  eggs  could  be  seen  through 
from  below,  yet  so  firmly  were  the  materials  inter- 
woven, that  a  nest,  in  sawing  off  the  branch,  received 
no  injury. 

Fringilla    cardudis. — Goldfinch.       Much   rarer    than 


Fringilla  spinrts. — Siskin,  or  Aberdevine. 
„        cannabina. — Linnet. 

„        linaria. — Lesser  Redpole.      An  autumn  and 
winter  visitor,  coming  in  small  flocks. 

Fringilla  montium. — Twite.     Of  rare  occurrence. 
Pyrrhida  Tiilgaris. — Bullfinch.     Not  uncommon. 
Loxia  cun'irostra. — Crossbill.     A  rare  and   uncertain 
visitor,   always  occurring  in  flocks.     Five  were  seen  at 
Clay-hill,  October,  1868. 


Sturnus  vulgaris. — Common  Starling. 


Corvus  corax. — Raven,  or  Corbie.  Bred  for  many 
years, — before  1840, — in  the  "  Raven  Elm,"  at  Bush-hill 
Park,  and  subsequently  in  one  of  the  group  of  Elms 
called  "  The  Sisters,"  on  the  banks  of  the  New  River, 
below  Old-park, — being  the  latest  record  of  the  bird's 
nesting  in  Middlesex. 

Corvus  corone. — Carrion  Crow. 

„       comix. — Hooded,    or    Grey  Crow.        An   oc- 
casional winter  visitor. 

Corvus  frugilcgus. — Rook. 
„      monedula. — Jackdaw. 
„      pica. — Magpie. 
,,      glandarius. — Jay. 


Picus  viridis. — Green  Woodpecker.  The  "  laugh  "  of 
of  this  beautiful  bird  may  still  occasionally,  though 
very  rarely,  be  heard. 


Picus  major. — Great  spotted  Woodpecker.     Very  rare. 
„      minor. — Lesser  spotted  Woodpecker.     Very  rare. 
Yunx  torquilla. — Wryneck. 


Certhia  familiaris. — Common  Creeper.  Tolerably 
common,  though  seldom  observed. 

Troglodytes  vulgar  is — Wren . 

Upupa  epops. — Hoopoe.  A  single  bird  was  observed 
and  shot  from  the  window,  at  Forty-hall,  by  Mr.  Meyer, 
in  the  year  1841. 

Sitta  Europea. — Nuthatch.     Somewhat  rare. 


Cuculus  canorus. — Cuckoo,  or  Gowk. 


Alcedo  ispida. — Kingfisher.  Resident  and  breeds,  but 
it  is  not  desirable  to  indicate  the  locality. 


Hirundo  rustica. — Swallow. 

,,        urbica. —  Martin. 

„        riparia. — Sandmartin. 
Cypselus  apus. — Swift. 


Capr'unulgus  europczus. —  Nightjar,. Goat-sucker,  or  Fern 
Owl.  Formerly  common  on  the  Chase.  The  reversible 
.  hind  claw  of  this  bird,  and  the  serrated  or  toothed 
structure  of  the  middle  claw,  have  been  supposed  to 
enable  them  to  carry  off  their  eggs  when  disturbed. 
"Some  naturalists  (says  Bishop  Stanley)  assert  that  they 


have  such  a  power,  and  have  been  seen  in  the  act  of 
flight  with  eggs  in  their  claws, — but  the  fact  has  been 
denied  by  others."  The  writer,  however,  saw  one  of 
these  birds  (in  the  year  1845)  fly  up  from  a  tuft  of 
grass  at  his  feet,  carrying  two  eggs  in  her  claws.  These 
she  dropped  within  about  a  dozen  yards  of  the  spot 
where  she  rose,  and  they  are  now  in  the  collection 
of  J.  W.  Ford,  Esq. 


Columbapalumbiis. — Ring-dove,  or  Wood-pigeon. 

„        anas. — Stock-dove. 

„  turtur. — Turtle-dove.  Breeds  in  the  woods. 
One  was  picked  up  at  Old-park  with  the  head  completely 
severed  from  the  body  by  a  hailstone,  whilst  sitting  on 
her  nest,  after  the  destructive  storm  of  July,  1859. 


Phasianus  colchicus — Pheasant. 


Syrrhaptes  paradoxus. — Pallas's  Sandgrouse.  During 
the  summer  of  1863,  great  interest  was  excited  by  the 
appearance  of  considerable  numbers  of  this  rare  wanderer 
from  the  Steppes  of  Tartary.  A  specimen  was  shot  on 
the  borders  of  this*  parish  near  South  Mimms,  being 
the  only  one  obtained  in  Middlesex. 

Perdrix  cinerea. — Partridge. 

„  rubra. — Red-legged  Partridge.  Breeds  on 
the  Chase. 

Perdrix  cfffufnix.—QasaL     Of  very   rare  occurrence. 

.      145 


Charadrius  pluvialis.  —  Golden  Plover.  Occasionally 
in  autumn. 

Vanellus  cfistatus.  —  Lapwing,  or  Peewit.  On  the 


Ardea  cinerea.  —  Heron.  Occasionally  frequents  all 
the  larger  sheets  of  water. 


Tetanus  hypoleucos.  —  Common  Sandpiper,  or  Summer 
Snipe.  On  the  borders  of  the  brooks.  One  was  ob- 
served for  ten  days  on  the  New  River,  at  Chase-park, 
1869.  Never  remains  to  breed. 

Scolopax  rusticola.  —  Woodcock.  Formerly  common. 
A  few  still  come  every  season  to  Trent-park.  Seven  were 
bagged  on  one  day  during  the  late  winter. 

Scolopax  gallinago.  —  Common  Snipe.  Tolerably  com- 
mon in  autumn  and  winter. 

Scolopax  gallinula.  —  Jack  Snipe. 

Gallinula  Crex.  —  Landrail,  or  Corncrake. 

„         porzana.  —  Spotted  Crake.      A  specimen  of 
this  very  shy  bird  was  shot  June,  1869. 
Gallinula  chloropus.  —  Moorhen. 
Rallus  aquaticus.  —  Water  Rail.     Very  occasional, 


Fulica  atra,  —  Coot.     Very  rare. 




Anser  ferus. — Greylag  Goose,  or  Wild  Goose.  A 
"  skein  "  of  wild  geese  may  occasionally  be  seen  passing 
over  in  winter,  but  there  is  no  record  of  a  bird  being 

Anser  segetum. — Bean  Goose. 
Anas  acuta. — Pintail. 

„     boschas. — Wild  Duck.     Breeds  in  several  places. 
„     crecca. — Teal. 
„     penelope. — Widgeon. 


Podiceps  cornutus. — Sclavonian  Grebe.  Graves,  in  his 
"  History  of  British  Birds,"  records  a  female  of  this  grebe, 
as  killed  on  the  New  River,  at  Clay-hill,  in  1822. 

Podiceps  minor. — Little  Grebe.  Breeds  occasionally 
at  Bush-hill  Park.  Occurred  on  the  water  at  Chase-park, 
in  1871. 


Larus  tridactylus. — Kittiwake.  An  immature  speci- 
men,, or  "  Tarrock,"  was  picked  up  dead  on  the  banks  of 
the  New  River,  in  the  autumn  of  1871. 



'  Behold  O  man,  that  toilesome  paines  dost  take, 

The  flowers,  the  fields,  and  all  that  pleasant  grows, 
They  spring,  they  bud,  they  blossome  fresh  and  faire 

And  decke  the  world  with  their  rich  pompous  showes; 
Yet  no  man  for  them  taketh  paines  or  care, 
Vet  ne  man  can  to  them  his  carefull  paines  compare." 


In  the  following  list  of  phgenogamous  plants,  those 
only  are  inserted  which  are  thought  rare  or  beautiful,  or 
interesting.  The  localities  are  purposely  omitted.  The 
Latin  names  are  those  adopted  by  Sir  J.  E.  Smith,  and 
used  in  Sowerby's  "  English  Botany."*  It  was  found 
hopeless  for  unlearned  writers  to  attempt  to  grapple  with 
the  restless  changes  of  modern  science,  and  its  "  barba- 
rous binomials." 

Adoxa  moschatdlina     -         -     Tuberous  moschatel. 
Anagallis  tenella  -     Creeping  pimpernel. 

*  Sir  J.  E.  Smith's  preface  to  the  4th  Vol.  of  "  English  Botany  " 
is  dated  Nov.  1st,  1795.  The  Times  of  this  clay  (May  Ijth,  1873), 
records, — "Yesterday,  at  Lowestoft,  the  hundredth  birthday  of  Lady 
Smith,  widow  of  Sir  James  Edward  Smith,  once  President  of  the 
Linnsean  Society,  was  celebrated  by  a  dinner  to  100  of  the  oldest 
people  of  both  sexes." 


Angelica  sylvestris 
Anemone  nemorosa 
Antirrhinum  ma  jus 
Aristolochia  dematitis  - 
Asperula  odor  at  a 
Atropa  belladonna 
Butomns  umbellatus 
Caltha  palustris  - 
Campanula  rotundifolia 
,,          rapu'ncidus 
Car  ex  pendula    .  - 
Chriranthus  fruiiculosus 
Clematis  vitalba  - 
Colchicum  antumnale   - 
Convallaria  majalis 
Convallaria  multiflora 
Cuscnta  epithymum 
Daphne  laureola 
Digitalis  purpurea 
Dipsacus  sylvestris 
Epilobium  angusti/olium 
Epipactis  latifolia 
Euphrasia  odontitis 
Fritillaria  meleagris     - 
Fumaria  capreolata 

„        qfficinalis 
Habenaria  bifolia 

-  Wild  Angelica. 

-  Wood  anemone. 

-  Great  Snapdragon. 

-  Birth-wort. 

-  Woodruff. 

-  Deadly  Nightshade. 

-  Flowering-rush. 

-  Marsh  Marigold. 

-  '  Rampion. 

-  Great  Sedge. 

-  Wallflower. 

-  Wild  Clematis. 

-  Meadow  Saffron. 

-  Lily  of  the  Valley. 
Solomon's  Seal. 

-  Small  Dodder. 

-  Spurge  Laurel. 

-  Foxglove. 

-  Rose-bay  Willow-herb. 
Broad-leaved  Helleborine. 

-  Eye-bright. 

-  Dead-man's-bell. 
Ramping  Fumitory. 
Common  Fumitory. 

-  Butterfly  Orchis. 


Hicracium  muronim  -.   (Obtained  by  Dr.  Uvedale 

from    the    North    of    England,     and     naturalised 
here  where  it  still  flourishes.)  \ 

Humulus  lupulus 
Hyacinthus  non-scriptus 
Hyoscyamus  niger 
Hypericum  androscemnm 
,,          hirsutum . 
,x        pulchrum . 
Inula  Hdenium 
Iris  fatidissima 

,,    pseiidacorus  - 
Lamium  amplexicaule  - 
Lathyrus  aphaca 
„        nissolia 
Lonicera  caprifolium     - . 
,,       periclymenum  - 
Lilium  martagon 
Lithospermum  arvense  - 
'Lysimachia  nummularia 
Menyanthes  trifoliata  - 
.  Myosurus  minimus 
Narcissus  pseudonarcissus, 
Nuphar  lutea 
Nymphcca  alba    - 
Ophioglossum  vitlgatum 
Orchis  mascula    - 


Hare-bells.  . 



Hairy  St.  John's-wort. 

Upright  St.  John's-wort. 


Stinking  Iris. 



Yellow  vetchling. 

Crimson  Grass-vetch. 

Yellow  Honeysuckle. 


Turn-cap  Lily. 

Corn  Gromwell. 

Money- wort. 



Common  Daffodil. 

Yellow  Water-lily. 

White  Water-lily. 

Adder's  Tongue. 

Early  Purple  Orchis. 


Ophrys  monorchis 

„      nidus  avis 

„      spiralis    - 

Orobanche  elatior 

Oxalis  acetosella  - 

Reseda  lutea 

„      luteola 
Ruscus  aculcatus 
Sagittaria  sagittifolia    - 
Scutdlaria  galericulata 
Senccio  jacob&a    - 
Solatium  dtilcamara 

„        nigrum 
Solidago  virgaurea 
Spartium  Scoparium    - 
Stratiotes  aloides 
Symphytum  officinale    - 
Tanacetiim  vulgar e 
Typha  Latifolia 
Valeriana  dioica 
Verbascum  thapsus. 
Vinca  major 
„     minor 
Viola  odorata 

Musk  Orchis. 
Bird's-nest  Ophrys. 
Lady's  Traces. 
Tall  Broom  Rape* 
Wood  Sorrel. 
Wild  Mignonette. 
Dyer's  Weed. 
Butcher's  Broom. 
Common  Skull-cap. 
Large  Ragwort. 
Bitter  Sweet. 
Black  Nightshade. 
Common  Broom. 
Water  Soldier. 

Great  Cat's-tail. 
Great  Mullein. 
Large  Periwinkle. 
Small  Periwinkle. 
Sweet  Violet. 

*  This  singular  plant  lias  been  found  in  great  abundance  for 
several  years,  growing  upon  brooms  on  a  gravelly  hill,  at  Old-park, 
now  cut  away  to  obtain  ballast  for  the  Great  Northern  Railway. 


The  Lavender  plant  (Lavandula  spica)  was  formerly 
grown  here  in  large  quantities  as  an  article  of  commerce, 
principally  in  fields  by  the  side  of  Newrlane  and 
"•  Lavender-hill." 

Rhubarb  (Rheum  palimtum)  was  also-  cultivated  with 
great  success  for  medicinal  purposes,  soon  after  its  first 
introduction  into- this  country.  Mr.  Thomas  Jones,  of 
Fish-street-hill,  received  the  gold  medal  of  the  Society  of 
Arts,  in  1793,  for  420.  plants  grown  at  Forty-hill,  and 
again  in  1797,  for  935  plants;  and  in  the  following  year 
he  obtained  a  premium  from  the  sockty  of  thirty  guineas, 
for  raising  and  growing  3040  plants,  and  giving  a  full 
account  of  his  method  of  culture. 

Enfield  was  long  ago  celebrated  for  its  gardens,  an 
interesting  account  of  which  "  upon  a  view  of  them  in 
1691,"  was  communicated  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hamilton,  vice-president,  from  an 
original  M.S.  in  his  possession,  and  printed  in  their 
Archseologia,  vol.  xii.  p.  181. 

"Dr.  Uvedale,  of  Enfield,  is  a  great  lover  of  plants,  and 
having  an  extraordinary  art  in  managing  them,  is  become 
master  of  the  greatest  and  choicest  collection  of  exotic 
'  greens '  that  is  perhaps  any  where  in  this  land.  His 
'  greens '  take  up  six  or  seven  houses  or  roomsteads.  His 
orange  trees  and  largest  myrtles  fill  up  his  biggest  house, 
and  another  house  is  filled  with  myrtles  of  a  less  size, 
and  those  more  nice  and  curious  plants  that  need  closer 
keeping  are  in  warmer  rooms,  and  some  of  them  stoved 


when  he  thinks  fit.  His  flowers  are  choice,  his  stock 
numerous,  and  his  culture  of  them  very  methodical  and 
,  curious;  but  to  speak  of  the  garden,  in  the  whole,  it  does 
not  lie  fine,  to  please  the  eye,  his  delight  and  care  lying 
more  in  the  ordering  particular  plants,  than  in  the 
pleasing  view  and  form  of  his  garden." 

"  Dr.  Tillotson's  garden  near  Enfield  is  a  pleasurable 
place  for  walks,  and  some  good  walks  there  are  too ;  but 
the  tall  aspen  trees,  and  the  many  ponds  in  the  heart  of 
it  are  not  so  agreeable.  He  has  two  houses  for  'greens,' 
but  has  few  in  them,  a.11  the  best  being  removed  to 
Lambeth.  The  house  is  moated  about." 

'•  Mr.  Raynton's  garden  at  Enfield  is  observable  for 
nothing  but  his  greenhouse,  which  he  has  had  for  many 
years.  His  orange,  lemon,  and  myrtle  trees,  are  as  full 
and  furnished  as  any  in  cases.  He  has  a  myrtle  cut  in 
shape  of  a  chair,  that  is  at  least  six  feet  high  from  the 
case,  but  the  lower  part  is  thin  of  leaves.  The  rest  of 
the  garden  is  very  ordinary,  and  on  the  outside  of  his 
garden  he  has  a  warren  which  makes  the  ground  about 
his  seat  lye  rudely,  and  sometimes  the  coneys  work  under 
the  wall  into  the  garden." 

"  Mr.  Richardson,  at  East  Barnet,  has  a  pretty  garden 
with  fine  walks  and  good  flowers,  but  the  garden  not 
being  walled  about,  they  have  less  summer  fruit,  yet  are 
therefore  the  more  industrious  in  managing  the  peach 
and  apricot  dwarf  standards,  which  they  say  supply  them 
plentifully  with  very  good  fruit.  There  is  a  good  fish 


pond  in  the  middle  of  it,  from  which  a  broad  gravel 
walk  leads  to  the  highway,  where  a  fair  pair  of  broad 
gates,  with  a  narrower  on  either  side,  open  at  the  top  to 
look  through  small  bars,  well  wrought  and  well  painted, 
are  a  great  ornament  to  the  garden.  They  have  orange 
and  lemon  trees,  but  the  wife  and  son  being  the  managers 
of  the  garden  (the  husband  being  gouty  and  not  minding 
it)  they  cannot  prevail  for  a  house  for  them  other  than  a 
barn  end" 

"  Mr.  Watt's  house  and  garden  made  near  Enfield  are 
new,  but  the  garden,  for  the  time,  is  very  fine,  and  large 
and  regularly  laid  out,  with  a  fair  fish  pond  in  the  middle. 
He  built  a  green-house  *  this  summer,  with  three  rooms 
(somewhat  like  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury's)  the 
middle  with  a  stove  under  it,  and  a  sky-light  above,  and 
both  of  them  of  glass  on  the  foreside,  with  shutters  within, 
and  the  roof  finely  covered  with  Irish  slate.  But  this 
-  fine  house  is  under  this  fault,  they  built  it  in  summer  and 
thought  not  of  winter;  the  dwelling  house  on  the  south 
side  interposing  betwixt  the  sun  and  it,  now  when  its 
beams  should  refresh  the  plants." 

*  "  Greenhouses, — houses  built  in  gardens,  and  necessary  for 
many  choice  greens  that  will  not  bear  the  winter's  cold." — 
( Philips' s  World  of  Words. ) 

[The  derivation,  which  seems  to  have  escaped  our  lexicographers, 
is  noteworthy.] 



The  district  produces  but  few  ferns,  and  those  of  the 
commonest  kinds,  but  it  abounds  in  fungi,  many  of  them 
of  great  beauty,  and  some  of  rare  occurrence.  Among 
the  most  remarkable  of  these  is  one  figured  by  Bulliard 
(pi.  499) — as  "  Tremella  violacea."  This  is  not,  as  sug- 
gested, the  "ferruginea"  of  Sowerby  and  Sir  J.  E.  Smith; 
nor  the  "sarcoides"  or  "amythystea"  of  Berkeley, 
and  it  has  perhaps  never  been  figured  or  described  in 
this  country.  A  specimen  was  found  some  years  ago  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Northaw,  and  another  in  the  wood 
at  Old-park.  It  was  of  a  rich  violet  purple,  and  resem- 
bled a  bunch  of  puckered  or  "  gauffered  "  velvet.  The 
larger  specimen  measured  above  six  inches  by  five,  and 
nearly  two  inches  in  height,  the  surface  finely  pubescent 
and  glossy,  and  giving  out  a  rich  purple  tinge  when 
steeped  in  water,  as  mentioned  by  Bulliard.  It  was  sent 
to  one  of  our  learned  societies  for  examination,  where  it 
fell  a  prey  to  scientific  "  acquisitiveness,"  but  a  careful 
drawing  of  it  has  been  preser/ed. 

The  beautiful  "  Peziza  Aurantia  "*  may  be  frequently 

*  The  "Peziza  Epidendra"  of  Sowerby  (coccinea  of  Berkeley), 
with  its  brilliant  carmine  cup  (the  most  elegant,  says  Sir  J.  E. 
Smith,  of  the  whole  tribe  of  fungi),  has  never  been  seen  in  Enfield 
by  the  writer,  but  it  may  be  interesting  to  some  botanists  to  hear 
that  after  various  attempts  during  twenty  years  he  has  succeeded  in 


found  on  the  shady  banks  of  hedges,  generally  on  the 
northern  side.  It  is  sometimes  as  much  as  three  inches 
across;  variously  cup-shaped  or  convoluted;  whitish 
externally,  and  of  a  rich  orange  within.  When  mature, 
•the  slightest  vibration  of  the  air  or  ground,  in  attempting 
to  gather  it,  will  frequently  cause  it  to  explode  with  a 
slight  report,  in  a  cloud  of  smoke. 

Amongst  others  may  be  shortly  mentioned, — Byssus 
phosphorea,'  covering  decayed  posts  or  rails,  with  a 
velvety  surface  of  deep  ultramarine  blue,  sometimes  edged 
with  white;  the  disgusting  Phallus  Impudicus,  with  its 
sickening  smell  of  carrion ;  Agaricus  Cantharellus,  richly 
fragrant  of  apricots,'  and,  according  to  Dr.  Badham,  one 
of  the  most  delicious  of  funguses, — though  the  secret  has 
been  confined  to  the  Freemason's  Tavern,  where  they 
have  been  used  for  years  on  state  occasions,  and  are 
always  highly  paid  for;  Agaricus  Oreades,  the  little  buff 
coloured  "  champignon,"  which  produces  the  "  fairy 
rings  "  on  pastures,  and  which  gives  an  exquisite  flavour 
to  soups  and  gravies;  Lycoperdon  Epidendron,  some- 

raising  a  young  colony  of  them.  The  parent  plants  were  sent  by  a 
friend  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Selborne  last  autumn,  and  were 
placed  in  moss  under  a  bell-glass,  in  a  greenhouse,  where  the  little 
scarlet  cups  are  now  springing  up  in  profusion.  Last  year  a  similar 
experiment  had  been  made,  but  on  lifting  up  the  glass  to  exhibit  the 
funguses  to  a  visitor,  they  blew  up  like  an  alchemist's  crucible,  and 
the  hopes  of  the  year  were  dispersed  in  empty  air.—  ( Nov.  1872^. 


times  covering  half  the  stump  of  -a  dead  tree  with  its 
clusters  of  vermilion  balls;  Xylostroma  Giganteum, 
which  in  a  few  years  will  spread  its  ravages  through  the 
largest  oak;  Agaricus  picaceus,  singularly  beautiful  both 
in  form  and  colour,  a  delicate  grey,  flecked  with  white ; 
and  the  various  species  of  Clavaria,  like  branches  of 
coral,  white, — shaded  with  every  tint  of  yellow,  red,  green, 
and  violet. 

The  common  puff-ball,  so  abundant  everywhere,  is 
compared  by  Dr.  Badham,  to  sweetbreads,  for  the  delicacy 
of  its  unassisted  flavour, — the  agaricus  deliciosus  to  tender 
lamb  kidneys,  and  the  agaricus  heterophyllus  to  crawfish, 
when  grilled. 

So  strong  is  the  prejudice  in  this  country  against  fungi, 
that  hardly  any  of  them  are  eaten,  except  the  common 
mushroom,  which,  strange  to  say,  is  the  only  one  prohibited 
from  being  brought  into  Rome,  where  any  basket  con- 
taining a  single  mushroom  is  condemned  by  the  inspector, 
and  sent  under  escort  to  be  thrown  into  the  Tiber.* 

The  fact  is,  that  the  great  majority  of  fungi  are  both 
wholesome  and  excellent.  The  Rev.  J.  M.  Berkeley 
mentions  a  friend,  who,  being  a  detenu  in  Poland, 
made  a  large  "  hortus  siccus  "  of  the  fungi  to  which  he 
had  access;  and  one  day  found,  to  his  great  surprise,  that 
his  whole  collection  had  been  devoured  by  his  guard, 
including  many  which  he  had  considered  of  the  most 
dangerous  nature. 

*  Regulations  of  the  "  Congregazione  Speciale  di  Sanita." 



"  Things  are  not  now  quite  so  bad,  as  when  Lady  Glanville's  will 
was  attempted  to  be  set  aside  on  the  ground  of  lunacy, 
evinced  by  no  other  act  than  her  fondness  for  collecting 
insects,  and  Ray  had  to  appear  at  Exeter  on  the  trial  as  a 

witness  of  her  sanity." 


A  short  summary  of  the  entomology  of  Enfield  must 
necessarily  be  confined  to  the  Lepidoptera,  omitting  such 
as  are  of  universal  occurrence. 

The  following  tabular  statement  may  be  interesting  as 
showing  the  relative  numbers  of  species  found  in  Enfield, 
and  in  England  generally: — 



as  of 











A  A 

































1  1 










GONEPTERYX,  'R.KtMm.—Brimftone  Butterfly. 
COLIAS,  EDUSA.— Clouded  Yellow. 
VANESSA,  POLYCHLOROS.—  Large  Tortoiseshell. 
„  ANTIOPA. — Cambenvell  Beauty.  * 

1  ,,  CARDUI. — Painted  Lady. 

SATYRUS,  TlTHONUS.—  Large  Heath, 
LYC^ENA,  ALSUS.—  Small  Blue. 

,,  ARGIOLUS. — Azure  Blue. 

HESPERIA,  LINKA.—  Small  Skipper. 



,,  POPULI. — Poplar  „ 

„  TlLl,£. — Lime  „ 

ACHERONTIA,  ATROPOS.— ZkaA&'j  Head  „ 

SPHINX,  CONVOLVULI.— Convolvulus  „ 

,,  LIGUSTRI. — Privet  ,, 

DEILEPHILA,  GM.u.—Bedstraw  ,, 

CH^EROCAMPA,  PORCELLUS. — Small  Elephant  „ 

,,  ELPENOR. — Elephant  „ 

MACROGLOSSA,  STELLATARUM.—  Humming  Bird    „ 
SESIA,  MYOP^EFORMIS. — Red  Belled  Cleansing. 
,,         Tiri'LlFORMls. — Currant  ,, 

„         APIFORMIS. — Hornet  ,, 

ZEUZERA,  ^ESCULI.  —  Wood  Leopard. 
HEPIALUS,  HECTUS.— Gold  Swiff. 

*  In  1872,  this  butterfly  made  its  periodical  appearance  in  many  parts  of  the 
kingdom,  and  a  specimen  was  seen  by  J.  C.  Catling,  Esq.,  in  his  garden. 


LITHOSIA,   COMPLANULA. — Scarce  Footman. 
,,  STRAMINEOLA. — Pale  Footman. 

ARCTIA,   FULIGINOSA.—  Ruby  Tiger. 

,,  URTICVE. —  Water  Ermine. 


,,  SALICIS. — Satin. 

ORGYIA,  FASCELINA. — Dark  Tussock. 
PCECILOCAMPA,  POPULI.— December  Moth. 


ENNOMOS,  TILIARIA.— Canary  Shouldered  Thorn. 

,,  ANGULARIA. — August  Thorn. 

HIMERA,  PENNARiA.—FeatAered  Thorn. 
PHIGALIA,  PILOSARIA.  —Pale  Brindled  Beauty. 
BISTON,   HIRTARIA.—  Brindled  Beauty. 
,,  BETULARIA. — Peppered  Moth. 

BOARMIA,  CONSORTARIA. — Pale  Oak  Beauty. 
NEMORIA,  VIRIDATA.—  Small  Grass  Emerald. 
EPHYRA,   PORATA.—  False  Mocha. 
ACIDALIA,  SCCTULATA.— Single  Doited  Wave. 

„  IMITARIA. — Small  Blood  Vein. 

,,  EMARGINATA. — Small  Scallop. 

TIM  AND  R  A,  AM  ATARI  A.— Blood  Vein. 
CORYCIA,  TEMERATA.— Clouded  Silver. 
FIDONIA,  ATOMARIA. — Common  Heath. 
EMMELESIA,  AI.BULATA.— Grass  Rivulet. 
„  BLANDIATA.— Pretty  Pinicn. 



,,  LlNARlATA. —  Toadflax  Pug. 

„  MlNUTATA. — Ling  Pug.  . 

CIDARIA,  MiA.TA.—Auti(»itt  Green  Carpet. 

,,  DOT  AT  A. — The  Spinach. 


,,  BIPUNCTARIA. — Chalk  Carpet. 

ANAITIS,  PLAGIATA.— Treble  Bar. 

DICRANURA,  BIFIDA.— 'Poplar  Kitten. 
PETASIA,  CASSINEA.— The  Sprawler. 
PTILODONTIS,  PALPINA.—  Pale  Prominent. 
NOTODONTA,  DICIYEA.— Swallow  Prominent. 

„  DlCT^OlDES. — Little  Swallow  Prominent. 


THYATIRA,  DERASA.—  Buff  Arches. 
,,  BATIS. — Peach  Blossom. 

CYMATOPHORA,  DUPLARIS.—  Lesser  Satin  Moth. 

„  DlLUTA.  — Lesser  Lutestring. 

BRYOPHILA,  GLANDIFERA.—  Marbled  Green. 
ACRONYCTA,  TRIDENS.— Dark  Dagger. 
,,  LEPORINA. — The  Miller. 

,,  ACERIS.  —The  Sycamore. 

,,  LIGUSTRI.  —The  Coronet. 

SIMYRA,  VENOSA. — Powdered  Wainscot. 
LEUCANIA,  PUDORINA— Striped  Wainscot. 

,,  COMMA. — Shoulder-striped  Wainscot. 

GORTYNA,  FLAVAGO. — Frosted  Orange. 

,,  MlCACEA. — Rosy  Rustic. 

AXYLIA,  PUTRIS.— The  Flame. 
XYLOPHASIA,  SUBLUSTRIS.—  Reddish  Light  Arches. 

, ,  H  EPATICA.  —  Clouded  Brindle. 

NEURIA,  SAPONARI/E.—  Bordered  Gothic. 
IIELIOPHOBUS,  POPULAR  I  <=.— Feathered  Gothic. 
CERIGO,  CYTHEREA. — Straw  Underwing. 
MAMESTRA,  FURVA.  —  The  Confused. 
,,  PERSICARI/E. — The  Dot. 

MI  ANA,  FASCIUNCULA. — Middle-barred  Minor. 

,,         LITEROSA. — Rosy  Minor. 
CADRARINA,  ALSINES.  —  The  Uncertain. 

,,  BLANDA.  —  The  Rustic. 

RUSINA,  TENEBROSA.— Brown  Rustic. 
AGROTIS,  PUTA.—  Shuttle-shaped  Dart. 
,,  TRITICI.  —  White-line      „ 

,,          AQUILINA. — Streaked      „ 
,,          SAUCIA. — Pearly  Underwing. 
„  CORTICEA.—  Heart  and  Club. 

TRIPH/ENA,  FIMBRIA.— Broad-bordered  Yellow  Undenving. 

„  INTERJECTA.— Least  Yellow  Underwing. 

NOCTU  A,  TRIANGULUM. — Double-spotted  Square-spot. 

,,         UMBROSA. — Six-striped  Rustic. 
TRACHEA,  PINIPERDA.—  Pine  Beauty. 
TjENIOCAMPA,  RUBICOSA.—  Red  Chestnut. 

„  POPULETI. — Lead-coloured  Drab. 

,,  GRACILIS. — Poivdered  Quaker. 

,,  MUNDA.  —  Twin-spotted  Quaker. 

ANCIIOCELIS,  Ru¥iKA.—F/ou>i<:e<t  Chestnut. 
,,-  LUNOSA. — Litnar  Undenving. 

,,  LITURA. — Brown-spot  Pinion. 

HOPORINA,  CROCEAGO.— Orange  Upperwing. 



X  ANTHI  A,  '-CERAGO.-  The  'Saliva. 

„  ClTRAGO.  —  Orange  Sallow. 

,,  SlLAGO. — Pink-barred  Sallmo. 

COSMIA,  &\vf\KVa.  — White-spotted  Pinion. 

,,         AFFINIS. — Lesser        ,,  ,, 

DIANTH^ECIA,  CARPOPHAGA.--  Tawny  Sheet*. 

„  CUCUBAU. —  The  Campion. 

HECATERA,  DYSODEA; — Small  Ranunculus. 
,,  SERENA. — Broad-barred  White. 

POLIA,  FLAVOCINCTA. — Large  Ranunculus. 
APLECTA,  TINCTA.—  Silvery  Arches. 

,,  AUVENA.—  Pale  Shining  Brown. 

HADENA,  CHENOPODII. — The  Nutmeg. 
CALOCAMPA,  VETUSTA.— Red  Sword  Grass. 
XYLINA,  RIIIZOLITHA. — Gray  Shoulder  Knet. 
CUCULLIA,  VERBASCI.  -The  Mullein. 
„  UMBRATICA.  —  The  Shark. 

HELIOTHIS,*  ARMIGEKA.—  Scarce  Bordered  Straw. 
IIELIODES,  ARBUTI.--6V/™//  Yellnv  Undemving. 
BREPHOS,  PARTHENIAS.— Orange  Underwing. 

,,  NOTIIA. — Light  Orange  Undenting-. 

^.BROSTOLA,  URTIC^E.—  Light  Spectacle. 

,,  TRIPLASIA. — Dark  Spectacle. 

PLUSIA,  IOTA.—  Plain  Golden    Y. 

„         Y-  AUREUM. — Beautiful  Golden  Y. 
AM  PI  I  IP  Y  R  A,  P  Y  KAMI  DKA. — Copper  Underwing. 
CATOCALA,  NUPTA.— Red  Undenoin-. 

HYPENA,  ROSTRALIS. — Buttoned  Snout. 

*  The  wings  of  this  rare   moth  were  found  by  Mr.  Wilson  in  a  summer-house  at 


AVENTIA,  FLEXULA.— Beautiful  Hook-tip. 


SCOPARIA,  CRAIVEGALIS.— Whitethorn  Bar. 



The  following  table  shows  the  mean  rainfall  for  each 
month  in  the  year  at  Enfield,  from  observations  of  sixteen 
years,  viz.,  1849 — 1864  inclusive,  made  at  the  Vicarage- 
house,  by  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Heath: — 


January,  i  '90 
February,  i  •  1 5 
March,  i  '64 
April,  1-55 

May,  2*26 

June,  2  '04 

July,  2-36 

August,  1-95 
September,  2-42 
October,  2-51 
November,  1-87 
December,  1-55 

Whole  year    ...    23-20. 

The  year  1854  was  the  driest,  and  1860  the  wettest, 
within  this  period,  giving  respectively  16-46  and  34-57 
inches  in  twelve  months. 

The  mean  rainfall  for  ten  years,  1863  to  1872,  both 
inclusive,  as  taken  at  Old-park,  by  Alfred  L.  Ford,  Esq., 
was  as  follows : — 



January,  275 
February,  1-62 
March*  i  '68 
April,  1-32 

May,  i'99 

June,  i '9  2 

July,  1-86 

August,  2  •  1 7 
September,  2 '86 
October,  276 
November,  1,71 
December,  2-54 

Whole  year,          25-18. 

The  driest  year  during  this  period  was  1864,  and  the 
wettest,  1872,  when  the  respective  rainfall  was  16-38 
inches,  and  35-90  inches. 

The  average  given  in  the  last  ten  years  corresponds 
very  exactly  with  the  observations  taken  at  Tottenham 
by  the  late  Luke  Howard,  during  a  period  of  thirty-three 
years,  from  1797  to  1830,  giving  an  average  of  25*13 
inches,  that  at  Old-park  being  an  average  of  25-18  inches. 
The  great  discrepancy  between  these  results  and  those 
observed  by  Mr.  Heath,  arises  from  the  rain-gauge  at  the 
Vicarage  being  placed  at  the  top  of  the  house,  whilst 
those  at- Old-park  and  at  Tottenham  were  on  the  ground. 
It  is  a  well-known  and  curious  fact  that  the  elevation  of 


a  gauge  will  diminish  the  amount  of  rain*  collected,  and 
the  currents  of  air  on  a  roof  materially  affect  the  accuracy 
of  the  register. 

The  mean  temperature  at  Old-park  for  ten  years, 
from  1863  to  1872,  was, 

January,        34°o5 

February,     38°o5 

March,          40^5 

April,  48°45 

May,  52°85 

June,  59°6s 

July,  62°45 

August,         6o°2o 

September,  56°oo 

October,       46°95 

November,  48°20 

December,   35°95 

The  highest  temperature  during  this  period  being  93° 
July  2ist,  and  July  22nd,  1868,  and  the  lowest,  2°  Jan. 
3rd,  1867. 

*  Dr.  Dalton  found  that  the  rain  in  a  gauge  fifty  yards  above  the 
ground  was  in  summer  only  two-thirds,  and  in  winter  only  one-half 
of  that  in  a  gauge  on  the  surface. 



Worthy  of  record  for  their  antiquity,  magnitude,  or  beauty. 
(BY  j.  w.  F.) 

"Much  can  they  praise  the  trees  so  straight  and  hy, 

The  sapling  pine,  the  cedar  proud  and  talle, 
The  vine-propp  elme, — the  poplar,  never  dry  ; 

The  builder  oake,  sole  king  of  forests  all ; 
The  eugh,  obedient  to  the  bender's  will, 
The  birch  for  shafts,  the  sallow  for  the  mill ; 
The  warlike  beech  ;  the  ash  for  nothing  ill. 

The  Faerie  Queene,   Canto  l. 

There  being  many  "  old  patrician  trees"  in  the  parish 
of  Enfield  which  are,  perhaps,  without  their  equals  in  the 
county,  a  notice  of  them  may  be  interesting  for  the 
purpose  of  future  comparison,  or  as  a  record  of  such  as 
may  soon  disappear.  The  measurements  have  all  been 
made  personally  by  the  writer,  and  are  in  each- case  taken 
where  they  most  fairly  represent  the  size  of  the  tree. 

ACACIA. — Robinia  Pseud-acacia. 

There  are  two  magnificent  specimens  at  the  Rectory, 
and  a  third  at  Bohun  Lodge,  possibly  the  oldest  in  the 
country.  No  trees  of  such  size  are  recorded  by  Loudon. 
The  respective  measurements  are  at  3  feet  from  ground. 
Girth,  i6-ft.  8-in.,  spread  of  branches,  69-ft.;  girth. 
i4-ft.  2-in.,  spread,  66-ft.  At  ground,  i8-ft.  4-in.;  at  three 
feet,  i3-ft  n-in.  Height,  7o-ft. 


The  acacia  was  one  of  the  first  North  American  trees 
introduced  into  Europe.  The  oldest,  which  is  in  the 
Jardin  des  Plantes,  was  planted  in  1635,  and  destroyed 
in  the  late  revolution.  It  was  raised  from  seed  sent  over 
to  Jean  Robin,  the  professor  of  botany,  from  whom  the 
tree  takes  its  generic  name.  It  was  introduced  into 
England  in  1640, 

ASH. — -Fraxinus  Excelsior. 

A  grand  old  shell  in  the  park  at  Forty  Hall  may  well 
have  been  a  sturdy  tree  when  Elizabeth  lived  here  at 
Elsynge  Hall.  It  still  supports  a  few  vigorous  branches. 
Measurement  at  ground,  girth,  z6-ft.  lo-in.  At 
3  feet,  i8-ft. 

Another  tree  in  the  wood  measures  at  5-ft.,  n-ft.  6-in., 
and  has  a  clean  stem  to  the  first  branch  of  more  than  4o-ft.; 
the  height  close  on  loo-ft. 

"The  leaves  of  this  tree,"  says  Gerard,  "are  of  such 
virtue  against  serpents  as  that  they  dare  not  so  much  as 
touch  the  morning  and  evening  shadowes  of  the  tree,  but 
shun  them  afar  off."  "  We  write"  says  he,  " upon 

BEECH. — Fagus  Sylvatica. 

Many  noble  beeches  still  remain  in  Trent  Park, 
the  lingering  relics  of  the  ancient  Chase  of  Enfield. 
The  finest  specimens  are  not  far  from  Camlet- 
moat,  to  the  right  and  left  of  the  drive,  soon  after  entering 


by  the  lodge  on  the  Camlet  way.  The  following  are  par- 
ticularly worthy  of  notice.  To  the  right  of  drive,  a  tree 
with  seat  round  it — At  i-ft.  6-in.,  girth  2o-ft.  g-in.; 
at  4-ft,  15-ft.  3-in.;  at  i4-ft.,  12-ft.  3-in.  Height, 
io2-ft.  The  stem  is  estimated  to  contain  2ii-ft.  of 

To  the  left  of  drive  a  magnificent  tree — At  i-ft.  6-in., 
girth,  ig-ft.  8-in.;  at  4-ft,  i5-ft.  lo-in.  Height,  gS-ft. 
The  stem  is  estimated  to  contain  i68-ft.  of  timber,  and 
the  top  i8o-ft. 

This  tree  at  1 2-ft.  from  the  ground  divides  into  five 
mighty  stems,  the  branches  from  which  weep  to  the  ground 
on  every  side,  and  cover  an  area  of  io7-ft.  diameter. 

Many  splendid  beeches  in  this  park  have  of  late  years 
been,  unhappily,  felled.  Especially  worthy  of  record  was 
one  near  the  Camlet-road,  which  rose  for  4o-ft.  without  a 
branch,  and  with  a  bole  as  large  as  the  foregoing. 

COPPER  BEECH. — Fagus  Purpurea, 

There  are  three  copper  beeches  in  the  grounds  at  Capel 
House,  which,  from  their  great  size,  must  have  been 
among  the  earliest  planted  in  this  country,  and  may  vie 
with  those  at  Enville  and  Sion  as  the  largest  and  loftiest 
in  England.  i. — At  3-ft,  girth  8-ft  i-in.;  spread  of 
branches,  8i-ft.  2. — At  ground,  2o-ft.;  at  3-ft.,  Q-ft. 
lo-in.  3. — At  3-ft.,  lo-ft.  8-in. 

The  original  tree  from  which  all  the  others  in  Europe  are 
derived  was  discovered  in  a  wood  in  Germany,  in  the 
middle  of  the  last  century. 


BIRCH. — Bdula  Alba. 

A  very  fine  one  at  South  Lodge  is  unapproached  in 
size  by  any  hitherto  recorded,  or  probably  existing  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  London.  At  ground,  girth,  i6-ft. 
7-in.;  at  7-ft.,  7-ft.  8-in.  The  spread  of  branches  is  7 7 -ft; 
the  height  65-ft. 

CEDAR. — Cedrus  Libanl. 

The  oldest  cedar  in  England  is  undoubtedly  that  still 
flourishing  in  the  Palace  Garden  of  Enfield,  which  was 
planted  by  Dr.  Uvedale  between  1662  and  1670.  The 
next  in  age  were  those  planted  in  the  Chelsea  Physic 
Garden  by  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  which,  when  measured  by  Sir 
Joseph  Banks  in  1784,  were  fast  going  to  decay,  and 
were  then  far  behind  the  Enfield  cedar  in  size  and  beauty. 
The  largest  was  blown  down  in  the  autumn  of  1853, 
when  the  interior  was  found  to  be  almost  entirely 

One  other  besides  the  Palace  cedar  was  traditionally 
reported  to  have  been  planted  by  Queen  Elizabeth. 
This  stood  in  the  grounds  at  Hendon-place,  and  was 
blown  down  in  1770.  Its  spread  of  branches  was  ioo-ft., 
and  it  was  then  considered  to  be  the  finest  tree  in  England. 

"  The  great  cedar,"  at  Combe  Bank,  near  Sevenoaks, 
measures,  at  6-in.  from  the  ground,  iQ-ft.  6-in.;  at  6-ft., 
1 7-ft.  5-in.  We  give  the  measurements  of  nine  trees  in 
the  parish,  all  of  which  are  of  exceptional  size,  and  as 
the  cedar  at  the  Palace  has  increased  in  girth  several 


feet  in  the  course   of  fifty  years,    these    statistics  "may 
hereafter  be  of  interest. 

i. — The  Palace  Cedar.  Measurement  at  ground,  in 
1821,  iQ-ft.  9-in.;  in  1873,  25-ft.  3-in.;  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  in 
1821,  i6-ft.  i-in.;  in  1873,  ig-ft.  7-in.;  at  3-ft.,  in  1821, 
i3-ft.  6-in.;  in  1873,  i6-ft.  2-in. 

A  seedling  from  the  above,  planted  by  the  writer  at  Old 
Park  in  1846,  measures  5-ft.  7-in.  in  circumference. 
Another  planted  there  in  1851,  is  now  33-ft.  high. 

2. — At  Bohun  Lodge.  Measurement  at  i-ft.  6-in., 
i8-ft.  6-in. 

3. — At  East  Lodge.  Measurement  at  ground,  i8-ft; 
at  3-ft.  6-in.,  n-ft.  9-in.  This,  the  larger  of  two  sister 
trees,  is  remarkable  for  its  height,  which  is  upwards 
of  go-ft. 

4. — At  South  Lodge,  i,  measurement  at  3-ft.  6-in., 
i4-ft.  io-in.;  spread  of  branches,  8 4-ft.  2,  the  companion 
tree,  at  3-ft.  6-in.,  i4-ft.  8-in. 

5. — At  the  Mount,  Hadley.  Measurement  at  3-ft.  6-in., 
1 4-ft.  It  is  remarkable  that  this  fine  old  house  and 
grounds  are  in  the  parish  of  Enfield,  although  entirely 
surrounded  by  that  of  Hadley. 

6. — At  Belmont.  Measurement  at  ground,  i4-ft.  7-in; 
at  3-ft.  6-in.,  n-ft.  lo-in.  This,  the  finer  of  two  trees, 
is  7  5-ft.  high. 

7. — At  Forty  Hall,  i,  Measurement  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  i5-ft. 
at  4-ft,  i3-ft.  8-in.  Diameter  of  spread  of  branches,  92-ft. 
2,  Measurement  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  i5-ft.  7-in.;  at  4-ft,  15 -ft. 


Diameter  of  spread  of  branches,  loo-ft.  There  are  three 
other  fine  specimens  on  the  lawn,  one  of  which  is 
remarkable  for  preserving  a  timber-like  stem  for  upwards 
of  6o-ft. 

The  following  measurements  are  worth  recording,  as 
the  date  of  planting  can,  in  each  case,  be  fixed  with 

i. — The  father  of  Mr.  Taylor,  of  Grovelands,  Southgate, 
planted  a  cedar  there  in  the  year  1770,  the  measure- 
ments of  which,  as  now  taken,  are: — At  ground,  i6-ft.  6-in.; 
at  i-ft.  6-in.,  i3-ft.  8-in.;  at  4-ft,  i2-ft.  4-in.  Diameter  of 
spread  of  branches,  77-ft. 

2. — Peter  Collinson,  the  well-known  botanist,  and 
friend  of  Linnaeus,' planted  with  his  own  hand,  in  1768, 
on  the  estate  of  Osgood  Hanbury,  Esq.,  at  Coggeshall, 
two  cedars. 

Memorandum : — 

"  In  token  of  the  love  and  friendship  which  has  for  so 
"  many  years  subsisted  between  myself  and  my  dear 
"  friend  John  Hanbury  and  his  family,  and  as  a  lasting 
"  memorial  of  that  friendship,  I  desire  that  one  guinea 
"  may  be  given  to  my  sincere' friend  Osgood  Hanbury  to 
"  purchase  of  Gordon,  two  cedars  of  Lebanon  to  be 
"  planted  in  two  places  of  the  new  part  of  the  park  last 
"  taken  in.  Let  the  occasion  of  the  said  cedars  and  of 
"  their  ages  be  registered  in  the  great  Bible  at  Coggeshall, 
"  that  succeeding  generations  may  know  our  friendship, 
"  and  the  antiquity  of  these  trees.  To  my  worthy  friend 


"  Osgood  Hanbury  and  his  son  I  recommend  their  care 
"  and  protection." — P.  Collinson. 

For  the  present  dimensions  of  the  larger  of  these  trees 
we  are  indebted  to  the  courtesy  of  O.  Hanbury,  jun.,  Esq. 
Measurement  at  ground,  i8-ft.  io-in.;  at  i-ft.  6-in., 
i5-ft.  3-in.;  at  3-ft.,  i5-ft.  The  largest  branch  extends 
65-ft.  from  the  main  stem. 

The  data  here  given  show  that,  with  one  or  two 
exceptions,  the  cedar  of  Lebanon  is  more  rapid  in  its 
growth  than  any  tree  in  cultivation. 

A  short  note  may  be  added  respecting  the  far-famed 
cedars  on  Lebanon. 

Miller,  in  his  dictionary,  gives  the  spread  of  the 
largest  tree  then  remaining  as  1 1  i-ft.  The  girth  of  the 
largest,  according  to  Maundrell,  was,  in  1696,  36-ft.  6-in. 

The  original  trees  are  constantly  decreasing  in  number. 
In  1550,  28  were  counted;  in  1575,  Ranwollf  saw  24 
sound  trees ;  in  1600,  there  were  but  23 ;  in  1696, 
Maundrell  found  only  16  remaining  ;  in  1810,  Burckhardt 
counted  n  or  12  ;  in  1818,  Dr.  Richardson  found  that 
"  the  old  cedars,  the  glory  of  Lebanon,  were  no  more  than 
seven  in  number."  And  a  friend,  who  visited  the  district 
in  1872,  saw  three  of  these  y^ing  on  the  ground.  Four 
trees  only  remain  of  the  mighty  forest  which  once 
employed  eighty  thousand  hewers.* 

i  Kings,  v.  15. 


The  Maronites  have  a  curious  tradition  that  no  sooner 
do  the  snows  begin  to  fall  than  these  cedars  change  their 
figure.  The  branches,  which  before  spread  themselves, 
rise  insensibly,  gathering  together,  and  turn  their  points 
upwards  towards  heaven,  forming  a  pyramid.  Nature, 
they  say,  inspires  this  movement,  without  which  they  could 
never  sustain  the  immense  weight  of  snow  remaining  for 
so  long  a  time. 

"It  was  a  cedar  tree  ; 

Its  broad  round-spreading  branches,  when  they  felt 
The  snow,  rose  upwards  in  a  point  to  heaven, 
And  standing  in  their  strength  erect, 
Defied  the  baffled  storm. "—  Thalaba. 

"  The  Gentiles  were  wont  to  make  their  divels  ^or 
images  of  this  kind  of  wood  that  they  might  last  the 
longer." —  Gerard. 

CHESTNUT  (HORSE). — sEsculus  Hippocastanum. 

A  very  fine  tree  near  the  entrance  lodge  at  Forty  Hall. 
Measurement  at  ground,  i8-ft.  i-in.;  at  4-ft.  6-in., 
lo-ft.  lo-in.  Greatest  spread  of  single  branch,  4  2 -ft; 
height,  8o-ft.  This  tree  was  selected  by  Loudon,  and 
figured  in  his, Arboretum  as  a  magnificent  specimen  of  a 
chestnut  in  its  prime. 

A  remarkably  picturesque  chestnut  at  Chase  Park  has 
no  main  trunk,  but  immediately  throws  out  branches, 
which  resting  on  the  ground  cover  an  area,  the  diameter 
of  which  is  8i-ft. 


Loudon  records  a  tree  in  Enfield  ico-ft.  high,  but  this 
we  have  been  unable  to  trace.  Mr.  St.  Hilaire  states  that 
the  chestnut  was  brought  to  England  from  the  mountains 
of  Thibet  in  1550.  It  was  not  known  in  England  before 
1615.  The  chestnut  was  brought  from  the  mountains  of 
Thibet  to  Constantinople,  in  1850,  and  thence  obtained 
by  Clusius  from  the  Imperial  Ambassador  at  the  Porte  in 
1576.  It  is  first  mentioned  in  this  country  by  Parkinson 
in  1629,  who  placed  it  in  his  orchard  as  a  fruit  tree,  and 
describes  the  nut  as  superior  to  the  ordinary  sort. 

CHESTNUT  (SPANISH). — Castanea  Vesca. 
An  old  tree  at  South  Lodge  measures  at  5 -ft.,  i5-ft.  7 -in. 
Another  in  the  wood  at  Forty  Hall,  upwards  of  Qo-ft. 
high;  measures  at  ground,  ly-ft.  7 -in.;  at  5 -ft,  n-ft.  The 
stem  is  timber  for  upwards  of  7o-ft,  below  which  height 
it  throws  out  no  important  branches. 

CORNELIAN  CHERRY. —  Cornus  Mas. 
A  very  old  example  of  the  Cornelian  Cherry,  which 
rarely  reaches  the  dignity  of  a  tree,  died  at  Old  Park  a 
few  years  since.  The  tree  was  upwards  of  4-ft.  in 
circumference,  and  was  by  estimation  larger  than  the 
famous  trees  in  the  castle  at  Heidelberg,  long  noted  as  the 
most  remarkable  in  Europe.  The  tree  was  introduced 
into  England  in  1596,  and  is  the  only  English  grown  wood 
which,  from  its  weight,  will  sink  in  water.  Pliny  speaks 
of  it  as  nearly  equal  to  iron  in  hardness,  and  as  such  "  fit 
for  making  wedges." 


CRAB. — Pyms  Afalus  Acerbus. 

An  extraordinary  crab  tree  in  White  Webb's  Park, 
measures  at  i-ft.,  8-ft.  2-in.,  and  is  149-11.  in  circumference, 
covering  upwards  of  a  quarter  of  an  acre  of  ground  with 
its  dense  circular  head.  This  is,  as  far  as  can  be  ascer- 
tained, unequalled  by  any  other  known  specimen. 

DECIDUOUS  CYPRESS. — Taxodium  Distichum. 

There  are  two  exceptionally  fine  trees  on  the  banks  of 
the  lake  at  South  Lodge,  i. — Measures  at  ground, 
i6-ft.  7-in.;  at  5-ft.,  lo-ft.  4-in.  Height,  upwards  of 
7o-ft.  2. — Measures  at  5-ft.,  8-ft.  4-in.  This  tree  was 
introduced  from  America  before  1740.  In  damp  places 
the  roots  throw  up  remarkable  conical  protuberances, 
from  i  to  2-ft.  high,  and  as  much  as  4-ft.  thick,  always 
hollow.  Michaux  says,  "They are  cut  off,  and  made  use 
of  by  the  negroes  for  beehives." 

ELM. —  Ulmus  Campestris. 

Of  the  well-known  specimens  on  Forty-hill,  the  largest 
unfortunately  lost  its  head  in  a  great  storm  in  1863.  This 
tree  measures  at  the  ground,  26-ft.;  and  at  4-ft.,  i8-ft.  6-in. 
A  fine  engraving  of  these  trees,  now  very  scarce, 
was  published  August  loth,  1818,  by  J.  C.  Lewis,  the 
author  of  "  The  Rivers  of  England,"  and  engraver  of 
Claude's  Liber  Studiorum. 

The  keel  of  "  The  British  Queen"  was  cut  from  an  elm 
tree  felled  at  Forty  Hall.  She  was  the  largest  vessel  that 


had  then  been  built,  being  35-ft.  longer  than  any  ship  in  the 
navy.  At  the  time  of  the  Crimean  war  the  central 
portions  of  five  keels,  upwards  of  4o-ft.  long,  were  cut 
here  for  dispatch-boats. 

An  extraordinary  elm,  known  for  generations  as  "  The 
Raven  Elm,"  was  cut  down  in  Bush  Hill  Park,  in  1839. 
This  tree  was  so  thick  that  the  largest  cross-cut-saw  in  the 
district  was  found  too  short  for  the  purpose,  and  three 
extra  feet  were  joined  on  to  it,  making  the  saw  i2-ft.  long. 
Two  planks,  each  32-ft.  long,  7-ft.  wide,  and  i2-in.  thick 
through  their  entire  length,  were  cut  out  of  it,  and  were 
made  into  a  dining-table  for  an  old  baronial  hall.  The 
trunk  contained  13  loads,  or  650  cubic  feet  of  timber. 

On  Hadley  Common — the  portion  of  the  Chase  allotted 
to  that  parish  under  the  Enclosure  Act — are  two  gigantic 
and  interesting  relics.  The  one  known  as  "  Larimer's 
Elm,"  and  so  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Map,  measures  at 
ground,  36-ft.  Q-in.;  at  4-ft,  2o-ft.  4-in.  Under  this  tree 
tradition  hands  down  that  Latimer  once  preached,  and 
from  its  venerable  age  it  was  probably  a  stately  tree  even 
in  his  time.  Its  situation  is  on  a  level  with  the  dome  of 
St.  Paul's,  and  on  a  clear  summer's  day  the  spectator  at 
its  foot  may  watch  the  ships  gliding  down  the  distant 

The  other  tree,  or  rather  barkless  shell,  stands  on  the 
verge  of  the  common  opposite  to  Hadley  Church.  It 
measures  at  the  ground,  3o-ft.;  at  5-ft.,  2o-ft.  From  a 
limb  of  this  "  gaunt  and  lifeless  tree,"  Lord  Lytton,  in  the 



concluding  chapter  of  the  last  of  the  Barons — the  closing 
scene  of  the  Battle  of  Barnet — hangs  the  wizard  Adam 

EVERGREEN  OAK. — Quercus  Ilex. 

A  beautiful  tree  at  Old  Park  rests  its  branches  on  the 
ground  in  every  direction,  and  has  a  spread  of  upwards 
of  70- ft.  diameter. 

Two  lofty  examples  at  Capel  House  measure  at  3-ft, 
9-ft.  7-in.,  and  g-ft.  g-in.  respectively. 

The  first  notice  of  the  evergreen  oak  in  this  country  is 
of  one  growing  "  in  the  king's  privie  garden  at  Whitehall," 
where  it  was  observed  by  Clusius  in  1581.  Evelyn, 
referring  to  the  same  specimen  in  1678,  speaks  of  it  as  a 
"  sickly  imp  of  more  than  fourscore  years  growth."  • 

FIR,  SILVER.— Pitta  Pectinata. 

A  remarkably  fine  tree  for  this  county,  98-ft.  high, 
formerly  stood  in  the  grounds  at  South  Lodge.  It  was 
struck  by  lightning  in  the  summer  of  1868,  and  a  large 
piece,  several  feet  long  and  a  foot  in  width,  torn  out  of 
the  main  stem  at  75-ft.  from  the  ground,  at  which  height 
daylight  was  distinctly  perceptible  through  the  trunk. 

The  loftiest  trees  recorded  by  Loudon  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  London  were,  one  at  Whitton,  97-ft.,  and 
another  at  Sion,  Q2-ft.  high. 

HAWTHORN. —  Cratagus  Oxycantha. 

A  tree  at  Trent  Park  measures  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  7-ft.  ic-in. 
A  picturesque  old  thorn  at  Old  Park  measures  8-ft.  8-in. 


HOLLY. — Ilex  Aquifolium. 

There  are  many  fine  hollies  in  the  rough,  tmcleared 
Chase  at  Trent  Park,  measuring  from  6  to  7 -ft.  in  cir- 
cumference, and  4o-ft.  in  height ;  one  now  little  more 
than  a  vast  ivy  bush,  is  at  5-ft.,  7-ft.  g-in.  in  girth; 
There  is  a  very  large  tree  at  Gough  Park,  and 
another  in  Bush  Hill  Park,  remarkable  for  its  clear 
stem  and  wide-spreading  head  and  branches. 

Cole,  in  his  Paradise  of  Plants,  states  that  he  knew  a" 
tree  which  the  owner  "  cut  down,  and  caused  to  be  sawed 
"  into  boards,  and  made  himself  thereof  a  coffin  ;  and,  if  I 
"  mistake  not,  left  enough  to  make  his  wife  one  also, 
"  Both  the  parties  were  very  corpulent,  and,  therefore,  you 
"may  imagine  the  tree  could  not  be  small." — Sylva 
Florifera,  \.,  p.  283. 

HORNBEAM. — Carpimis  Betutus; 

Two  -at  Trent  Park  are  of  great  size  and  spread,  i, 
measures  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  i3-ft.;  at  4-ft.,  lo-ft.  6-in.  2, 
measures  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  i4-ft.  6-iri.  One  at  Old  Park 
measures  at  3-ft,  6-ft.  6^-in. 

LARCH. — Larix  Europcea. 

Two  died  at  Old  Park  of  extreme  old  age  before  1850. 
The  girth  at  i-ft.  from  the  ground  was  g-ft.,  and  8-ft.  3-in. 
respectively.  It  was  difficult  to  trace  the  rings  of  the 
section,  but  the  trees  could  hardly  be  much  less  than  200 
years  old.  The  timber,  which  was  of  great  beauty,  was 
sawn  into  boards,  and  used  in  fitting-up  a  billiard-room, 


The  larch  is  first  mentioned  in  Parkinson's  Paradisus, 
1629,  as  "  rare,  and  nursed  up  but  with  a  few,  and  thosfc 
only  lovers  of  variety." 

Those  at  Dunkeld  are  supposed  to  be  the  oldest  now 
living  in  the  country;  the  largest  measured  in  1825  was 
at  3-ft,  J5-ft.  in  circumference.  Referring  to  these, 
Headrick,  in  his  Survey  of  Forfarshire,  says,  "  They 
were  brought  by  the  celebrated  Lockhart  of  Lee  (who  had 
been  Ambassador  from  Cromwell  to  France),  about  1660. 
After  Cromwell's  death,  thinking  himself  unsafe  on 
account  of  having  served  a  usurper,  he  retired  for  some 
time  into  the  territories  of  Venice  ;  he  there  observed  the 
great  use  the  Venetians  made  of  larches,  and  when 
he  returned  home  he  brought  a  number  of  plants  in  pots. 
He  nursed  them  in  hothouses  and  in  a  greenhouse  until 
they  all  died,  except  three ;  these,  in  desperation,  he 
planted  in  the  warmest  and  best  sheltered  part  of  his 
garden,  where  they  now  stand."  The  wood  of  the  larch 
is  perhaps  the  most  durable  known.  The  piles  upon 
which  Venice  is  built  are,  after  upwards  of  a  thousand 
years,  as  sound  as  when  first  driven,  and  hard  and  black 
as  ebony.  It  is  not  liable  to  become  worm-eaten,  as  may 
be  seen  in  many  of  Raphael's  pictures,  which  are  painted 
on  this  wood. 

LAUREL,  PORTUGAL. — Cerasus  Lusitanica. 

At  Old  Park,  one  3o-ft.  high,  and  io5-ft.  diameter. 
Loudon  records  the  largest  known  trees  in  England,  but 


mentions  none  of  this  size.  It  was  introduced  about 
1648,  being  first  grown  at  Highgate  by  Mr.  James  Cole, 
who,  as  Parkinson  informs  us,  used  to  cover  it  in  winter 
with  a  blanket. 

LIME. — Tilia  Europcea. 

There  are  four  magnificent  limes  in  Bush  Hill  Park, 
i,  measures  at  ground,  26-ft.  Q-in.;  at  3 -ft,  15 -ft.  i-in. 
2,.  measures  at  ground,  26-ft.  3,  measures  at  ground, 
25-ft  4,  measures  at  ground,  23-ft.  6-in.;  and  at 
5 -ft.  8-in.,  i4-ft.  8-in.,  at  which  height  it  throws  out  three 
remarkable  limbs  at  right  angles  to  the  main  stem; 
the  largest  measures  6-ft.  i  i-in.  in  girth.  This  tree  is 
io6-ft.  high. 

The  noble  double  avenue  at  Forty  Hall  was  probably 
planted  by  Sir  Nicholas  Raynton  in  the  time  of  Charles  I. 
when  the  fashion  of  so  planting  this  tree  was  introduced 
by  Le  Notre,  in  accordance  with  the  prevailing  custom  in 

MULBERRY. — Morus  Nigra. 

There  are  two  very  ancient  trees  in  the  parish.  One 
at  Owl's  Hall  measures  at  i-ft.  6-in.,  6-ft.  8-in.;  at  4-ft, 
6ft.  lo-in.  The  other  in  the  old  garden  of  the  house  said 
to  have  been  the  birthplace  of  Isaac  D'Israeli,  measures 
at  i-ft.  6-in.,  7 -ft.  2-in.;  at  4-ft.,  7-ft.  7-in.  It  is 
believed  that  the  mulberry  was  brought  to  this  country  by 
Cardinal  Pole  in  1555,  when  he  planted  it  at  Lambeth. 


Its  frequent  occurrence  in  many  old  gardens  is  due  to 
the  attempt  made  by  James  I.,  in  1609,  to  introduce  the 
cultivation  of  the  silkworm,  when  the  King,  by  letters  to 
the  Lords  Lieutenant  of  the  several  shires,  gave  order  for 
the  planting  often  thousand  mulberry  trees  in  each  shire. 

It  is  curious  that  the  trees  of  the  above  date  are  all 
black  mulberries,  whereas  of  the  white  kind  (morns  alba), 
the  true  food  of  the  silkworm,  very  few  exist. 

However  promising  or  early  the  season,  the  mulberry 
never  bursts  its  buds  until  all  danger  of  frost  is  over. 

"  Cumgerminare  viderismorum,  injuriam  posted  frigoris 
timere  nolito" — PLINY. 

OAK. — Quercus  Robur. 

The  following  are  selected  from  among  the  many  trees 
for  which  Enfield  has  long  been  noted. 

A  venerable  pollard  at  Trent  Park  swells  out  into  a 
vast  stool  at  the  base,  where  it  measures  45-ft.  8-in.  in 

A  noble  tree  by  the  drive  of  the  house  is  io6-ft.  high, 
and  2Q-ft.  to  the  first  branch.  Measurement  at  2-ft, 
iQ-ft.  n-in.;  at  i4^ft,  i5-ft.  6-in.  It  is  estimated  to 
contain  52y-ft.  of  timber,  407  in  the  stem,  120  in  the  top. 

A  very  ancient  tree  at  Old  Park  measures  at  2-ft., 
2o-ft.  4-in.;  at  4-ft.,  ly-ft.  i-in.,  and  the  diameter  of  spread 
of  branches  is  io7-ft.  (The  spread  of  the  Minchenden 
Oak  at  Southgate  which  covers  the  largest  extent  of 
ground  of  any  tree  in  England  is  now  i26-ft,  having 
increased  8-ft.  since  1820.  This,  however,  is  a  pollard.) 


Another  tree  at  Old  Park,  in  full  vigour,  which  Sir 
Samuel  Cunard  pronounced  to  be  the  finest  grown  tree 
he  had  seen  in  this  country,  measures  at  3-ft.,  14- ft.,  and 
has  a  spread  of  i  xo-ft 

A  tree  in  the  Warren  Field  at  Forty  Hall,  measures  at 
i-ft.  6-in.,  2o-ft.;  at  4-ft.,  i6-ft.  4-in.,  and  the  diameter  of 
spread  of  branches  is  io2-ft. 

The  well-known  weeping  oak  in  front  of  Dr.  Collyer's 
house  measures  at  4-ft.  from  the  ground,  i5-ft.  i-in., — which 
will  give  the  reader  a  scale  of  comparison  for  the  size  of 
the  foregoing. 

POPLAR,  BLACK. — Populus  Nigra. 

A  large  tree  with  a  noble  head  at  South  Lodge  measures 
at  4-ft,  1 3-ft.  lo-in. 

A  row  of  fine  Lombardy  poplars — populus  dilatata — 
(the  last  of  which  was  blown  down  about  three  years  ago) 
formerly  stood  in  the  grounds  in  front  of  Col.  Somerset's 
house.  "  The  poplar  never  dry,"  is  the  most  incom- 
bustible wood  known,  on  which  account  it  is  in  great 
request  for  the  floors  and  wood-work  of  engine-rooms. 
As  it  is  a  tree  of  rapid  growth  and  thrives  well  in  this 
neighbourhood,  it  would  be  found  a  profitable  investment 
to  the  planter. 

TULIP  TREE. — Liriodendron  Tulipifera. 

There    are    two    very    old    trees    at    Capel    House. 

1,  measures  at  3-ft.,  g-ft.   i-in.,  and  is  fast  dying  from  age. 

2,  measures  at  3-ft.,  loft.  2-in.     Other  fine  specimens  are 


growing  at  Enfield  Court,  Gough  Park,  and  D'Acre 
Lodge.  The  tree  was  introduced  about  1660.  The 
original  still  survives  in  the  grounds  at  Fulham  Palace. 
Farmer,  in  his  History  of  Waltham  Abbey,  mentions  a 
tree  there  as  "  the  largest  and  biggest  that  ever  was  seen." 

WILLOW. — Salix  Alba. 

There  are  two  very  fine  willows  growing  on  the  banks 
of  the  New  River  in  White  Webbs  Park.  The  finest 
measures  at  3-ft.,  i5-ft.  6-in.  East  Lodge  was  formerly 
famous  for  great  willows ;  the  remains  of  several  still 

A  specimen  of  the  Weeping  Willow,  Salix  Babylonica, 
at  Old  Park  was  brought  from  the  tomb  of  Napoleon 
at  St.  Helena,  in  1835.  Its  height  is  a  little  above  4o-ft. 

YEW. — Taxus  Baccata. 

There  is  a  tree  in  the  Vicarage  garden  remarkable  for 
its  great  spread,  upwards  of  4o-ft,  and  for  the  amount  of 
timber  in  the  stem. 

The  ancient  yew  tree  in  the  Church-yard  is  noticeable 
as  having  been  clipped  for  centuries  into  a  pyramid,  of 
which  shape  it  still  retains  traces,  although  the  preserva- 
tion of  this  formal  style  has  probably  been  neglected  for 
more  than  a  hundred  years. 




"  He  'gan  to  hope  of  men  to  be  received 

For  such  as  he  him  thought,  or  fain  would  be, — 

But  as  in  court,  gay  pourtance  he  perceived, 

And  gallant  show  to  be  in  greatest  gree, 

Eftsoones  to  court  he  cast,  t'advance  his  first  degree." 

T7ie  Faery  Queene. 

An  old  and  generally  accepted  tradition  claims  for  a 
cottage  at  Chase-side,  (the  property  of  Colonel  Somerset, 
and  situated  between  the  Workhouse  and  the  Gordon 
Estate) — the  distinction  of  having  been  formerly  the 
residence  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh ; — and  the  authorities  of 
the  Ordnance  Survey  have  endorsed  the  popular  belief 
by  so  naming  it  upon  their  map  of  the  parish. 

It  has  evidently  been,  at  one  time,  a  house  of  more 
pretension  than  its  present  appearance  might  at  first 
indicate,  and  the  woodwork  and  the  old  panelling  of  the 
rooms  are  indisputably  of  the  i6th  century. 

Some  confirmation  is  given  to  the  common  tradition 
by  the  discovery,  about  thirty  years  ago,  of  a  small  recess 
in  the  wall,  near  the  fireplace,  which  was  concealed  by  a 


movable  pannel,  and  contained  a  curious  tobacco-pipe, 
apparently  of  Mexican  design. 

This  pipe  (which  was  purchased  by  the  late  James 
Spencer  Bell,  Esq.,  then  M.P.  for  Guildford),  was  made 
of  a  close-grained  fragrant  wood,  and  mounted  with  a 
silver  rim  and  lid  ; — the  bowl  i  ^2  inches  in  diameter, 
being  quaintly  carved  with  three  faces — the  eyes  of  the 
middle1  face  being  borrowed  from  its  neighbours.  Its 
whole  length  was  about  nine  inches. 

It  is  certain  that  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  came  up  from 
College  in  hopes  of  obtaining  promotion  at  Court,  at  the 
very  time  when  Queen  Elizabeth  was  residing  in  Enfield, 
and  as  he  never  came  to  court  again  till  after  the  lapse 


of  thirteen  years,  when  he  had  obtained  wealth,  promo- 
tion, and  renown, — it  must  have  been  on  this  occasion 
that  the  romantic  incident  of  the  cloak  occurred,  to 
which  history  ascribes  his  first  introduction  to  the 
Queen's  notice,  and  the  commencement  of  his  brilliant 

There  seems  no  good  reason  to  question  the  truth  of 
the  story  which  presents  a  scene  so  picturesque  and  so 
much  in  harmony  with  the  character  of  both  actors  as  to 
make  every  one  reluctant  to  doubt  its  reality. 

Some  modern  writers,  indeed,  suffering  under  the 
enlightened  intellect  of  the  age,  have  thought  fit  to  treat 
the  tale  as  apocryphal,  but  there  is  perhaps  hardly  any 
fact  in  English  history  which,  as  we  hope  to  show,  rests 
upon  better  evidence,  or  of  which  both  the  time  and 
place  can  be  more  probably  identified  after  the  lapse  of 
three  centuries. 

The  original  narrative  is  given  in  the  "  History  of  the 
Worthies  of  England,  endeavoured  by  Thomas  Fuller,  D.D., 
London,  1662,"  and  is  as  follows  : — 

"  He  was  bred  in  Oriel  Colledg,  in  Oxford,  and  thence 
"  comming  to  Court  formed  some  hopes  of  the  Queen's 
"  favours  reflecting  upon  him  ; — this  made  him  write  in 
"  a  glasse  window,  obvious  to  the  Queen's  eye, — 
"  '  Fain  would  I  climb,  yet  fear  to  fall.' 

"  Her  Majesty,  either  espying,   or  being  shown  it,   did 
"  under  write, — 

"  '  If  thy  heart  fails  thee,  climb  not  at  all." 


So  far  the  statement  of  Fuller  is  substantiated  by  the 
fact  (which  will  be  more  fully  detailed)  that  Raleigh 
abruptly  left  Oriel  College  and  came  up  along  with  his 
cousin,  to  his  relations  the  Dennys,  who  lived  at  Ches- 
hunt ; — of  which,  as  well  as  of  Waltham-abbey,  they  were 
the  proprietors  ; — his  aunt,  Lady  Denny,  was  in  attend- 
ance on  the  Queen,  to  whom  she"  was  related  through 
the  Boleyns,  and  who  at  this  time  was  holding  her  court 
at  Enfield. 

Here,  however,  a  slight  difficulty  arises  in  the  narrative 
of  Fuller,  who  proceeds  to  say, — "  However,  he  at  last 
"climbed  up  the  stairs  of  his  own  desert,  but  his  intro- 
duction to  the  Court  bare  an  elder  date,  from  this 
"  occasion.  This  Captain  Raleigh  coming  out  of  Ireland 
"  to  the  English  court  in  good  habit  (his  cloaths  being 
"  then  a  considerable  part  of  his  estate)  found  the  Queen 
"  walking,  till  meeting  with  a  plashy  place  she  seemed  to 
"scruple  going  thereon.  Presently  Raleigh  cast  and 
"  spred  his  new  plush  cloak  on  the  ground,  whereon  the 
"Queen  trod  gently,  rewarding  him  afterwards  with 
"  many  suits  for  his  so  free  and  seasonable  a  tender  of  so 
"fair  a  foot-cloath.  Thus  an  advantageous  admission 
"into  the  first  notice  of  a  Prince  is  more  than  half  a 
"  degree  to  preferment." — [Fuller's  Worthies,  folio  edition, 
p.  262.] 

There  is  certainly  some  confusion  in  this  statement, 
which  it  must  be  remembered  was  written  long  after  the 
occurrence  which  it  relates.  The  construction  is  some- 


what  ambiguous,  but  it  seepis  to  imply,  and  no  doubt, 
correctly,  that  the  incident  of  the  cloak  occurred  at  an 
earlier  date  than  that  of  the  window,  and  it  is  distinctly 
said  to  have  been  Raleigh's  first  introduction.  His 
return  from  Ireland  however,  was  thirteen  years  after  the 
exchange  of  rhymes  on  the  "  glasse," — if  that  took  place 
on  his  first  coming  to  court;  and  by  this  time  Raleigh  had 
become  equally  distinguished  for  valour  and  ability,  and 
his  exploits  were  so  conspicuous  as  to  be  particularly  and 
circumstantially  recited  by  the  historians  of  the  period. 
He  had  then  obtained  not  only  his  "  first  preferment,"  but 
had  been  appointed  along  with  his  cousin,  Sir  Edward 
Denny,  to  the  government  of  Munster,  a  post  of  the 
greatest  importance,  shortly  afterwards  followed  by  the 
substantial  reward  of  12000  acres  of  the  forfeited  princi- 
pality of  the  Earls  of  Desmond,  whose  rebellion  he  had 
assisted  to  quell. 

Some  error  is  therefore  patent  in  the  consecutiveness 
of  Fuller's  narrative,  but  as  he  himself  says,  "  It  is  im- 
possible for  an  author  of  a  voluminous  book,  consisting 
of  several  persons  and  circumstances,  to  have  such 
ubiquity  of  intelligence,  as  to  apply  the  same  infallibly  to 
every  particular." 

It  is  well  known  that  Gibbon  had  proposed  to  write  a 
biography  of  Raleigh,  which,  after  much  research  and 
hesitation,  he  finally  abandoned,  from  finding  it  hopeless 
"  to  obtain  accurate  information  as  to  the  most  important 
"events  of  his  public  and  the  whole  of  his  private  life;" 


and  such  was  the  destitution  of  biographical  detail,  that 
the  old  lives  by  Oldys  (1733)  and  by  Birch  (1751)  were 
prefixed  without  alteration  or  amendment  to  the  edition 
of  Raleigh's  works,  published  in  1829,  by  the  directors 
of  the  Clarendon  press. 

It  must  always  be  a  matter  of  regret  that  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh  himself  did  not  spend  some  of  the  time  consumed 
in  writing  his  "  History  of  the  World,"  on  his  own 
biography.  The  few  allusions  to  his  own  knowledge  of 
the  scenes  which  he  describes  are  touches  of  genius,  and 
are  full  of  interest.  In  default,  however,  of  such  a 
narrative,  a  summary  of  known  facts  and  dates  will  be 
the  best  guide  to  the  reader's  judgment. 

Sir  Walter  Raleigh  was  born  at  Hayes,  in  Devonshire, 
in  1552,  being  the  second  son  by  his  father's  third 
marriage  with  "Catherine,  daughter  of  Sir  Philip  Champcr- 
nown,  of  Modbury,  and  widow  of  Otho  Gilbert,  of 

He  was  entered  at  Oriel  College,  Oxford,  about  his 
sixteenth  year,  but  he  soon  left  it  along  with  his  cousin 
Champernown,  who  had  been  his  fellow-student,  to  join  a 
company  of  volunteers,  which  was  then  enlisting  under 
the  auspices  of  Queen  Elizabeth  for  the  assistance  of  the 
Huguenots  in  France. 

Sir  Anthony  Denny,  of  Cheshunt  and  Waltham  Abbey, 
had  married  Raleigh's  aunt,  "  Dame  Joan,  daughter  of 
Sir  Philip  Champernon,  of  Modbury ;"  he  had  been 
gentleman  of  the  bed-chamber  and  privy  counsellor  to 


Henry  VIII. ,  who  made  him  one  of  his  executors. 
"Nor  (adds  Fuller)  was  it  the  worst  piece  of  service  he 
"  performed  to  his  master,  that  when  all  other  courtiers 
"  declined  the  employment,  he  truly  acquainted  him  with 
"  his  dying  condition,  to  dispose  of  his  soul  for  another 
"  world." 

Their  second  son,  Sir  Edward  Denny  (who  afterwards 
accompanied  Raleigh  to  Ireland,  "  where,  by  God's 
"  blessing,  Queen  Elizabeth's  bounty,  and  his  own  valour, 
"  he  achieved  a  fair  estate  in  the  county  of  Kerry") — was 
five  years  the  senior  of  Raleigh,  and  they  were  both 
seeking  enrolment  in  the  troop  of  gentlemen  volunteers 
which  shortly  afterwards  joined  the  French  expedition 
under  the  command  of  Henry  Champernon. 

It  is  clear  that  during  these  preparations  Raleigh 
must  have  been  living  on  the  spot,  and  at  this  time  Queen 
Elizabeth  was  holding  her  court  at  Elsynge  Hall,  where, 
as  we  learn  from  Sir  William  Cecil's  letters,  she  came  in 
July,  1568,  and  it  must,  therefore,  have  been  here  that 
the  young  student  "  comming  to  court  from  Oxford" 
formed  some  hopes  of  the  Queen's  favours  "reflecting 
upon  him,"  which  we  are  told  "  made  him  write  in  a 
glasse  window"  his  line  of  budding  ambition. 

In  the  following  year,  1569,  he  went  with  his  company 
to  France,  where  he  is  said  to  have  narrowly  escaped  the 
massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew.  He  did  not  return  to 
England  till  1576,  when  he  proceeded  to  the  Low 
Countries,  where  he  served  for  a  year  under  the  Prince  of 


( )range,  and  in  1578  finding  his  half-brother  Sir  Humphrey 
Gilbert  engaged  in  a  design  for  making  discoveries  in 
North  America,  he  embarked  in  it  with  eagerness. 

On  his  return  from  this  expedition  in  1579,  the  rebellion 
in  Ireland  had  broken  out,  and  having  obtained  a 
captain's  commission  he  joined  the  Queen's  army  there 
along  with  his  old  companion,  Edward  Denny,  when  they 
both  rapidly  obtained  promotion  and  wealth,*  Raleigh 
himself  being  made  Governor  of  Cork. 

It  could  hardly  have  been  at  this  time  that  a  consider- 
able part  of  Raleigh's  estate  consisted  of  "  his  new  plush 
coat,"  and  it  certainly  could  not  have  been  now  that  he 
obtained  that "  first  notice  of  a  prince  which  is  more  than 
"  half  a  degree  to  preferment."  If  his  "  introduction  to 
"  the  Court,"  and  to  the  "  first  notice"  of  the  Queen  was 

*  "  Sir  Edward  Denny  was  buried  in  Waltham  Abbey,  under  a 
"curious  marble  monument,  supported  by  large  marble  pillars 
"where  lies  the  portraiture  of  the  said  Sir  Edward  and  Dame  Joan, 
' '  his  wife,  and  underneath  are  six  sons  and  four  daughters  kneeling. 
' '  This  tomb  is  of  a  curious  piece  of  workmanship  ;  the  epitaph  is  in 
"gold  letters  on  a  black  marble,  and  is  thus  : — 

"  An  epitaph  upon  the  death  of  the  Right  Worthy  Sir  Edward 
' '  Denny,  Knight,  son  of  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Anthony  Denny, 
"  counsellor  of  estate  and  executor  to  King  Henry  VIII.  and  of  Joan 
"  Chamnon,  his  wife,  who  being  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  Privy 
"Chamber,  and  one  of  the  Council  of  Munster  in  Ireland,  was 
"  governor  of  Kerry  and  Dismondy,  there  departed  this  life  about 
"the  52  year  of  his  age,  the  2ist  Feb.,  1599." 

Farmer's  I  fist,  of  Waltham,  1735- 


owing  to  his  tender  of  the  "  fair  foot-cloath,"  this  must 
have  been  on  his  coming  from  Oriel  (not  Ireland)  to 
Enfield  ;  and  the  action  itself  is  much  more  like  the 
impulsive  enthusiasm  of  a  boy  than  the  more  sober  loyalty 
of  the  Governor  of  Cork. 

In  Sir  Walter  Scott's  graphic  description  of  these  events 
he,  with  much  natural  probability,  represents  the  incident 
of  the  cloak  as  occurring  just  before  the  inscription  of  the 
couplet  :  but  it  need  hardly  be  added  that  the  time  and 
place  which  he  assigns  to  them  are  wholly  imaginary  and 
inconsistent  with  history.*  Every  native  of  Enfield  may 
be  excused  if,  with  the  evidence  before  him,  he  should 
with  more  likelihood  place  the  scene  of  action  on  an 
autumnal  day  of  1568,  in  one  of  the  forest  walks  of 
Forty  Hall  (then  Elsynge  Hall)  leading  along  the  banks 
of  the  "  MAIDEN  BRIDGE  BROOK."  Tradition  is  silent  as 

*  The  date  assumed  in  Kenilworth  (1575)  is  some  six.  years  after 
Raleigh  embarked  for  France,  and  six  years  before  he  returned  from 
his  campaign  in  Ireland.  Perhaps  no  work  of  Sir  W.  Scott's  is  so 
full  of  anachronisms,  arising  probably  from  a  wish  to  introduce  all 
the  celebrated  characters  of  the  age  into  his  brilliant  picture.  Lord 
Southampton  is  addressed  by  Queen  Elizabeth  as  the  patron  of 
Shakespeare,  when  that  nobleman  was  not  two  years  old,  and  the 
poet  was  acquiring  his  small  Latin  and  less  Greek  in  the  grammar- 
school  at  Stratford.  The  "Tempest"  is  quoted,  which  was  not 
written  till  a  quarter  of  a  century  later,  after  the  Queen's  death  ;  and 
Raleigh  himself  receives  the  honour  of  knighthood  in  July,  I57S> 
which  was  not  conferred  till  1584,  after  his  return  from  Virginia. 



to  the  origin  of  this  name,  but  in  the  earliest  survey  of 
the  Chase  the  stream  has  the  less  romantic  appellation 
of  "  OLD  POND  GUTTER."  In  one  of  the  Forty  Hall 
deeds  (temp.  James  I.)  the  bridge  which  crosses  it  is 
called  "  Cole's  Bridge,  otherwise  Maiden's  Bridge." 


"Right  well  I  wote 
"  That  all  this  famous  antique  history 
"  By  some  the  abondance  of  an  ydle  braine 
"  Will  judged  be,  and  painted  forgery  ; 
"Rather  than  matter  of  just  memory." 

The  Faery  Queene. 

One  by  one,  the  most  picturesque  incidents  in  English 
history,  to  which  tale  and  song  have  conceded  renown, 
have  been  consigned  by  "  modern  progress"  to  the  limbo 
of  myths  ;  and  the  latest  biographer  of  Raleigh,  Mr. 
Edwards,  pronounces  Fuller's  anecdotes  to  be  too  well 
known  and  too  apocryphal  to  need  repetition, — giving, 
however,  no  better  reason  than  that  Raleigh  died  whilst 
Fuller  was  a  schoolboy. 

It  may  be  worth  while  then  to  inquire  from  what 
sources  Fuller  is  likely  to  have  obtained  his  information, 
and  what  probable  reliance  he  could  place  upon  his 
authorities.  His  own  truthfulness  has  never  been 
questioned,  and  his  memory  is  well  known  to  have  been 
wonderful.  As  to  his  fitness  to  weigh  evidence,  he  shall 
speak  for  himself : — 


"The  causes  of  books  being  farced  with  fauxities  are 
(he  says)  : — 

"  i.  Want  of  honest  hearts,  which  betrayed  their  pen 
"  to  untruths. 

"2.  Want  of  able  heads  to  distinguish  reports  from 
"records — not  choosing  but  gathering;  or  rather  not 
"  gathering,  but  scraping  what  could  come  to  their  hands. 

"3.  Want  of  true  matter  to  furnish  out  those  lives  in 
"  any  proportion — as  cooks  are  sometimes  fain  to  lard 
"  lean  meat,  which  otherwise  would  hardly  be  eatable  for 
"  the  drynesse  thereof. 

"  For  my  own  part  I  had  rathef  my  reader  should  arise 
"  hungry  from  my  book, — rather  uninformed  than  misin- 
"  formed  thereby — rather  ignorant  than  having  a  falsehood, 
"or  at  best  a  conjecture  for  a  truth  obtruded  upon  him." 

He  tells  us  further  on — "  to  give  the  particulars  whence 
"  I  have  derived  my  information — first,  printed  books  ; 
"  secondly,  records  in  public  offices  ;  third,  manuscripts  in 
"  the  possession  of  private  gentlemen  ;  fourth,  instructions 
"  received  from  the  nearest  relations  to  those  whose  lives 
"  we  have  presented" 

"  Now  let  us  see  how  far  Fuller  had  access  to  Raleigh's 
near  relations.  In  1634  he  was  collated  to  the  rectory  of 
Broad  Windsor,  in  Dorset.  Here  he  was  on  the  most  inti- 
mate terms  with  the  family  of  the  Drakes  ;  Henry  Drake, 
who  is  called  in  his  life  of  Sir  Francis  Drake  "his  dear  and 
"  worthy  parishioner,"  was  married  to  "  Amy,  widow  of 
Sir  Arthur  Champernoun."  In  1648  (Newcourt  dates  the 


preferment  1640),  he  was  presented  to  the  perpetual 
curacy  of  Waltham  Abbey,  within  four  miles  of  Elsynge 
Hall.  Here  he  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Sir  Henry 
Wrothe,  to  whom  he  dedicated  one  of  the  books  of  his 
Church  History,  and  a 'visitor  at  his  house  at  Durants, 
which  was  only  two  miles  distant. 

The  Dennys  were  still  the  proprietors  of  Waltham  ; 
the  magnificent  tomb  of  Sir  Edward  Denny,  Raleigh's  old 
friend  and  relation,  had  lately  been  erected  in  the  Abbey 
directly  before  Fuller's  eye  as  he  officiated  at  the  com- 
munion table.  Sir  Edward  Denny's  son  (Baron  of 
Waltham  and  afterwards  Earl  of  Norwich),  had  "  settled 
"  upon  the  curate  of  Waltham,  to  whom  abare  stipend  of  but 
"  eight  pounds  a  year  did  belong,  one  hundred  pounds. per 
"  annum,  with  some  other  considerable  obligations,  without 
"  which  the  minister  thereof  must  have  kept  more  fasting 
"  days  than  ever  were  placed  in  the  Roman  calendar." 

It  is  certain  then  that  Fuller  had  the  opportunity  of 
obtaining  his  information  direct  from  Raleigh's  relations, 
as  well  as  from  those  living  on  the  spot,  and  of  whose 
evidence  we  know  that  he  availed  himself  in  other 
matters.  One  old  servant  -of  the  Dennys,  whom  he  else- 
where quotes  as  his  authority,  may  have  brushed  the  very 
cloak  of  Raleigh  when  he  was  a  boy.' 

If  "  the  most  honest  and  laborious  author  of  the  i7th 
century"  had  the  means  of  obtaining  "  true  matter  to 
"  furnish  out "  any  of  his  lives  he  must  have  had  them 
here  ;  and  if  the  events  recorded  ever  happened  at  all, 


they  must  have  happened  when  Raleigh  first  left  Oriel 
with  his  cousin  to  come  to  Court,  which  was  at  that  time 
at  Enfield. 

One  difficulty  still  remains  to  be  considered — the 
evident  confusion  as  to  the  dates  and  order  of  the  two 
events.  The  wonderful  tenacity  of  Fuller's  memory  has 
been  mentioned  above ; — but  it  was  a  memory  of  a  very 
peculiar  kind — it  was  one  more  of  isolated  facts  than  of 
logical  sequence. 

It  is  said  that  he  could  repeat  a  series  of  five  hundred 
strange  and  unconnected  words  after  hearing  them  twice, 
and  that,  on  one  occasion,  after  walking  from  Temple  Bar 
to  the  conduit  at  the  end  of  Cheapside,  he  could  repeat 
the  sign  of  every  shop  on  both  sides  of  the  street,  either 
backwards  or  forwards. 

Equally  singular  was  Fuller's  method  of  composition. 
We  are  told  that  "  he  wrote  near  the  margin  the  first 
"  words  of  every  line  down  to  the  foot  of  the  paper,  after- 
"  wards  filling  up  the  lines  and  connecting  the  beginning 
"  and  ends."  He  also  "  left  blank  spaces  for  the  dates, 
"  or  sometimes  filled  them  up  conjecturally,  without  any 
"supposed  need  of  nice  method,  as  he  designed  to  be 
"  more  exact  upon  better  opportunity."  "  A  stranger  to 
"  my  method,"  he  himself  tells  us,  "  would  hardly  rally 
"  my  scattered  and  posthumous  notes." 

Now  this  contingency  is  exactly  what  occurred: — 
Fuller  died  Aug.  15,  1661,  and  his  Worthies  of  England 
was  not  published  till  the  following  year.  A  part  of  the 


work  was  in  the  printer's  hands  at  the  time  of  his  death,  the 
remainder,  including  the  Worthies  of  Dewnshire,  among 
whom  Raleigh  is  placed,  being  edited  by  his  son  John, 
(then  a  young  student  at  Cambridge),  from  his  father's 
'*  scattered  and  posthumous  notes,"  and  under  circum- 
stances which  added  still  further  to  the  chances  of  acci- 
dental error.  "  The  discounting  of  sheets  (concludes  the 
"  original  preface),  to  expedite  the  work  at  severall  presses, 
"hath  occasioned  the  often  mistake  of  the  folios. 
"  Whatever  faults  else  occur  in  this  impression,  it  is  my 
"  request  that  thou  would'st  score  them  on  my  want  of 
"  care  or  skill  in  correcting  the  same,  that  they  may  not 
"  in  the  least  reflect  on  the  credit  of  my  dead  father." — 

The  easily-made  mistake  of  a  transcriber  or  printer  in 
substituting  "  Ireland"  for  "Oriel,"  or  a  very  slight  confusion 
of  memory,  or  of  posthumous  papers,  would  account  for 
the  discrepancy  of  dates  which  certainly  exists. 

There  is  just  the  erf  or  that  might  arise  from  a  volumi- 
nous collection  of  notes  imperfectly  posted  up  or  assorted ; 
but  the  mistake  of  a  bookbinder  in  misplacing  a  page  of 
a  work  does  not  affect  the  credit  of  the  author. 

"  I  have  given  you  my  tale  and  my  tale-master." 

"I  have  it 

"  Upon  his  own  report,  and  I  believe  it ; 
"He  looks  like  sooth." 




William  Wickham  was  born  in  the  Manor  House  of 
Honeylands  or  Pentriches,  of  which  his  father  was  lessee, 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  He  was  educated  at  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  was  made  Dean  of  Lincoln,  in  1571, 
Bishop  of  Lincoln,  1584,  and  was  translated  to  Win- 
chester, in  1595,  where,  says  Fuller,  "he  may  be  termed 
William  Wickham,  junior,  in  distinction  of  his  namesake 
and  predecessor,  one  equal  to  any  of  his  order  in  piety  and 
painfulnesse."  He  preached  the  funeral  sermon  for 
Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  at  Peterborough,  1587,  and  died 
at  his  house,  in  South wark,  in  1596. 

He  married  Antonine,  daughter  of  William  Barlow, 
Bishop  of  Chichester.  She  had  four  sisters  married  to 
four  Bishops, — viz.,  Margaret  to  William  Overton,  Bishop 
of  Coventry  and  Lichfield  ;  Anne  to  Herbert  Westphaling, 
Bishop  of  Hereford;  Elizabeth  to  William  Day  who 
succeeded  Wickham,  at  Winchester;  Frances,  married 
first  to  Matthew  Parker,  son  of  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  and  secondly  to  Matthew,  Archbishop  of 
York.  Thus  her  father  was  a  Bishop  and  her  father-in- 
law  an  Archbishop,  she  had  four  Bishops  her  brothers 
and  an  archbishop  her  husband.  She  died  May  loth, 
1629,  aet  78.  (Epitaph  on  Agatha,  wife  of  William 
Barlow,  Bishop  of  St.  David's  and  of  Chichester). 

It  is  to  this  Bishop  that  the  dilapidation  of  the  once 
magnificent  Cathedral,  College,  and  Palace  of  St.  David's 
is  attributed.  It  is  said  that  his  "  lady  longed  for  the  gay 


"  world,  and  wanting  more  than  all  the  revenues  of  the 
"  see  for  himself  and  his  family,  he  first  raised  the  wind 
"  by  selling  off  the  lead  from  the  roof  of  the  buildings, 
"  and  then  obtained  permission  to  remove  from  the  palace 
"  on  the  plea  that  it  was  not  watertight."  In  consequence 
of  this  sacrilege  the  aisles  of  the  cathedral  are  roofless, 
and  the  cloisters  are  mere  heaps  of  ruins.  The  palace, 
built  by  Bishop  Gower,  in  the  i4th  century,  formed  a  quad- 
rangle 1 20- ft.  square,  of  which  only  parts  of  two  sides 
remain.  Of  St.  Mary's  College,  founded  by  John  of 
Gaunt  in  1365,  the  only  relic  is  a  chapel, — bare  like  the 
rest,  and  rapidly  hastening  to  decay. 


He  was  born  in  1642,  and  was  a  Fellow  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  where  he  was  a  competitor  with  Sir 
Isaac  Newton  for  the  law  fellowship.  Barrow  gave  his 
decision  in  favour  of  Uvedale  as  being  the  senior  in  age 
and  equal  in  attainments.  About  1660  Dr.  Uvedale, 
who  was  then  Master  of  the  Enfield  Grammar  School, 
took  a  lease  of  the  Palace  for  educating  private  pupils. 
He  was  considered  one  of  the  first  botanists  in  Europe, 
and  after  his  death  his  hortus  siccus  was  purchased  for  a 
large  sum  by-  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  and  is  now  in  the 
British  Museum.  He  married  the  grand-daughter  of  Sir 
Matthew  Hale,  and  died  in  1722.  He  was  the  lineal 
descendant  of  Peter  de  Uvedale,  of  Wykeham,  in  Hamp- 
shire, a  peer  of  the  realm,  6-8-9.  Edward  III.,  by  whom 


he  was  summoned   to  Parliament   as  baron.     Nicholas 

Uvedale,  his  son,  was  the  first  great  benefactor  of  the 

celebrated  William  of  Wykenham,  having  in  1334  placed 

him  at  school  at  Winchester,  as  is  recorded  by  a  tablet 

placed   conspicuously   in   the  front   of   the    chapel    at 

Winchester,  inscribed, "UVEDALLUS  WYKEH AMI  PATRONUS." 

Some  interesting  letters  of  Dr.  Uvedale's  are  printed  by 

Nichols  in  his  Lit.   Hist,   of  the  eighteenth  century,  in 

which  he  complains  bitterly  of  the   irregularity  of  the 

Enfield  Post-office,  and  desires    his   correspondents    to 

direct  his  letters  "  to  be  left  at  the  Bull,  in  Bishopsgate, 

"  without  mentioning  Enfield,  for  our  post  letters  are  re- 

"  turned  to  the  general  post;  from  London  to  a  post-office 

"  set  up  here,  and  frequently  stay  three  or  four  days  and 

"  sometimes  longer  before  we  receive  them,  which  yet  the 

"  gentlemen  of  the  neighbourhood  can  get  no  redress  for." 

(May  29,  1701.)     This  grievance  seems  to  be  unabated 

in  1710,  when  he   again   writes: — "The  post-house   in 

"Enfield  is  near  two  miles  from  me,  so  they  think  good 

"to  send  them  when  they  have    enough   to    make   a 

"  perquisite  of ;   and  our  complaints  either  to  them  or 

"  their  masters  signify  not,  for  we  cannot  help  ourselves." 

In  August,  1700,  he  writes  to  a  correspondent: — "I  am 

"now  to  thank  you  heartily  for  your  kind  present   of 

"  heathcocks    (grouse).        The    pye     came    very    well, 

"  undamaged  in  the  least,  but  the  fowl,  by  the  length  of 

"  the  journey,  were  injured ;  we  could  taste  by  the  flesh 

"  on  the  breasts  that  they  must  certainly  be  very  delicate, 


"  wholly  new  to  us  in  these  parts,  and  will  be  here  wished 
"  for  again," — and  the  worthy  doctor  proceeds  to  state  how 
they  might  be  preserved  by  judicious  potting,  "  as  I  have 
"  had  woodcocks  from  a  great  distance  a  standing  cold 
"  dish  in  the  family  a  month  after  received."  The  receipt, 
he  states,  he  had  "  from  the  learned  in  the  kitchen,  and 
"  they  tell  me  it  is  authentical." 


Of  Trin.  Coll.,  Camb.,  B.A.  1662,  M.A.  1666,  L.L.D. 
1682,  was  the  son  of  the  above  ;  Vicar  of  Enfield 
from  1721  to  1731.  He  was  born  May  25,  1642,  and 
educated  at  Westminster  under  Dr.  Busby.  He  assisted 
Dryden  in  his  translation  of  Plutarch,  for  which  he  wrote 
the  Life  of  Dion.  His  son,  Robert  Uvedale,  D.D., 
married  the  daughter  of  Bennet  Langton,  and  became 
Rector  of  Langton  and  Vicar  of  Svvinehead,  co.  Lincoln. 


Isaac  D'Israeli  was  descended  from  one  of  those 
Sephardim-Hebrew  families  who  had  been  long 
settled  in  Spain,  where  they  had  become  almost  an  order 
in  the  State.  "  Prosperous  and  wealthy  (says  Milman) 
"  they  were  cultivators  and  possessors  of  the  soil,  not 
"  seldom  ministers  of  finance,  and  the  most  enlightened 
"class  in  the  kingdom,  which' they  had  fertilized  with 
"  their  industry,  enriched  with  their  commerce,  and 
"adorned  with  their  learning."  Above  600,000  of  the 


race  were  expelled  from  the  country  towards  the  close  of 
the  fifteenth  century,  at  the  dictates  of  Torquemada ;  and 
the  ancestors  of  Isaac  D'Israeli  took  refuge  in  the  more 
tolerant  territories  of  the  Venetian  Republic.  Here 
"  they  dropped  their  Gothic  surname,"  and  assumed  that 
of  Disraeli  (a  name  never  borne  before  or  since  by  any 
other  family),  and  here,  under  the  protection  of  the  lion 
of  St.  Mark,  they  flourished  as  merchants  and  bankers  for 
more  than  two  centuries,  when  Benjamin  Disraeli,  the 
younger  of  two  brothers,  migrated  to  this  country,  and 
became  a  denizen  of  England  in  1748,  and  having 
acquired  a  competence  in  the  midway  of  life,  he  settled 
in  Enfield,  where  his  only  child  Isaac  was  born  May,  1766. 
"  Here,"  says  his  grandson,  "  he  formed  an  Italian  garden, 
"  entertained  his  friends,  played  whist  with  Sir  Horace 
"  Mann,  who  had  known  his  brother  at  Venice  as  a 
"  banker ;  ate  maccaroni  which  was  dressed  by  the 
"  Venetian  Consul,*  and  lived  till  he  was  nearly  ninety," 
leaving  an  only  child,  Isaac  Disraeli. 

Conflicting  traditions  assign  more  than  one  house  in 
Enfield  as  having  been  his  residence,  but  the  probabilities 
are  in  favour  of  that  used  as  the  Great  Eastern  Railway 
Station,  which,  with  its  beautiful  facade  and  tracery  work 

*  The  allusion  here  is  to  the  late  John  Charles  Lucena,  Esq. ,  who 
was  for  thirty  years  agent  of  affairs  and  Consul  General  from  the 
Court  of  "  Portugal,"  and  who  died  June  2nd,  1813,  aged  61. — 
Cent.  Magazine,  p.  286. 


of  carved  brick  (probably  unrivalled  in  England),  is 
doomed  to  destruction  by  the  march  of  mechanics. 

Such  a  garden  as  that  alluded  to  was  certainly  attached 
to  this  house  at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  and  many  of 
the  statues  with  which  it  was  adorned,*  some  of  them  of 
great  beauty,  were  for  many  years  to  be  seen  standing  in 
the  stonemason's  yard  adjoining.  The  only  vestige  now 
remaining  is  a  part  of  the  boundary  wall  and  iron  pali- 
sading behind  the  National  Schools. 

The  identity  of  the  house  is  further  supported  by  Mr. 
Disraeli's  statement,  that  his  father  was  sent  to  a  school 
in  the  neighbourhood  kept  by  a  Scotchman,  one  Peter 
Morison,  "  but  his  delicate  health  was  an  excuse  for  con" 
"  verting  him  into  a  day-scholar,  and  finally  the  solitary 
"  walk  home  through  Mr.  Mellish's  park  was  found 
"  dangerous  to  his  sensibilities." 

The  school  alluded  to  was  near  PonderVend,  to  which 
the  footpath  through  Mr.  Mellish's  park  led,  and  there 
was  some  cause  for  the  boy's  nervousness,  as  Mrs. 
Mellish  was  stopped  and  robbed  by  foot-pads  in  this  very 
walk  through  her  own  park. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  point  out  any  other  house  to 
which  the  above  details  would  apply. 

Isaac  Disraeli  remained  here  till  his  38th  year,  when  he 
married  Maria,  daughter  of  George  Basevi,  of  Brighton, 

*  Several  of  these  are  now  in  the  grounds  of  David  Henry,  Esq., 
by  whom  a  beautiful  young  Bacchus  was  given  to  the  writer. 


Esq.,  a  member,  like  himself,  of  a  Sephardim- Jewish 
family, — his  celebrated  eldest  son  being  born  in  1805, 
shortly  a/ter  which  he  settled  at  Bradenham,  in  Bucks., 
where  he  resided  till  his  death  in  1848,  and  was  buried 
there  in  the  vault  of  the  chancel  amongst  the  descendants 
of  the  Hampdens  and  the  Pyes. 

The  Jewish  Chronicle,  writing  in  April,  1868,  says, 
"  There  seems  to  be  a  singular  mistake  as  to  the  relation 
"  of  the  Premier  to  Judaism.  Some  Jews  censure  him  as 
"  an  apostate,  some  Christians  scoff  at  him  as  a  Jew,  with 
"  a  singular  disregard  of  all  they  owe  to  the  Hebrew  race. 
"  Now,  the  fact  is  that  Disraeli  is  neither  an  apostate  nor 
"  a  Jew.  Benjamin  Disraeli  was  admitted  into  the  com- 
"  munion  of  Israel,  but  his  father,  thinking  fit  to  quarrel 
"  with  his  synagogue,  failed  to  teach  his  child  Judaism. 
"  One  day  Rogers,  the  celebrated  banker-poet,  happening 
"  to  visit  at  Isaac  Disraeli's  house  when  Benjamin  was 
"  about  five  or  six  years  old,  and  regretting  to  find  so 
"intelligent  a  youth  without  religious  instruction,  took 
"  him  to  Hackney  Church.  From  this  event  dates  his 
"  absolute  and  complete  severance  from  the  Jewish  com- 
"  munion — he  became  a  Christian,  and  a  great  genius 
"  was  lost  to  us." 

The  accompanying  illustration  has  been  engraved  from 
a  drawing  made  in  1 848,  and  verified  by  a  photograph 
lately  taken  by  Mr.  Farr.  Since  the  above  account  was 
written,  the  building  has  been  cleared  away  to  make  room 
for  the  new  station  of  the  Great  Eastern  Railway,  and  the 


central  part  of  the  fagade  has  been  purchased  for  the  sum 
of  ^"50  of  Messrs.  Patman  by  the  Directors  of  the  South 
Kensington  Museum,  where  it  has  been  erected  as  a 
screen  in  the  structural  division.  It  was  taken  down 
brick  by  brick,  with  the  greatest  care,  all  being  numbered 
and  packed  in  boxes  of  sawdust  for  carriage.  Nothing 
could  exceed  the  beauty  of  the  workmanship,  the  bricks 
having  been  ground  down  to  a  perfect  face,  and  joined 
with  bees- wax  and  rosin,  no  mortar  or  lime  being  used. 
In  this  manner  the  whole  front  had  been  first  built  in  a 
solid  block,  the  circular-headed  niches,  with  their  carved 
cherubs  and  festoons  of  fruit  and  foliage,  being  afterwards 
cut  out  with  the  chisel.  The  arches  were  built  without 
Toussoirs,  the  lines  of  the  brickwork  running  straight  across 
the  work,  with  the  joints  so  fine  as  scarcely  to  be  per- 
ceptible to  the  nicest  scrutiny.  The  date  of  the  building 
is  about  the  end  of  Charles  IL's  reign,  and  it  bears  all  the 
characteristics  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren's  design.  The 
similarity  of  its  elevation  to  that  of  Temple  Bar  cannot 
but  strike  the  most  inattentive  observer,  and  the  arched 
recesses  and  their  enrichments  recall  the  beautiful  blank 
windows  towards  the  western  end  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 


The  notorious  Lord  George  Gordon  was  the  third  son 
of  Cosmo  Duke  of  Gordon,  who  resided  in  Enfield  at  a 
house  on  Chase-side,  known  as  Gordon  House,  and  after- 
wards the  residence  of  Sir  Thomas  Halifax.  He  was  born 


December  igth,  1750,  and  represented  the  borough  of 
Ludgershall  during  several  sessions.  In  1780  he  was 
committed  to  the  Tower  for  his  complicity  in  the  riots. 
Some  years  after,  he  was  convicted  of  a  libel  on  Marie 
Antoinette  and  the  Empress  of  Russia,  when,  to  avoid 
punishment,  he  fled  the  country,  but  was  shortly  after- 
wards discovered  at  Birmingham  in  the  garb  of  a  Jew,  when 
he  was  committed  to  Newgate,  pursuant  to  his  sentence 
for  the  term  of  five  years.  Here  he  continued  to  profess 
the  Jewish  religion,  having  (says  Walpole)  undergone  its 
extreme  rites,  and  died  November  28,  1793.  His  last 
moments  were  embittered  by  the  refusal  of  the  Jews  to 
allow  his  interment  in  their  burial-ground,  and  it 
accordingly  took  place  in  a  vault  at  St.  James's,  Hamp- 
stead-road.  The  mob,  at  the  time  of  the  Gordon  riots, 
having  threatened  to  destroy  the  wooden  aqueduct  at 
Bush  Hill,  with  the  intention  of  burning  London,  the 
proprietors  of  the  New  River  made  an  application  to 
Government  for  its  protection,  in  consequence  of  which 
the  62nd  regiment  of  foot  was  sent  down  and  quartered 
in  Enfield  till  the  danger  was  over. 


At  the  upper  end  of  Baker-street  stands  a  handsome 
red-brick  house  formerly  the  residence  of  Harry  Gough, 
Esq.,  M.P.  for  Bramber,  who  purchased  it  in  the  year 
1723.  After  the  death  of  his  widow  in  1774  it  descended 
to  his  son  Richard  Gough,  well  known  as  the  editor  of 


Camden,  and  the  author  of  sepulchral  monuments  and 
other  archeological  works.  Mr.  Gough  improved  the 
estate  by  the  purchase  of  some  adjoining  property,  and 
also  made  considerable  additions  to  the  house,  the 
eastern  wing  being  built  for  the  reception  of  his  curious 
and  extensive  library,  the  whole  of  which  was  sold 
by  auction  in  1810,  with  the  exception  of  his 
collection  of  British  topography  and  his  MSS.,  which  he 
bequeathed  to  the  Bodleian  Library.  Mr.  Gough  resided 
in  Enfield*  till  his  death,  February  20,  1809,  and  was 
buried  in  the  churchyard  of  Wormley,  in  Hertfordshire. 
A  Latin  epitaph,  written  by  himself  more  than  fifteen 
years  before  his  decease,  was  inscribed  pursuant  to  his 
instructions  on  a  plain  marble  tablet  on  the  south  side  of 
the  chancel  near  the  communion  table.  After  the  death 
of  Mr.  Cough's  widow,  August  18,  1833,  set  93,  the  estate 
was  purchased  by  Mr.  Rees  Price,  and  is  now  the 
property  and  residence  of  Miss  Child.  At  the  time  of 
the  alteration  of  the  course  of  the  New  River,  the  iron 
gates  and  skreen,  which  stood  close  to  the  house,  were 
removed  to  their  present  position,  where  they  form  a 
characteristic  example  of  the  beautiful  old  iron-work, 

*  "Where,"  he  says,  "he  can  with  pleasure,  from  his  earliest 
' '  life,  review  many  pleasing  hours  of  retirement  and  antiquarian 
"  research  spent  in  this  parish,  so  happily  situated  as  a  centre  of 
"many  curious  monuments  in  the  adjacent  counties." — Cough's 
Camden,  v.  2,  p.  107. 


which  is   so  striking  a  feature  of  Enfield  and  its  neigh- 

A  curious  fragment  has  been  preserved  of  the 
"Diary  of  Master  R.  Gough:  1752 — April  17,  I  went 
"to  school  for  last  time ;  we  came  to  Enfield.  April  22, 
"  The  red  cow  calved.  May  5,  A  man  killed  at  Bushill. 
"  May  20,  A  court  held  by  Mr.  Bowles  ;  went  to  it  and 
"to  Mr.  Bridgen's.  June  i,  Mrs.  Breton  and  her  sister 
"  came  ;  I  played  at  cricket.  -July  8,  Job  at  Jervis's 
"  married  the  woman  at  the  Goat." 


Major  Cartwright,  a  noted  politician  and  writer,  was 
for  many  years  an  inhabitant  of  Enfield.  He  was  born 
on  the  1 7th  September,  1740,  at  Marnham,  in  Nottingham- 
shire. .He  was  descended  from  a  family  who  had  been 
long  established  in  the  county,  and  who  had  suffered 
great  loss  of  property  by  their  adherence  to  the  cause  of 
Charles  I.  during  the  civil  wars.*  He  was  an  elder 

*  A  curious  note  in  the  Cartwright  pedigree  relates  the  manner  in 
which  their  estates  came  into  the  possession  of  the  family.  "Hee 
"  (Edmund  Cartwright)  was  a  scholer  and  Master  of  Artes  of  Jesus' 
"  College,  Cambridge,  where  hee  was  intimately  acquainted  with 
"Thomas  Cranmer,  son  of  Thomas  Cranmer  of  Aslacton,  whose 
"only  daughter  Cartwright  married, — which  Cranmer,  becoming 
"  afterwards  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  tooke  his  brother  Cartwright 
"  and  sister  into  his  house,  and  at  the  dissolution  of  the  abbeys 
"  provided  for  him  the  Abbey  of  Mauling,  in  Kent ;  Rowney,  in  Bed- 
fordshire; and  Ossington,  in  Nottinghamshire, — which  are  worth 



brother  of  the  Rev.  Edmund  Cartwright,  D.D.,  the 
inventor  of  the  power-loom.  Though  somewhat 
impracticable  and  extreme  in  his  opinions,  he  was  a 
man,  said  Fox,  "  whose  enlightened  mind  and  profound 
"  constitutional  knowledge  placed  him  in  the  highest 
"  rank  of  public  characters,  and  whose  purky  of  prin. 
"  ciple  and  consistency  of  conduct  through  life  com- 
"  manded  the  most  respectful  attention."  He  died  at 
the  advanced  age  of  85,  and  was  buried  at  Finchley, 
September,  1824. 


The  Rev.  Daniel  Cresswell,  D.D.,  was  vicar  of  Enfield 
from  March  6,  1823,  till  his  death,  21  March,  1844, 
set  68.  He  was  well  known  both  as  an  accomplished  clas- 
sical scholar,  and  a  profound  mathematician,  arrd  for  nearly 
twenty  years  a  most  efficient  magistrate  and  chairman  of 
the  Enfield  Bench.  He  was  tutor  at  Trinity  College  to 
Dr.  Blomfield,  the  late  Bishop  of  London,  with  whom  in 
after  life  there  existed  some  mutual  antagonism  which  led 
to  frequent  contests,  in  which  the  vicar  always  came  off 
victorious.  Dr.  Cresswell  was  a  great  valetudinarian,  and 

"  three  thousand  a-year  ;  and  married  his  heir,  Hugh,  to  one  of  the 
"Lord  Cobham's  daughters."  "It  is  lamentable  to  observe, 
(says  Miss  Cartwright,  in  quoting  this  passage),  that  Archbishop 
"  Cranmer  should  have  made  the  spiritual  reforms  he  laboured  to 
"  establish  subservient  to  the  interests  of  his  own  connexions." 


very  punctilious  as  to  his  meals,  particularly  his  dinner, 
which  was  invariably  at  three  o'clock.  On  the  occasion 
of  the  consecration  of  St.  James's  Chapel,  at  Enfield 
Highway  -^jTily  T), — 1-835),  he  wrote  to  the  Bishop  of 
London,  particularly  begging  him  to  be  punctual,  so  that 
he  might  not  be  detained  beyond  his  usual  dinner-hour. 
The  Bishop,  however,  was  not  disposed  to  be  accommo- 
dating, and  came  provokingly  late,  when  Dr.  Cresswell, 
instead  of  reading  the  morning  service,  began  the  shorter 
form  for  evening  prayer.  The  Bishop,  after  several 
ineffectual  attempts  to  call  his  attention,  sent  his  chaplain 
to  stop  him,  when  the  Doctor,  quietly  taking  out  his  well- 
known  accurate  chronometer,  bowed  to  his  lordship,  and 
proceeded  with  the  evening  service,  on  the  conclusion  of 
which  the  Bishop  made  a  full  apology  for  the  unseemly 
interruption.  The  last  "Essay  of  Elia"  (written  only  a 
month  before  Lamb's  death),  "  Thoughts  on  presents  of 
game,"  was  suggested  by  the  attentive  kindness  of  "  the 
worthy  Vicar  of  Enfield,"  from  whom  "he  acknowledges  a 
tithe  contribution  of  extraordinary  sapor."  The  essay 
appeared  in  the  Athenaeum,  Nov.  30,  1834.  Dr.  Cresswell 
was  buried  in  Enfield  Churchyard,  where  his  epitaph, 
written  by  himself,  is  alike  beautiful  for  its  pure  Latinity 
and  its  exposition  of  Christian  faith. 
Hoc  sepulchrum 
sua  ossa  recepturum  condi  voluit 
Daniel  Cresswell,  S.T.P.* 

*  Sacrae  Theologiae  Professor — i.e.,  Doctor  of  Divinity. 



Coll.  S.S.  Trin.  apud  Cant,  olim  socius 

Ecclesiae  de  Enfield  inde  vicarius 
Qui  quanquam  ad  bonas  literas  incubuerat 

Ad  bonos  mores  animam  intenderat 
Ad  sapientise  Christianse  fontem  accesserat 

Optatum  tamen  ac  propositum 

(Tantum  interest  inter  velle  et  posse,  scire  et  facere) 
Longe  abfuit  ut  assequeretur 

Nee  nisi  in  Dei  dementia 
Jesu  Christ!  morte  conciliata 
v  Spejn  ullam  salutis  habuit 

,    */*  Laudes  ergo  ^aJfeTltas  quas  hseres  aut  amicus 

Nimia  facilitate  mortuis  largiri  solet 

Ipse  sibi  hunc  lapidem  inscripsit 

Tu  vero  lector 

Nam  quoe  de  alio  hie  nammtur 
Ad  te  fortim  spectant 

Nosce  teipsum 
Sancti  spiritus  ope  tui  victor  evade 

Christo  te  committe 

Pectore  et  vita  triunum  Deum  venerare 

Obiit  xxi  Martii  die  A.D.  MDCCCLIV. 

./Etatis  suae  LXIX. 

The  classical  and  mathematical  tastes  of  Dr.  Cresswell 
led  him,  when  a  young  man,  to  cultivate  the  acquaintance 
of  the  celebrated  Person,  with  whom  «he  was  in  the 
habit  of  interchanging  riddles.  Some  of  these,  copied 
thirty  years  ago,  from  the  originals,  in  Person's  hand- 
writing, are  of  great  beauty  and  will  probably  be  new  to 
most  readers. 



Totum  pone,  fluit ;— caput  aufer,  splendet  in  armis  ;— 
Caudam  deme,  volat  ; — viscera  tolle,  dolet. 


Te  primum,  incauto  nimium  propriusque  tuenti 

Laura, — mihi  furtim  surripuisse  queror. 
Non  tamen  hoc  furtum  tibi  condonare  recusem, 

Si  pretium  tali  solvere  merce  velis. 
Sed  quo  plus  candoris  habent  tibi  colla  secundo, 

Hoc  tibi  plus  -primum  frigoris  intus  habet. 
Scepe  sinistra  cava  cantavit  ab  ilice  totum 

Omina,  et  audaces  spes  vetat  esse  ratas. 


My  first,  though  the  emblem  of  chastity  reckoned, 
All  her  character  lost  in  becoming  my  second ; 
And  yet  I  rejoiced, — for  her  ruin  gave  room 
For  my  whole  mid  the  desert  of  nature  to  bloom, 
Who  forth  from  her  covert  with  modesty  burst, 
And  in  exquisite  purity  rivalled  my  first. 

My  first,  though  your  house  from  the  thief  it  defends, 

You  scurvily  treat  as  a  wretch  you  despise, 
My  second, — I  speak  it  with  grief, — comprehends 

All  the  great, —  all  the  good, —  all  the  learn'd, —  all  the  wise. 
Of  my  whole — I  have  little  or  nothing  to  say, 
Except  that  it  marks  the  departure  of  day. 



John  Abernethy  was  born  in  London,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Stephen,  Coleman-street,  on  the  3rd  of  April,  1764. 
He  received  his  first  education  at  a  day  school  in 
Lothbury,  kept  by  a  Mr.  Fuller,*  afterwards  a  well-known 
banker,  but  was  sent,  while  very  young,  to  the  Grammar 
School  at  Wolverhampton,  of  which  he  became  the  head 
before  he  was  fifteen;  when  (in  1779)  he  was  apprenticed 
to  Sir  Charles  Blicke,  surgeon  to  St.  Bartholomew's 
Hospital.  On  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Pott,  he  became 
assistant  surgeon  to  the  institution,  and  afterwards 
succeeded  that  gentleman  as  lecturer  on  anatomy  and 
surgery.  Soon  after  he  appeared  as  an  author,  and 
published  lectures  and  a  Hunterian  Oration,  giving  an 
account  of  Hunter's  labours  and  opinions,  and  he  also 
wrote  the  articles  in  Rees'  Cyclopaedia  on  anatomy,  &c. 
His  most  celebrated  work,  which  he  used  to  recommend 
to  his  patients,  was  on  local  diseases,  aneurisms,  and 

*  "Died  March  2nd,  1800,  at  his  house  on  Scotland  Green, 
Enfield,  in  his  ninety-fifth  year,  William  Fuller.  Esq.,  banker  of 
Lombard-street, — he  was  son  of  William  Fuller  who  kept  an 
academy  in  Founders'  Court,  Lothbury, — to  which,  on  his  death,  his 
son  succeeded,  and  having  (by  qualifying  in  writing  and  accounts 
many  now  eminent  merchants  of  London,  besides  many  others  who 
served  the  East  India  Co.,  both  at  home  and  abroad),  accumulated 
the  sum  of  ^30,000,  he  engaged  in  a  banking  house  about  the  year 
1756,  but  continued  his  employment  of  teaching  for  some  years 
after  he  commenced  banker." — Gent.  Magazine. 


disorders  of   the  digestive   organs.       His  practice  and 
reputation  now  rapidly  advanced,  and  on  the  death  of 
Sir  C.  Blicke,  he  was  elected  surgeon  to  the  hospital  which 
was  considered  the  first  in  the  metropolis.    Mr.  Abernethy 
was   said  to  be  frequently  abrupt  in   his  manner,   and 
impatient  to  a  complaining  sufferer;  and  pages  might  be 
filled  with  anecdotes  which  have  been  told  of  his  ec. 
ceniric  behaviour.    Many  of  these,  however,  were  greatly 
exaggerated,  and  he  often  offended  by  saying  what  were 
very  salutary  though  very  unpleasant  truths.      His-  rough- 
ness was  only  on  the  surface,  and  he  was  invariably  and 
unaffectedly   kind   to   the   hospital   patients,  whilst    his 
generosity  was  as  unbounded  as  it  was  delicate.     He  has 
been  known  to  return  his  fees  to  a  poor  officer's  widow 
with  a  cheque  of  ^50,  to  enable  her  to  give  her  child  a 
daily  ride.     A  young  officer  in  the  army  having  been 
thrown  from  his  horse,  received  a  fracture  of  the  skull  and 
other  severe  injuries.   Abernethy,  being  the  nearest  surgeon, 
was  sent  for,  and  attended  him  daily   for  some  months, 
at  the  end  of  which  the  poor  patient  enquired  what  he 
was  indebted  to  him  for  his  professional  care.     Abernethy 
enquired,  with  a  smile,  who  the  young  woman  was  who 
had  nursed  him  so  tenderly.     "  She  is  my  wife."     "What 
is  your  rank  in  the  army?  "     "  I  am  a  half-pay  lieutenant." 
"  Oh,  very  well,  come  and  see  me  when  yoaare  a  general, 
and  we'll  talk  about  it." 

Feeling   the   wear  and    tear    of    his    laborious    life, 
Abernethy  took  a  house  in  Enfield,*  to  which  he  used  ta 

*  Now  the  residence  of  Mr.  Alderman  Challis. 


go  down  on  Wednesdays  and  Saturdays.  Here  he  might 
be  seen  in  drab  kerseymeres  and  top  boots,  riding  his 
favourite  mare,  "Jenny,"  which  he  had  for  five-and-twenty 
years.  In  the  spring  of  1831,  he  gradually  grew  weaker, 
and  died  on  the  2oth  of  April,  in  that  year.  He  was 
buried  in  Enfield  Church,  where  a  plain  tablet  is  placed 
on  the  wall  over  his  vault. 


Charles  Babbage  was  born  December  26th,  1792,  and 
was  educated  by  the  Rev.  Stephen  Freeman,  whose  school 
was  at  the  red  brick  house,  at  the  upper  end  of  Baker- 
street,  in  Enfield,  "  He  was  much  loved,"  says  a  fellow 
pupil,  "  by  dear  old  Freeman  who  first  taught  .him 
mathematics."  Here  he  and  a  studious  schoolfellow  were 
in  the  habit  of  getting  up  in  the  morning  at  three  o'clock, 
lighting  a  fire  in  the  schoolroom,  and  studying  surrep- 
titiously until  five  or  half-past  five.  Frederick  Marryat 
proposed  to  join  them,  not  so  much  from  a  desire  to  study 
as  for  the  sake  of  doing  what  was  forbidden.  So,  at  least, 
Babbage  interpreted  the  request,  and  he  refused  to  let 
Marryat  join  them.  One  night,  in  trying  to  open  the 
door  of  his  bedroom,  Babbage  found  that  Marryat's  bed 
had  been  pulled  up  against  it  He  gently  pushed  it  back, 
without  waking  the  >.  future  captain,  and  pursued  his  way 
to  the  schoolroom.  This  happened  on  several  successive 
nights;  but  at  length  Marryat  improved  the  plan  by 
fastening  a  string  from  his  hand  to  the  door  lock 


Babbage  detected  the  trick,  and  untied  the  knot.  A  few 
nights  later,  so  stout  a  cord  was  used  that  he  could  only 
free  the  lock  by  cutting  it.  Presently  a  chain  took  the 
place  of  the  cord,  and  for  one  night  Babbage  was  kept 
from  his  studies ;  however,  the  end  of  the  matter  was 
that  Marryat  was  allowed  to  prevail,  when  the  conse- 
quences predicted  by  Babbage  presently  followed.  Others 
joined  them,  play  took  the  place  of  work,  fireworks  were 
let  off,  and  of  course  the  delinquents  were  discovered. 

From  Enfield  he  was  transferred  to  Peterhouse, 
Cambridge,  and  aimed  at  the  senior  Wranglership,  but 
Herschel  being  in  the  year,  he  would  not  contend  with 
him,  but  abandoned  all  honours,  coming  out  as  Captain 
of  the  Poll.  Babbage  was  originally  destined  for  the  law, 
which  he  studied  under  the  late  Mr.  Brodie  (brother  of 
Sir  Benjamin),  but  making  no  progress  in  so  uncongenial  a 
pursuit  he  turned  his  attention  to  science,  by  the  advice  of 
his  fellow  student,  the  late  John  Walker,  Esq.,  Q.C.,  and  in 
1828,  his  mathematical  eminence  obtained  his  election  to 
the  chair  of  Newton  as  Lucasian  Professor  in  his  university. 
This  he  held  for  ten  or  eleven  years,  though,  it  is  said,  he 
never  lectured.  His  chief  celebrity,  however,  he  owes  to 
his  project  of  a  calculating  engine  for  the  computation  of 
tables,*  founded  upon  the  method  of  differences  and 

*  Mr.  Babbage  was  the  first  to  introduce  the  use  of  "  toned 
paper  "  in  printing  his  tables  of  logarithms,  having  found  by  a  series 
of  careful  experiments  that  it  gave  greater  distinctness  to  the  type. 


essentially  the  same  in  principle  as  that  of  Pascal.  -  The 
invention  was  considered  of  such  importance  that  the 
Government,  under  the  advice  of  the  Royal  Society  and 
a  committee  of  the  most  eminent  mathematicians, 
determined  upon  constructing  a  machine  at  the  expense 
of  the  country,  and  Mr.  Babbage  was  engaged  to  super- 
intend the  work.  It  was  accordingly  commenced  in  1821, 
when  it  was  supposed  that  two  or  three  years  would  be 
sufficient  for  its  completion.  Nothing  could  be  more 
certain  in  theory,  or  more  perfect  in  workmanship  than 
this  wonderful  engine, —  by  which  mathematics  were 
reduced  to  mechanism.  But  after  twelve  years  had  been 
spent  in  its  construction,  the  complication  of  details 
became  so  great  that  the  work  was  suspended  and  the 
workmen  dismissed;  a  quarrel  also  ensued  with  the 
engineer,  who  withdrew  his  tools, — and  it  remains  to  this 
day  unfinished.  It  should  be  added  that  though  the 
Treasury  paid  the  whole  of  the  expenses,  Mr.  Babbage 
himself  derived  no  'advantage,  either  direct  or  indirect, 
from  the  invention.  Mr.  Babbage  took  an  active  part  for 
many  years  in  scientific  institutions ;  he  was  one  of  the 
oldest  Fellows  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society,  and  of  the 
Statistical  Society,  of  which  he  was  considered  the  father. 
He  died  on  the  2oth  of  October,  1871. 



(Bishop  of  St.  David's). 

This  distinguished  scholar  and  theologian  was  the  son 
of  the  Rev.  T.  Thirlwall,  Rector  of  Bowers  Gifford, 
Essex,  who  was  formerly  a  resident  in  this  parish.  He 
was  born  in  1797,  and  educated  at  the  Charter  House. 
In  1814  he  entered  at  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  where 
the  next  year  he  obtained  the  Bell  and  Craven  University 
Scholarships.  In  1818  he  was  Senior  Optime  and  Senior 
Chancellor's  Medallist;  elected  Fellow  of  Trinity,  1819; 
M.A.,  1821.  He  was  called  to  the  Bar,  at  Lincoln's  Inn, 
in  1823,  but  afterwards  took  Holy  Orders,  and  became 
assistant  tutor  of  his  college.  He  was  formerly  one  of 
the  Examiners  of  candidates  for  degrees  at  the  London 
University.  In  1840  he  was  presented  by  the  Lord 
Chancellor  to  the  living  of  Kirby  Underdale,  in  York- 
shire, and  the  same  year  was  consecrated  Bishop  of 
St.  David's,  where  he  acquired  the  Welsh  language  with 
extraordinary  rapidity.  In  1825  he  translated,  in  con- 
junction with  Julius  Hare,  Niebuhr's  History  of  Rome, 
and  between  1835-40  published  his  History  of  Greece, 
in  eight  volumes.  Since  that  time  he  has  written  many 
sermons,  charges,  and  controversial  pamphlets. 

A  volume  of  compositions  in  prose  and  verse,  some  of 
them  written  at  the  age  of  eight  years,  was  published  by  his 
father  in  1809.  It  is  now  extremely  rare.  "  Primitise, 
or  Essays  and  Poems,  on  various  subjects,  by  C.  T., 
eleven  years  of  age.  The  preface  by  his  father,  1809." 



Captain  Marryat,  the  naval  novelist,  was  born  in  1792, 
the  second  son  of  Mr.  Joseph  Marryat,  of  Wimbledon 
House,  M.P.  for  Horsham  and  Sandwich,  and  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  of  Lloyd's.  Of  his  boyhood  there  is 
little  to  tell,  except  that,  like  most  children  of  precocious 
minds  and  strong  passions,  he  was  very  troublesome. 
He  learnt  easily  and  forgot  quickly,  preferred  play  to 
lessons,  and  was  constantly  flogged  for  idleness  and  inat- 
tention. His  school  days  were  passed  in  company  with 
Babbage,  under  the  Rev.  Stephen  Freeman,  and  furnished 
a  record  of  pranks,  tricks,  and  runnings-away,  whilst  his 
master  pronounced  that  he  would  never  come  to  any 
good  or  turn  out  otherwise  than  a  dunce.  It  was  at  this 
school  that  he  was  one  day  found  by  his  master  standing 
on  his  head  with  a  book  in  his  hand,  and  when 
Mr.  Freeman  asked  him  why  he  chose  so  strange  a 
posture,  the  answer  he  got  was,  "  Well  I've  been  trying  for 
three  hours  to  learn  it  on  my  feet  but  I  couldn't."  At 
last  he  took  to  running  away  from  school,  and  when 
taken  to  task  for  this  at  home,  he  replied  that  it  was  all  a 
mistake  to  suppose  that  he  ran  away  from  books  and 
work, — it  was  because  he  did  not  like  to  wear  the  cast- 
off  clothes  of  his  eldest  brother.  When  he  was  fourteen 
years  old  he  was  removed  from  Mr.  Freeman's  school, 
"  having,"  writes  one  of  his  old  schoolfellows,  "  run  away 
again,  and  been  captured  in  the  horse-pond,  at  Edmonton, 
by  a  party  of  the  boys  and  old  Bunn,  the  usher."  He 


was  now  transferred  to  a  tutor,  from  whom  he  very  soon 
escaped,  and  his  father,  finding  it  useless  to  oppose  his 
inclinations,  made  arrangements  for  his  going  to  sea,  and 
he  started  on  his  first  voyage  in  the  Imperieuse,  com- 
manded by  Lord  Cochrane,  for  the  Mediterranean. 
Marryat's  active  service  ended  in  1830,  after  he  had  been 
twenty-four  years  afloat.  Between  1839  and  1843  he 
lived  in  London,  in  Duke-street,  and  Spanish-place, 
mixing  in  society  and  writing  novels.  His  health  now 
began  to  fail,  and  in  1847,  having  twice  broken  a  blood- 
vessel, he  removed  to  Hastings  for  a  milder  climate,  and 
when  there,  received  the  terrible  news  of  the  loss  of  the 
Avenger,  in  which  his  eldest  son  perished.  After  this 
shock,  all  chance  of  recovery  faded  away;  he  lingered  on 
till  August,  1848,  and  on  the  gih  of  that  month  died 
peacefully,  having  been  heard  to  murmur  a  sentence  of 
the  Lord's  Prayer  just  before  he  breathed  his  last. 

He  was  a  brave,  energetic  spirit,  and  whether  on  sea  or 
land  was  ever  foremost  in  the  redress  of  wrong  or 
injustice.  Succeeding  generations  have  to  thank  Captain 
Marryat  if  his  fictions  have  helped  to  make  the 
barbarities  of  the  old  service  impossible;  and  in  some  of 
the  reforms  which  he  worked,  he  served  his  country  with 
his  pen  as  signally  as  with  his  sword. 


Charles  Lamb  first  came  to  Enfield  in  1825,  where  he 
says,  in  a  letter  to  Sou  they,  "  we  are  on  a  half  visit  at  a 


Mrs.  Leishman's."  This  visit  was  a  long  one  of  five 
months,  and  ended  in  Lamb  and  his  sister  leaving 
Islington  and  becoming  constant  residents.  Writing  to 
Patmore,  he  says,  "  we  are  dawdling  our  time  away  very 
idly  and  pleasantly  at  a  Mrs.  Leishman's,  Chase,  Enfield, 
where,  if  you  come  a  hunting,  we  can  give  you  cold  meat 
and  a  tankard.  Her  husband  is  a  tailor,  but  that,  you 
know,  does  not  make  her  one."  In  reply  to  an  applica- 
tion for  a  subscription  towards  a  memorial  to  Clarkson, 
to  be  built  on  the  spot  where  he  first  formed  the  resolution 
to  devote  his  life  to  the  abolition  of  the  slave  trade,  he 
sends  a  guinea,  but  says  "the  vanities  of  life  are  subjects 
"  for  trophies,  not  the  silent  thoughts  arising  in  a  good 
"  man's  mind.  I  sat  down  upon  a  hillock,  at  Forty-hill, 
"  last  night,  with  a  thousand  good  speculations  about 
"  mankind.  How  I  yearned  with  cheap  benevolence. 
"  I  shall  go  and  enquire  of  the  stone-cutter,  that  cuts  the 
"  tomb-stones  here,  what  a  stone  with  a  short  inscription 
"will  cost,  just  to  say — 'here  C.  Lamb  loved  his 
"  brethren,'  every  body  will  come  there  to  love." 

In  1826,  Lamb  took  what  he  described  as  an  odd- 
looking  gambogish-coloured  house  at  Chase-side.*  The 
situation  (says  Talfourd)  was  far  from  picturesque,  for 
the  opposite  side  of  the  road  only  presented  some 

*  This  house,  which  has  been  much  altered   and  enlarged,  was 
afterwards  that  of  Mrs.  Compton,  and  is  now  known  as  ' '  the  Manse. " 


-middling  tenements,  two  dissenting  chapels,  and  a  public 
house,  but  the  neighbouring  field-walks  were  pleasant, 
and  the  country,  as  he  liked  to  say,  as  good  as  Westmor- 
land. He  had  here  a  neighbour  in  Sergeant  Wilde, 
afterwards  Lord  Truro,  whom  he  supplied  with  several 
squibs  to  assist  his  contest  for  Newark. 

The  cares  of  housekeeping,  however,  pressed  too 
heavily  on  Mary  Lamb,  and  they  removed  into  lodgings, 
he  says  "  twenty-four  inches  further  from  town."  Here, 
he  writes  to  Wordsworth,  in  1830,  "we  are  settled  down 
with  an  old  couple :  our  providers  are  an  honest  pair, 
dame  W.  (Westwood)  and  her  husband; — he,  when  the 
light  of  prosperity  shined  on  them,  a  moderately  thriving 
haberdasher,  within  Bow  Bells,  retired  since  with  some- 
thing under  a  competence,  writes  himself  gentleman,  hath 
borne  parish  offices,  sings  fine  old  sea  songs  at  three  score 
and  ten,  and  has  one  anecdote,— upon  which  and  about 
^40  a  year,  he  seems  to  have  retired  in  a  green  old  age." 

On  the  marriage  of  their  adopted  daughter  to  Moxon, 
the  publisher,  they  finally  moved  to  a  Mr.  Walden's,  in 
Edmonton,  where,  in  consequence  of  a  fall  during  one  of 
his  walks.  Lamb  died  September  27th,  1834,  in  his 
sixtieth  year.  Mary  Lamb  died  May  28th,  1847,  and  the 
loving  brother  and  sister  lie  together  in  the  churchyard 
at  Edmonton. 

Amongst  other  known  names  connected  with  Enfield, 
may  be  mentioned  those   of  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby,  who 


was  educated  at  the  same  school  as  Isaac  Disraeli,  by 
Peter  Morison  ;  Mrs.  Andre,  the  mother  of  the  unfortu- 
nate Major  Andre,  who  lived  at  the  bottom  of  Forty-hill; 
Major  Rennell,  in  Baker-street ;  Dr.  Birkbeck,  at 
Forty-hill ;  Keats,  the  poet,  educated  at  Messrs.  May 
and  Bluck's  school ;  Frederick  Joyce,  the  inventor  of 
the  percussion  cap,  at  the  Rev.  S.  Freeman's ;  Baron 
Bramwell,  and  his  brother,  F.  J.  Bramwell,  C.E;  Sir 
William  Grey  ;  Corbould,  the  engraver,  and  his  brother, 
the  artist;  at  "the  Palace"  school  under  the  late 
Dr.  May. 

THE     RIVER     LEE. 

"  And  the  old  Lee  that  brags  of  Danish  blood." 


The  River  Lee  forms  the  eastern  boundary  of  the 
parish.  "  It  begynnethe  (says  Lambarde)  near  Whit- 
churche,  and  from  thence  passinge  by  Hertforde,  Ware, 
and  Waltham,  openethe  into  the  Thames  at  Ham,  in 
Essex,  whence  this  place  is  at  this  day  called  Lee-mouth. 
It  hath  of  long  tyme  borne  vessels  from  London  twenty 
myles  towards  the  head,  for  in  the  tyme  of  King  Alfrede 
the  Danes  entered  Leymouth,  whence  King  Alfrede  espied 
that  the  channell  of  the  ryver  might  be  in  such  sorte 
weakened  that  they  should  want  water  to  returne, — he 
caused  therefore  the  water  to  be  abated  by  two  greate 
trenches,  and  setting  the  Londonners  upon  them  he 
made  their  batteil  wherein  they  lost  four  of  their 
capitaines.  Not  long  after  they  were  so  pressed  that 
they  forsoke  all  and  left  their  shippes  as  a  prey  to  the 
Londonners  ;  which  breakyne  some  and  burninge  other 
conveyed  the  rest  to  London." 

In  1571,  an  Act  passed  for  bringing  this  river  to 
London,  to  supply  the  city  with  water,  but  this  cut  was 
never  begun,  and  it  was  not  till  1580  that  the  stream  was 
made  navigable  as  far  as  Ware,  to  the  great  discontent 



of  the  malsters  and  farmers  of  Enfield,  who  complained 
that  malt  and  grain  were  thus  conveyed  cheaper  than 
by  land. 

The  bank  in  Enfield-marsh,  called  "  the  Pimpler,"  was 
twice  cut  through  in  the  night,  as  well  as  the  bank  at 
"  Lothersey-gate,"  and  at  Sewardstone,  and  Lady  Wrothe's 
old  lock  "  though  often  repaired,  was  as  often  cut 

When  Lord  Burghley  wrote  to  Sir  Thomas  Wrothe  on 
these  outrages,  Sir  Thomas  told  the  inhabitants  of  Ware 
that  "  the  Lords  of  the  Council  had  done  them  much 
wrong  in  causing  them  to  make  a  passage  for  boats  to  their 
undoing,  and  rather  than  they  shall  force  us  to  make  up 
the  breaches  we  will  be  hanged  at  our  own  gates,"-  and 
he  gave  such  encouragement  to  the  offenders  that  there 
were  more  breaches  cut  than  before. 

An  intelligent  farmer,  in  a  letter  to  the  Queen,  stated 
the  true  reason  for  all  this  opposition  from  the  Enfield 
men  was,  that  they  could  not  monopolize  the  corn  which 
they  had  been  accustomed  to  buy  up  of  the  farmers, — but 
that  since  the  navigation  was  opened,  there  was  a  fair 
open  market  at  Queenhithe. 

In.  1583  the  Enfield  people  again  complained  of  the 
injury  they  received,  and  of  the  many  carriers  reduced  to 
poverty, — when  they  were  told,  in  reply,  "  that  the  navi- 
"  gation  is  and  ought  to  be  as  free  as  the  highway  ;  that 
"  it  maintained  more  able-bodied  men  to  serve  the  Crown 


"  by  land  and  sea  than  could  be  found  among  all  the 
"badgers*  of  Enfield." 

In  1767  application  having  been  made  to  Parliament, 
upon  a  survey  made  by  Smeaton,  setting  forth  the  im-' 
provements  of  which  this  navigation  was  capable,  a  sum  of 
money  was  granted  for  making  new  cuts  between  Hertford 
and  Bromley-lock,  and  from  Bromley-lock  to  Limehouse, 
by  which  seven  miles  were  saved. 

It  is  curious  that  modem  tactics  should  have  just 
reversed  King  Alfred's  plan  of  operations  for  defeating 
invaders.  In  1803  John  Rennie  was  employed  by 
Government  to  survey  the  Lee,  and  to  construct  embank- 
ments across  the  lower  part  of  the  valley  for  the  purpose 
of  flooding  the  whole  extent  with  water,  in  case  of  an 
invasion,  which  was  then  anticipated. 

The  old  and  irregular  course  of  the  river  is  now  of 
little  use,  having  been  long  superseded  by  the  new 
"  navigation,"  which  has  proved  a  great  benefit  to  all  the 
districts  through  which  it  passes. 

*  Badger, — a  licensed  huxter  in  corn  and  fruit. — (Philips.  ) 



"Ther  was  hir  whete  and  eke  hir  malt  yground." 

[Chaucer,  —  The  Reevrjs  Tale.~\ 

By  the  survey  of  1572,  it  appears  that  Queen  Elizabeth 
had  "  a  watercourse  or  stream  issuing  out  of  the  Lee, 
uppon  which  was  antiently  a  mill  belonging  to  the  manor 
of  Enfield  ;"  this  was  let  to  Sir  John  Wrothe,  at  a  rent  of 
6d.  per  annum,  and  is  called  the  water  mill,  to  distinguish 
it  from  the  Lock  or  Oil  mill, — the  latter  being  the  site  of 
the  Royal  Small  Arms  Factory,  the  nucleus  of  which  was 
established  here  in  1804,  apparently  to  utilize  a  small 
water-wheel  and  fall  belonging  to  the  Crown. 

On  the  recommendation  of  a  Committee  of  the  House 
of  Commons,  in  1854,  it  was  decided  to  organize  a  manu- 
factory of  small  arms,  to  a  limited  extent,  under  the 
direction  of  the  Board  of  Ordnance,  and  a  sum  of 
;£  1 5  0,000  was  voted  for  the  purpose. 

The  experiment  proved  so  successful  that  the  buildings 
and  machinery  were  rapidly  increased,  and  the  establish- 
ment was  placed  on  its  present  footing,  and  continued  for 
seventeen  years  under  the  superintendence  of  Colonel 
W.  M.  Dixon. 

It  would  be  hopeless  to  attempt,  in  the  compass  of 
these  pages,  any  adequate  description  of  the  marvellous 
mechanism  which  has  become-  celebrated  throughout 


Europe.  Admission  can  be  obtained  by  the  public  on 
Mondays  and  Thursdays,  and  an  intelligent  guide  ac- 
companies visitors  through  the  various  departments,  and 
explains  the  different  operations. 

Among  other  streams  in  Enfield,  one  rises  from  a 
spring  near  Potter's-bar,  and  another  about  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  south  of  it,  which  running  west  through  Old- 
pond,*  crosses  the  bottom  of  Clay-hill,  and  passing  under 
the  New  River,  at  "  Bull-Beggar's-hole,"  and  thence  by 
Maiden's-bridge,  runs  by  the  side  of  Turkey-street  to 
Enfield-wash,  and  crossing  the  Highway,  turns  due  east 
into  the  marshes,  and  falls  ultimately  into  the  Lee. 

Another  stream  rises  near  Ganna-corner,  and,  crossing 
the  centre  of  the  Chase,  passes  under  the  New  River  at 
Bush-hill,  and  runs  thence  through  the  parish  of  Edmonton. 

A  third  rises  near  the  same  place,  and,  running  through 
New-pond  *  and  other  sheets  of  water,  quits  the  Chase  at 

*  Both  these  ponds  are  now  filled  up. 


THE     NEW     RIVER, 

"  May  thy  brimmed  waves  for  this 
' '  Their  full  tribute  never  miss, 
"  Summer  drought  or  singed  air 
"  Never  scorch  thy  banks  so  fair, 
"Nor  wet  October's  torrent  flood 
' '  Thy  molten  crystal  fill  with  mud  ; 
"  May  thy  lofty  HEAD  be  crowned 
"With  many  a  tower  and  terrace  round." 

Milton's  Coinui. 

A  History  of  Enfield  would  hardly  be  complete  without 
some  account  of  the  New  River,  which  wanders  for  so 
many  miles  of  its  devious  course  through  the  parish,  and 
forms  so  important  a  feature  and  ornament  of  the  scenery. 
Such,  however,  are  the  doubts  and  inaccuracies  which 
pervade  almost  every  account  which  has  been  published 
of  "  this  noble  aqueduct,"  (as  Sir  Christopher  Wren  calls 
it),  and  particularly  as  regards  the  original  cost  of  the 
undertaking,  that  the  task  is  one  of  no  small  difficulty. 

The  chief  authorities,  which  are  adopted  in  the  follow- 
ing pages,,  are  the  Patent  Roll  of  1612,  the  original 
Charter,  June  21,  1619,  and  Acts  of  Parliament, — the 
Minutes  of  Evidence  taken  before  the  Committee  of  the 
House  of  Commons  on  the  Metropolitan  Water  Supply, 
Stowe's  Survey,  ancient  documentary  evidence,  and  the 
very  interesting  and  elaborate  account  given  by  Mr. 
Smiles,  in  his  "  Lives  of  Engineers," — from  which  work 

















the  following  illustrative  engravings  have  been  copied  by 

London  was.  originally  supplied  with  water  from  the 
Thames  *  and  from  various  streams  and  springs,  of 
which  Walbrook,  which  ran  through  the  middle  of  the 
City,  the  Fleet,  Clerkenwell,  Clement' s-well,  Holy-well,  &c. 
survive  in  the  names  of  the  streets,  which  have  been 
built  over  them.  As  London  grew  in  size  and  population 
these  sources  became  inadequate,  and  various  conduits 
were  constructed  which  conveyed  water  from  James's 
Head,  Mewsgate,  Tyburn,  Highbury,  Hampstead,  &c. 
There  were  sixteen  of  such  conduits,  the  sites  of  which 
may  still  be  traced  by  their  names.  Stowe  gives  an 
account  of  one  of  the  annual  inspections  which  were 
made  by  the  authorities.  "  On  the  i8th  Sept.  1562,  the 
Lord  Mayor,  the  Aldermen,  and  many  worshipful  persons 
and  divers  of  the  Masters  and  Wardens  of  the  twelve 
Companies  rode  to  the  Conduit's  head  (now  Conduit- 
street),  for  to  see  them,  after  the  old  custom, — and  afore 
dinner  they  hunted  the  hare  and  killed  her,  and  thence 

*  The. Water- works,  at  London-bridge,  were  erected  by  Peter 
Moris,  a  Dutchman,  and  conveyed  the  water  from  the  Thames 
"vp  unto  the  north-west  corner  of  Leadenhall,  where  the  first  maine 
pipe  "ran  this  yeare,  1582,  on  Christmasse  even,  and  divided  there 
into  severall  spouts,  and  ranne  foure  waies, — plentifullie  serving 
to  the  vse  of  the  inhabitants  that  will  fetch  the  same  into  their 
howses. " — Hollingshead 's  Chronicle. 


to  dinner  at  the  head  of  the  conduit.  There  was  a  good 
number  entertained,  with  good  cheer,  by  the  Chamberlain, 
and  after  dinner  they  hunted  the  fox.  There  was  a  great 
cry  for  a  mile,  and  at  length  the  hounds  killed  him  at  the 
end  of  St.  Giles's." 

As  the  demand  for  water  increased,  there  were  frequent 
contentions  at  the  conduit  for  the  first  turn,  which  some- 
times grew  into  riots, — the  water-carriers  came  prepared 
for  a  fight,  and  a  proclamation  was  issued  forbidding 
persons  from  resorting  to  the  conduits  "armed  with  clubs 
and  staves."  Moreover,  the  springs  from  which  the 
conduits  were  supplied,  gradually  began  to  fail,  whilst 
the  growing  density  of  the  population  added  every  year 
to  the  impurity  of  the  river, — and  the  inhabitants  of  the 
lanes  leading  to  its  banks  endeavoured  to  close  the 
thoroughfares,  and  allowed  no  one  to  pass  without  paying 
toll.  A  large  number  of  persons  then  obtained  their 
livelihood  as  water-carriers,  selling  the  water  by  the 




"tankard,"  of  about  three  gallons,  who  seem  to  have 
formed  a  somewhat  unruly  portion  of  the  population. 
Some  of  these  water-carriers  were  women.  William 
Lamb,  who  formed  the  conduit  where  Lamb's  Conduit- 
street  now  stands,  gave  "  120  pails  to  poor  women,  such 
as  were  willing  to  take  paines  therewith  to  carry  and 
serve  water." 

In  the  year  1571  the  Corporation  obtained  an  Act  of 
Parliament  "  for  the  bringing  of  the  River  Lee  to  the 
north  side  of  the  City  of  London,"  (13  Eliz.  cap.  18), 
but  no  steps  were  taken  to  carry  out  the  undertaking,  as 
though  the  Corporation  were  willing  to  sanction  it,  yet 
they  were  not  disposed  to  supply  any  part  of  the 
necessary  capital. 

Two  several  Acts  were  afterwards  successively  passed 
(3  and  4  James  I.)  "for  the  bringing  in  of  a  fresh 
streame  of  runninge  water  from  the  springs  of  Chadwell 
and  Amwell,  to  the  north  partes  of  the  Citty  of  London." 
Nothing,  however,  came  of  them, — the  citizens  waiting 
for  the  corporation  to  move,  and  the  corporation  waiting 
for  the  citizens. 

"  The  worke  (says  the  patent,  17  James  I.)  upon  view 
was  found  to  be  very  fezible,  and  was  like  to  be  profitable 
to  manie, — nevertheless  the  said  mayor,  cominaltie,  and 
citizens,  weighing  the  great  charge  and  expence  the  said 
worke  would  requyre,  and  doubtinge  what  damage  and 
losse  might  fall  upon  the  chamber  of  the  said  cittie,  in 
case  the  worke  should  not  fall  out  to  be  gainfulle,  did, 


thereuppon,  forbeare  as  their  comon  charge  to  undertake 
that  worke, — soe  as  the  same  lay  longe  neglected  and 
unlike  to  be  by  them  performed." 

.It  was  at  this  juncture  that  "  Hugh  Middelton,  citizen 
and  gouldsmith,  well  affecting  the  good  of  our  said  cittie 
of  London,  and  being  moved  with  a  desire  and  zeale  to 
performe  soe  publique,  necessarie,  and  worthie  a  worke, 
was  willing  to  adventure,  and  upon  his  own  private 
charge  to  undertake  the  said  worke,  and  did,  out  of  a 
pyous  and  commendable  purpose,  make  offer  to  the 
Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  Comons,  assembled  in  a 
comon  councell,  the  eight  and  twentieth  day  of  March, 
in  the  seaventh  yeare  of  our  raigne,  to  undertake  the 
said  worke  at  the  proper  costs  and  charges  of  himself 
and  his  heires." 

-  "After  long  and  deliberate  consultacon  and  advisement 
on  this  offer,  they  declared  theire  verie  good  likeinge 
thereof,  as  a  thinge  of  great  consequence,  and  worthie  of 
acceptacon  for  the  good  of  the  said  cittie."  * 

Here  we  pause  in  our  narrative,  to  give  a  short  account 
of  "  one  of  the  most  distinguished  benefactors  London 
has  ever  known  ;" — "  a  man  (says  Mr.  Smiles)  full  of  enter- 
prize  and  resources,  an  energetic  and  untiring  worker — a 
great  conqueror  of  obstacles  and  difficulties — an  honest 

*  Patent  Roll,— 17  James  1 


and  truly  noble," — and  in  sad  sooth  must  be  added— 
ill-requited  man. 

Hugh  Myddelton  was  descended  from  an  ancient 
family  in  North  Wales,  and  was  born  at  Henllan,  near 
Denbigh,  about  1555,*  being  the  sixth  of  sixteen 
children.  He  was  entered  by  his  father  as  an  apprentice 
to  the  Goldsmith's  Company  and  embarked  in  that  trade, 
which  then  included  that  of  banker  and  money-changer. 

His  "  shop  "  was  situated  in  Basinghall-street,  and  he 
lived  in  the"  overhanging  tenement  above  it,  as  was  the 
custom  of  city  merchants  in  "good  old  days."  Here, 
according  to  long  tradition,  Hugh  Myddelton  and  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh  might  be  seen  sitting  together  at  the 
door  of  the  goldsmith's  booth,  smoking  the  newly-intro- 
duced weed  (tobacco),  greatly  to  the  amazement  of  the 
passengers.  Pennant  states,  on  the  authority  of  the 

*  Will  of  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton.  It  has  generally,  but  erroneously, 
been  stated  that  he  was  born  at  Denbigh.  The  autograph  of  Sir 
Hugh  has  been  engraved  from  one  in  the  possession  of  H.  C.  B. 
Bowles,  Esq.,  the  Treasurer  of  the  Company. 


Sebright  MS.,  that  Captain  William  Myddelton  (Hugh's 
brother),  with  Captain  Price,  of  Plasyollin,  and  one 
Captain  Koet,  were  the  first  who  smoked, — or,  as  they 
called  it,  "  drank  "  tobacco  publicly  in  London,  and  that 
the  Londoners  flocked  from  all  parts  to  see  them. 

Myddelton  was  also  one  of  the  merchant  adventurers 
of  England,  and  was  largely  concerned  in  the  manufacture 
of  woollen  cloth,  in  which  he  employed  several  hundred 
families.  In  1603  he  was  elected  to  represent  Denbigh, 
in  the  first  parliament  of  James, — of  which  his  brothers, 
Thomas  and  Robert  were  also  members.  Among  the 
first  committees  of  the  House  on  which  the  brothers 
were  appointed,  was  one  to  consider  of  bringing  a  fresh 
stream  of  water  from  the  Lee,  or  from  Uxbridge,  to  the 
City.  Thus  his  attention  was  early  drawn  to  this  subject, 
which  his  energy  of  character  and  public  spirit  eventually 
carried  out  with  success. 

The  Corporation  of  London  were  only  too  glad  to 
transfer  to  Myddelton  the  labour,  anxiety,  and  expense, 
which  they  considered  so  gigantic.  "  The  matter  (says 
Stowe)  had  been  well  mentioned,  though  little  minded, — 
long  debated,  but  never  concluded — till  courage  and 
resolution  lovingly  shook  hands  together  in  the  soule  of 
this  no-way-to-be-daunted,  well-minded  gentleman." 

On  the  28th  March,  1609,  the  Corporation  formally 
accepted  his  proposal,  and  "  a  wan-ant "  was  made  out 
on  the  2ist  of  April  following,  constituting  him  their 
'•lawfull  deputie  and  assigne."  Of  this  document,  how- 


ever,  there  is  no  record,  and  it  was  not  till  two  years 
afterwards  that  "  by  their  indenture  under  the  comon 
scale,  bearinge  date  the  eight  and  twentieth  day  of  March 
(1611),  they  fully,  freely,  and  absolutely,  conveyed,  as- 
signed, and  confirmed "  the  undertaking  to  Myddelton 
and  his  heirs. 

On  the  2ist  of  April,  1609,  Myddelton  began  the 
work,  and  turned  the  first  sod  at  Chadwell.  Master 
Hassall,  Vicar  of  Amwell,  who,  greatly  to  his  honour 
and  patriotism,  gave  his  land  for  the  formation  of  the 
New  River,  thus  describes  the  spring  which  "  riseth  at 
the  foot  of  a  hill  near  Ware ; — this  spring,  Chadwell,*  is 
not  more  commendable  in  respect  to  the  pureness  of  the 
water,  than  admirable  both  in  regard  of  the  strangeness 
of  her  birth,  issuing  out  of  a  hole  of  incredible  depth, 
as  also  in  respect  of  the  richness  of  the  current,  which 
of  itself  instantly  grows  into  a  river  of  about  twenty  feet 
in  breadth, — afterwards  pouring  her  rich  spoils  into  the 
bosom  of  her  sister  Amwell,  so  hand  in  hand  coming 
along  with  her  to  London."  * 

The  works  were  no  sooner  commenced,  than  a  host  of 
opponents  sprang  up.  The  owners  and  occupiers  of  land 
petitioned  Parliament,  representing  that  their  meadows 
would  be  turned  into  "  bogs  and  quagmires,"  and  their 
arable  land  into  "  squallid  ground;"  that  their  farms 

*  St.  Chad,   to  whom   this  spring  was  dedicated,   was  an  early 
English  Bishop  (Lichfield),  who  died  of  a  pestilence  in  673. 


would  be  "  mangled,"  and  their  fields  "  cut  up  into 
quillets  and  small  peces  ;"  that  "the  cut,  which  was  no 
better  than  a  deep  ditch,"  would  be  dangerous  to  cattle, 
and  "  on  soden  raines "  would  inundate  the  adjoining 
lands,  to  the  utter  ruin  of  many  poor  men  ; — that  "  the 
Church  would  vbe  wronged  in  its  tithe  without  remedy," 
and  that  "the  highway  between  London  and  Ware  would 
be  impassable."  A  Bill  was,  in  consequence,  actually 
introduced  and  committed,  for  the  repeal  of  the  Act,  but 
happily  Parliament  was  prorogued,  and  did  not  meet 
again  for  four  years,  during  which  time  the  panic  had 
subsided,  and  the  subject  is  not  again  mentioned  in  the 
Journals  of  the  House. 

Worse  than  all,  however,  was  the  popular  opposition 
which  Myddelton  had  to  encounter.  The  Rev.  Wilhelm 
Bedwell,  "  pastour  of  the  parish  of  Tottenham,"  writing 
in  1631,  speaks  of  the  New  River  as  "brought  with  an 
ill-will  from  Ware  to  London  ;"  and  Stowe  says  bitterly 
"  if  those  enemies  of  all  good  endeavours  could  have 
prevailed,  by  their  accursed  and  malevolent  interposition, 
either  before,  at  the  beginning,  or  in  the  least  stolne 
advantage  of  the  whole  prosecution,  this  worke  of  so 
great  worthe  had  never  been  accomplished."  "  The 
depth  of  the  trench  (he  adds)  in  some  places  descended 
full  thirty  feet,  whereas  in  other  places  it  required  as 
spritefull  art  to  mount  it  over  a  valley,  in  a  troughe, 
borne  up  by  woodden  arches,  rising  in  height  above  23 


Myddelton's  difficulties,  however,  did  not  end  here,  for 
after  having  adjusted  all  his  controversies  in  an  amicable 
manner,  and  brought  the  water  "  divers  miles  towards 
London,  yet,  finding  the  charge  of  the  work  greater  and 
heavier  than  at  first*  was  expected,  the  success  thereof 
doubtful,  and  the  opposicons  very  strong,"  his  own  funds 

became  exhausted,   and  he  was  compelled  to  apply  to 


such  relations  and  "  other  friends  as  were  well  affected 
toward  the  work,  and  willinge  to  adventure  and  joyne  in 
contribution  towards  the  charge  thereof."* 

Still  the  capital  was  insufficient  to  complete  the  under- 
taking. Joint-stock  companies  were  not  then  in  exist- 
ence, and  shares,  loans,  and  debentures,  were  all 
unknown.  In  this  dilemma,  Myddelton  again  applied  to 
the  City  for  their  assistance  in  this  ^reat  and  useful  work, 
but  only  to  meet  with  a  refusal,  and  as  a  last  resource 
he  applied  to  the  King,  who  had  naturally  become  inter- 
ested in  the  works  from  observing  their  progress  through 
the  Royal  Park  at  Theobalds.  Several  interviews  took 
place  here  between  them,  the  result  of  which  was  that — 
*  "  Wee,  considering  out  of  our  royal  and  gracious 
inclination,  and  being  willinge  to  give  our  ayde  and 
furtherance  to  soe  good,  publique,  and  commodious  a 
worke,"  did,  "  with  consent  of  the  adventurers,  agree 
to  beare  and  pave  the  one-halfe  and  moyetie  of  all  the 
charges,  disbursed  and  expended,  and  to  be  disbursed 

*  Pat.  Roll,  — 17  James  I. 


and  expended,"  £c.,  in  return  for  which  assistance  a 
moiety  of  the  interest  and  profits  of  the  undertaking 
was  made  over  to  the  King. 

An  amusing  account  is  given  in  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Joseph  Meade,  to  Sir  Martin  Stutevifle  (9  Jan,  1622),  of  a 
narrow  escape  which  King  James  had  from  being 
drowned  in  the  river  which  he  had  helped  Myddelton 
to  complete.  He  had  gone  out  one  winter's  day,  after 
dinner,  to  ride  in  the  park,  at  Theobald's,  accompanied 
by  his  son,  Prince  Charles,  when  about  three  miles  from 
the  palace  his  horse  stumbled,  and  he  was  thrown  into 
the  river.  It  was  frozen  over  at  the  time,  and  His 
Majesty's  body  disappeared,  leaving  only  his  boots 
visible  above  the  ice.  Sir  Richard  Young  rushed  in 
to  his  rescue  and  dragged  him  out,  when  there  "came 
much  water  out  of  his  mouth  and  body."  "  His  Majestic," 
continues  the  writer,  "rid  back  to  Theobalds,  went 
into  a  warme  bed,  and  as  we  heare,  is  well,  which 
God  continue.  He  did  not,  however,  soon  forget 
the  accident,  for  when  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sir  Edward 
Barkham,  and  the  Recorder,  Sir  Heneage  Finch  attended 
him,  at  Greenwich,  in  June,  1622,  to  be  knighted,  James 
took  occasion,  in  rather  strong  terms,  to  remind  them  of 
his  recent  mischance  "  in  Myddelton's  water." 

The  work  at  last  went  on  without  further  interruption  ; 
the  water  was  brought  within  a  mile  of  London ;  the 
voice  of  derision  became  silent,  and  the  King,  Corpora- 
tion, and  Citizens,  now  vied  with  each  other  in  doing 


honour  to  the  brave-hearted  and  patriotic  Myddelton. 
On  the  29th  September,  1613,  the  water  was  let  into  the 
basin  called  "  The  New  River  Head,"  in  the  presence  of 
his  brother,  Sir  Thomas  Myddelton, — who  was  that  clay 
elected  Lord  Mayor, — the  Aldermen,  and  Common  Coun- 
cil, amid  a  great  concourse  of  spectators,  who  assembled 
in  large  numbers  to  celebrate  the  public  pageant. 

"  A  troup  of  labourers  (says  Stowe,  in  his  Survey)  to 
the  number  of  sixty  or  more,  well  apparelled  and  wearing 
green  Monmouth  caps,  carried  spades,  shovels,  and  such- 
like instruments  of  laborious  imployment,  marching  after 
drummers,  twice  or  thrice  about  the  cisterne."  A  metrical 
speech,  composed  by  Myddelton,  the  dramatist,  was  then 
read,  "  when  the  flood-gate  flew  open,  the  streame  ranne 
gallantly  into  the  cisterne,  drummes  and  trumpets 
sounding  in  a  triumphal]  manner,  and  a  brave  peale  of 
chambers  gave  full  issue  to  the  entertainment." 

A  large  print,  of  much  artistic  merit,  and  now  extremely 
rare,  was  published  in  commemoration  of  the  event.  It 
is  entitled  "  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton's  Glory,"  and  is  dedi- 
cated, by  G.  Bickham,  to  the  proprietors  of  the  New 
River.  The  grouping  of  some  of  the  figures,  and  their 
light  and  shade,  are  particularly  fine. 

The  site  of  the  New  River  Head  had  always  been  a 
pond, — "  an  open,  idell  pool  (says  Hawes)  commonly 
called  the  Ducking-pond, — being  now,  by  the  master  of 
this  work,  reduced  into  a  comely  pleasant  shape,  and 
many  wayes  adorned  with  buildings."  The  house  ad- 


joining  was  built  in  1613,  and  was  altered  and  new-fronted 
in  1782.  The  fine  room,  built  for  a  board-room,  still 
remains  in  its  original  state,  with  its  walls  lined  with 
panelled  oak,  and  enriched  with  carving,  by  Gibbons, — 
and  a  painted  ceiling,  having  a  portrait  of  William  III. 
and  the  arms  of  Myddelton  and  Green.  There  is  a 
very  interesting  and  highly-finished  indian-ink  drawing 
in  the  Print-room  of  the  British  Museum, — taken  about 
1730,  by  Bernard  Lens,  miniature  painter  to  George  II., 
which  represents  the  New  River  Head,  with  tJie  Windmill, 
and  Sadler's-wells  adjoining,  standing  in  the  open 
country,  with  a  clear  view  across  the  fields,  of  St.  Paul's 
and  Westminster  Abbey,  broken  only  by  intervening 
trees.  A  duplicate  of  this  curious  drawing,  from '  the 
collection  of  the  late  Sir  Henry  Ellis,  is  in  the  possession 
of  the  writer. 

One  of  the  most  difficult  and  expensive  parts  of  the 
undertaking  still  remained  to  be  accomplished, — the 
distribution  of  the  water  over  the  metropolis.  During  a 
period  of  two  centuries  this  was  accomplished  by  means 
of  wooden  pipes,  principally  of  elm.*  The  only  pumping 

*  The  rows  of  lopped  elms,  so  common  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
London  and  the  adjoining  counties,  owe  their  origin  to  the  great 
demand  for  long  straight  trees,  which  were  bored  for  New  River 
pipes.  The  custom,  which  is  noticed  by  Gilpin,  appears  to  have 
been  restricted  to  the  elm,  which  was  found  to  be  more  durable  for 
this  purpose  than  any  other  timber.  The  last  outlay  on  elm  pipes 
was  in  1816,  previously  to  which  the  annual  cost  had  been  from 
^5000  to  j£8ooo. 


establishment  was  a  windmill,  with  a  horse-wheel  below, 
so  that  when  there  was  no  wind,  a  couple  of  horses  were 
put  to  work.  The  building  is  still  in  existence.  The 
extent  of  these  pipes,  at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  was 
estimated  at  400  miles^  of  which  20  miles  had  'to  be 
replaced  annually.  The  expense  arising  from  this,  and 
the  amount  of  leakage  (calculated  at  one-fourth)  was 
very  heavy,  and  the  Company  were  only  able  to  supply 
water  to  the  height  of  six  feet,  every  consumer  having  a 
forcing  pump  in  his  own  house. 

Between  the  years  1810  and  1816,  when  a  severe  com- 
petition existed  among  the  different  water  companies,  it 
was  detemined  to  substitute  iron  pipes.  Great  public 
opposition  was  however  made  to  this  proposal,  and  among 
other  outcries,  it  was  gravely  asserted  that  the  consumption 
of  the  water  would  produce  cancer. 

At  this  time  however  there  was  a  great  depression  in 
the  iron  trade  of  the  country,  which  induced  Government 
to  support  the  scheme,  and  on  the  application  of  the 
governor  (John  Walker,  Esq.),  and  the  treasurer  (Samuel 
Garnault,  Esq.),  Mr.  Vansittart,  then  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer,  gave  a  letter  to  the  Bank  of  England,  author- 
izing a  loan  of  ;£  100,000,  on  condition  that  the  money 
was  expended  in  iron  from  the  Staffordshire  foundries. 

This  alteration  led  incidentally  to  very  beneficial 
results.  At  the  time  that  the  New  River  Head  was 
constructed,  the  enormous  growth  of  London  had  not 
been  foreseen,  indeed  it  had  been  restricted  by  sumptuary 


legislation,  and  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton  had  not  secured  a 
sufficient  extent  of  ground  for  the  necessary  connexions. 

Around  that  little  centre  were  fifty  acres  of  land,  over 
which  the  company  had  obtained  an  easement  for  laying 
down  their  pipes,  at  a  fixed  rental  for  each  line.  These 
pipes  had  multiplied  very  rapidly,  there  were  hundreds  of 
them,  and  they  covered  those  fifty  acres  like  the  threads 
of  a  garment.*  The  annual  burden  became  so  heavy 
that  the  land  was  ultimately  purchased,  and  on  the  sub- 
stitution of  iron,  care  Was  -taken  to  carry  the  mains  on 
lines,  in  which  streets  could  be  laid  -out, — and  the  whole 
has  now  been  long  built  over,  and  forms  a  large  district 
of  squares  and  streets. 

At  the  time  that  the  change  was  made,  this  land  was 
let  as  pasture  for  ^500, — it  now  produces  above  ^4000 
a  year  in  ground  rents,  and  it  need  hardly  be  said  that 
when  the  leases  fall  in,  the  rental  of  this  property  will  be 
very  largely  increased. 

In  the  year  1822  it  was  determined  to  rebuild  London 
Bridge.  The  representatives  of  Peter  Moris  held  a  Lease 
from  the  Corporation,  which  had  yet  260  years  to  run, 
of  four  arches  of  the  old  bridge,  from  which  their  water 
was  pumped  up  by  a  series  of  water-wheels,  turned  by 
the  tide,  and  the  City,  being  anxious  to  arrange  terms 
of  compensation  with  them,  came  to  an  agreement,  by 
which  the  New  River  paid  them  an  annuity  of  ^3750 

*  Mr.  Mylne.     Minutes  of  Evidence,  July  29,  1851. 


for  the  goodwill  of  their  works,  and  agreed  to  supply 
the  inhabitants  from  their  own  mains, — thus  giving 
them  high  service  instead  of  low,  and  enabling  the 
Corporation  to  remove  the  old  bridge,*  without  any 
cost  to  the  city. 

The  various  statements  which  have  been  made  as  to 
•the  original  cost  of  this  undertaking  are  strangely  con- 
flicting. Pennant  and  others,  misled  by  analogy  with 
"joint-stock  companies,"  suppose  the  shares  to  have 
been  ^100  each,  thus  making  the  whole  outlay  only 
^7200;  whilst  Entick  more  correctly  states  them  to 
have  been  ^7000  each,  making  a  total  of  ^504,000. 

"  In  point  of  fact,  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  share  in 
the  New  River  Company,"  t  in  the  modern  sense  of  the 

*  Mr.  Mylne.     Minutes  of  Evidence,  July  29,  1851. 

t  Mr.  Talbot  (counsel  for  the  New  River  Company), — Minutes 
of  Evidence,  1851.  This  statement  however  now  requires  some 
modification.  By  the  Act  29  and  30  Viet.  c.  230  (1866),  it  is  enacted, 
that  these  parts  shall  be  called  "original  shares" — but  they  still 
remain  real  property, — and  the  new  ,£100  shares  created  by  the  same 
Act  "shall  be  called  the  New  River  Company's  New  Shares," — 
but  "  all  such  shares  shall  be  personal  estate,  and  [be  transmissible 
as  such,  and  shall  not  be  of  the  nature  of  real  property. " 

Landed 'property  was,  till  a  much  later  period,  the  only  "invest- 
ment "  known.  Bishop  Warburton  tells  us  that  Pope's  father,  who 
had  acquired  a  competence  in  trade,  of  between  fifteen  and  twenty 
thousand 'pounds,  retired  from  business  into  the  country.  Being 
however  a  Roman  Catholic,  he  was  unable,  under  the  existing  laws 


word, — a  matter  of  some  importance  to  state,  as  it  hab 
led  to  more  than  one  Chancery  suit.  They  were 
properly  parts  or  portions  "commonly  called  shares," 
in  the  King's  or  Adventurers'  moiety,  as  the  case  might 
be,  and  till  lately  were  so  described  in  legal  documents, 
and  were  always  conveyed  by  lease  and  release,  and  by 
fine  and  recovery,  as  landed  property, — which  was 
"holden  (says  the  Charter)  of  us,  our  heirs  and  suc- 
cessors, as  of  our  manner  of  East  Greenwich,  in  our 
countie  of,  Kent,  in  free  and  comon  socage,  by  fealtie 
only,  and  not  in  cheife,  nor  by  Knight's  service." 

Sir  Hugh  Myddelton  originally  undertook  to  advance 
the  whole  capital,  and  commenced  the  work  as  an 
individual  enterprize.  Afterwards  King  James  took  '.'a 
moiety"  of  it,  and  "  divers  loving  subjects  well  affecting 
the  said  worke,"  made,  at  different  times,  their  several 
agreements  with  Myddelton  to  contribute  "to  the  charges 
for  such  rateable  parts  and  porcons  in  the  said  worke  as 
was  agreed  between  them;"  they,  on  the  other  hand, 
receiving  in  return,  "  rateable  charges  and  partes  out  of 
the  profitts — rateably  and  respectivelie  to  the  proporeon 

either  to  purchase  land  or  to  place  his  money  out  on  mortgage  ; — 
and  as  he  was  an  adherent  of  James  II.,  he  made  it  a  point  of 
conscience  not  to  invest  it  in  Government  securities, — so  he  was 
compelled  to  keep  it  in  a  chest,  and  to  live  on  the  principal,  and 
when  Pope  came  to  the  succession,  it  was  nearly  all  spent. 


of  their  severall  disbursements/' — which  appear  to  have 
been  originally  of  various  amounts. 

Of  these  proprietors,  called  "  Adventurers,"  there  were 
twenty- eight,  and  by  the  Charter  of  1619  they  were  in- 
corporated as  "  one  body  politique,  in  deed,  fact,  and 
name,  and  by  the  name  of  the  Governor  and  Company 
of  the  New  River,  brought  from  Chadwell  and  Amwell 
to  London,"  with  power  "  to  purchase  and  possesse 
manners,  lands,  tenements,  rents,  revenues,  possessions, 
liberties,  priviledges,  rights,  jurisdiccons,  franchises,  and 
hereditaments,  and  to  have  and  enjoy  a  comon  scale,* 
to  scale  any  manner  of  instruments,  deedes  or  writings," 
and  appointing  Sir  Hugh  Myddelton  "  to  be  the  first  and 
present  Governor." 

It  is  the  less  surprising  that  there  should  be  some 
difficulty  in  ascertaining  the  original  outlay,  and  the 
amount  paid  by  each  adventurer,  when  we  find  that  even 
the  number  of  these  proprietors,  as  well  as  their  names, 
is  differently  stated  by  different  authorities.  Lodge,  in 
common  with  others,  says,  that  there  were  twenty-seven-, 
and  that  one  of  them  was  "Ralph,  son  of  Hugh 
Myddelton."  Mr.  Smiles  gives  the  number  as  twenty- 
nine,  and  adds  that  besides  "  his  son  Hugh,  who  held 

*  This  seal  is  "The  hand  of  Providence,  issuing  from  clouds, 
and  distributing  water  over  London," — with  the  motto — 


(Taken  from  the  7th  verse  of  the  4th  chapter  of  Amos. ) 


one  share,  and  his  brother,  Sir  Thomas,  who  held 
another,  there  were  four  other  shareholders  of  the  name 
of  Myddelton,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  they  were 
relatives  of  the  goldsmith." 

The  Charter  itself  enumerates  twenty-eight  adventurers, 
amongst  whom  there  is  no  "  Ralph," — but  there  aren't? 
of  the  name  of  Middelton,  besides  Sir  Hugh,  and  his 
brother,  and  eldest  son, — and  of  these  five,  William  appears 
to  be  his  second  son,  and  Richard  and  Timothie  his  two 
nephews.  There  were  also  Robert  Bateman,  his  brother- 
in-law,  and  William  Bateman,  his  nephew, — making,  with 
the  "  two  shares  " — which  Mr.  Smiles  says  were  held  by 
Sir  Hugh — nine  adventurers  in  the  family.*  This  may 
perhaps  account  for  the  ultimate  division  of  the  moiety 
into  thirty-six  equal  parts  or  shares,  of  which  number  the 
Myddelton  family  would  hold  just  one  quarter,  and  have 
a  corresponding  representation  at  the  Board ; — the 
Charter  further  providing  that  if  any  of  the  twenty-eight 
persons  named  should  "  departe  with  all  or  so  much  of 
the  said  share  or  part,"  which  he  then  held,  as  that  he 
should  not  "  still  retayne  a  full  thirtie-sixe  part  or  share 
of  the  moiety,"  he  should  be  removed  from  his  seat. 

As  the  books  of  the  Company  were  destroyed  by  fire, 

*  It  would  seem  that  these  nine  shares  were  held  in  trust,  and 
that  they  constituted  the  nine  shares  mentioned  in  Sir  Hugh's  will, 
as  belonging  to  himself  or  to  other  feoffees  for  his  use,  and  which 
could  not  be  sold  for  the  payment  of  his  debts. 


which  consumed  the  whole  of  the  premises  at  Blackfriars, 
December  24,  1769,  it  is  impossible  to  know  what 
amount  was  paid  upon  these  "partes  or  porcons,"  or 
what  was  the  total  expenditure  upon  the  work.  There  is, 
however,  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  statement  of 
Entick,  which  was  published  before  the  documents  of 
the  Company  were  destroyed,  is  substantially  correct. 
A  "  copy  of  a  very  old  paper,"  in  the  New  River  Office, 
says  :  "  N.B. — By  the  best  accounts  that  can  be  gotten 
there  appear  to  be  expended  on  each  share  about  ^7000, 
before  any  dividend  was  made, — and  notwithstanding 
they  were  made  a  corporation,  in  1619,  they  were  not 
capable  of  making  any  dividend  till  the  year  1635,  which 
then  amounted  to  no  more  than  ^5  i6s.  8}^d.  per 
share;  1640 — ^"33  23.  8^d. ;  1650 — £40  i8s.  8^d." 

From  evidence  laid  before  Parliament,  the  original 
cost  of  the  river  alone,  exclusive  of  the  reservoirs  and 
pipes,  appears  to  have  been  ^428,420,  being  at  the  rate 
of  about  ;£6ooo  per  share. 

It  is  certain  that  Myddelton,  who  was  a  very  wealthy 
man,  was  all  but  ruined  by  his  outlay  on  this  work  ;  and 
after  its  completion  we  find  him  a  petitioner  to  the 
Corporation  for  a  loan  of  ^3000,  which  he  obtained  at 
six  per  cent  interest  (September,  1614).  This  was  not 
repaid  during  his  lifetime  ;  and  in  1634  they  remitted  to 
Lady  Myddelton  ,£1000  of  the  principal,  in  considera- 
tion of  the  great  benefit  bestowed  on  the  City,  as  well  as 
for  "  the  present  comfort  of  Lady  Myddelton." 


Now,  at  the  time  when  the  Charter  was  granted  (in 
1619),  Myddelton  was  the  holder  of  no  more  than  eight 
shares,*  which,  at  Entick's  estimate  .of  ^7000  each, 
would  only  amount  to  ^5 6,000, — no  very  exorbitant 
sum  to  have  exhausted  the  coffers  of  one  of  the  merchant 
princes  of  London. 

Mr.  Smiles,  in  his  interesting  narrative,  to  which  we 
are  so  much  indebted,  considers  that  the  statements 
hitherto  printed  as  to  the  cost  of  the  New  River  have 
been  greatly  exaggerated,  and  he  bases  his  calculation 
on  the  payments  made  from  the  Treasury,  as  they  appear 
in  the  accounts  of  the  State  Paper  Office.  The  first  of 
these  payments,  however,  is  for  the  moiety  of  disburse- 
ments, from  August  24,  1611,  to  December  i,  1612,  and 
the  last  one  entered  is  in  April,  1616  ;  making  the  total 
payments  out  of  the  Royal  purse  only  ^8609'  145.  6d., 
and  the  total  expenditure  only  ^17,219  93.  od.  But 
this  is  a  very  defective  balance  sheet.  Mr.  Smiles  has 
himself  previously  pointed  out  that  Myddelton  had, 
before  May,  1610,  expended  above  ^3000,  to  which  must 
be  added  a  further  sum  of  at  least  ^4000,  for  the 
following  sixteen  months  (previous  to  August  1611). 

Moreover,  the  distribution  of  the  water  was,  as  stated 
by  Mr.  Mylne,  "  by  far  the  most  expensive  part  of  the 
undertaking."  We  have  no  means  of  estimating  the 
outlay  on  this  head,  except  that  it  absorbed  the  whole 

*  Mr.  Smiles: — A  ninth  share  belonged  to  his  eldest  son  Hugh. 


receipts  for  a  period  of  twenty  years,  and  the  loss  of 
interest  alone  (Myddelton  was  paying  6  per  cent)  during 
this  time  would  have  more  than  trebled  the  original 
cost,  — independently  of  any  calls  that  might  have  been 
made.  So  heavy  was  this  burden  that  in  November, 
1636,  "as  the  concern  seemed  to  offer  no  great  prospect 
of  improvement,  and  a  further  call  on  the  proprietors 
was  expected,"  Charles  I.,  who  required  all  his  available 
means  for  other  purposes,  finally  disposed  of  his  moiety 
(now  constituting  the  "  King's  shares,")  to  the  Company, 
under  the  great  seal,  in  consideration  of  a  fee-farm  rent 
of  ^500,  which  is  now  paid  to  the  Adair  family,  and  is 
known  by  the  name  of  the  "  King's  Clogg." 

If  the  whole  real  cost  of  this  moiety  had  been  only 
;£86oo,  Charles  I.  could  hardly  have  asked  or  obtained 
such  an  unreasonable  equivalent  for  his  share  in  a 
concern  which  for  twenty  years  had  not  paid  a  sixpence, 
and  on  which  an  additional  outlay  was  expected. 

Lastly,  there  seems  some  reason  to  doubt  whether 
Myddelton  was  ever  really  repaid  the  whole  amount  which 
he  was  entitled  to,  under  the  agreement  with  the  Crown. 
Fuller  certainly  implies  that  there  was  some  injustice  in 
his  treatment  in  this  respect.  "  But  oh — what  an  injury 
was  it  to  him,  that  a  potent  person  and  idle  spectator 
should  strike  in — (reader  I  could  heartily  wish  it  were  a 
falshood  what  I  report) — and  by  his  greatness  possess  a 
moiety  of  the  profit  which  the  unwearied  endeavours  of 


the  aforesaid  Knight  had  purchased  to  himself."  *  This 
language  would  have  been  wholly  inapplicable  if  the 
stipulated  payment  had  been  fairly  made,  and  Fuller  in 
no  way  censures  the  "  adventurers  "  who  had  purchased 
above  a  third  of  the  undertaking. 

Nor  is  Fuller  the  only  one  who  alludes  thus  obscurely 
to  Myddelton  having  been  in  some  way  deprived  of  his 
just  claims  and  position.  The  Rev.  Wilhelm  Bedwell, 
in  his  "  Description  of  Tottenham  High  Cross,"  (London, 
1631),  says,  "He  who  first  chalked  out  the  way,  we 
know  was  our  English  Tycho,  a  man  so  ingenious, 
industrious,  and  learned,  that  I  suppose  there  were  few 
things  undertaken  by  him,  if  fecible,  which  hee  would 
not  have  effected  and  done, — but  it  seemeth,  that  before 
the  worke  was  altogether  finished,  he  was  put  by  it,  and 
others  imployed  to  make  an  end  of  it." 

Sir  Hugh  was  knighted  after  the  opening  of  the 
New  River,  in  1613,  and  in  October,  1622,  he  was 
created  a  baronet.  "These  .empty  honours  (says 
Lodge)  were  the  only  recompense  that  poor  Myddelton 
ever  received."  He  died,  beyond  all  doubt,  an  impover- 
ished man,  on  the  loth  December,  1631, — his  will  being 
dated  the  2ist  November,  and  proved  the  2ist  December 
of  that  year.  Though  the  later  undertakings  of  his  life 
were  prosperous,  and  probably  lucrative,  yet  he  seems 
never  to  have  recovered  from  the  losses  and  embarass- 

*  Fuller's  Worthies  of  England,  1662. 


merits  of  his  patriotic  enterprize.  His  loan  from  the 
City  of  London  was  still  unpaid  after  the  lapse  of  seven- 
teen years  ;  he  directs  his  land  and  houses  to  be  sold  for 
the  satisfaction  of  mortgages  upon  them,  and  the  whole 
of  his  pecuniary  legacies  amounted  to  only  ^"3100,  for 
the  payment  of  which,  and  of  his  debts,  he  directs  that 
his  property  in  the  Mines  Royal  of  Wales,  should  be 
sold,  and  also  four  of  his  New  River  shares,  if  the  sum 
realized  by  the  sale  of  the  mines  should  not  be  sufficient. 

He  leaves  his  "  house  at  Bush-hill,  Edmonton,"  and 
his  shares  in  the  New  River  (which,  however,  yielded  no 
income)  to  Lady  Myddelton  for  her  life,  together  with 
the  jewels  she  had  been  "  used  to  wear  at  festivals,"  and 
the  great  jewel  given  to  him  by  the  Lord  Mayor  (probably 
his  brother)  and  Aldermen,  and  also  "  the  deep,  silver 
bason,  the  spout  pot,  and  maudling  cup,  and  small 
bowl,  all  which  had  been  given  to  her." 

He  states  that  "  thirteen  partes  or  shares  "  in  the  New 
River  were  then  belonging  to  him,  or  to  other  feoffees 
for  his  use,  "  the  profits  "  of  which  he  gives  to  his  wife 
for  her  life, — but  he  only  devises  six  of  them,  and 
appoints  no  residuary  legatee.  It  would  seem  probable 
that  the  four  shares  which  he  directs  to  be  sold  had  been 
purchased  by  him  since  the  date  of  the  Charter,  and 
were  at  his  own  disposal ;  whilst  the  remaining  nine 
consisted  of  the  share  held  by  his  eldest  son,  Hugh, 
which  had  reverted  to  him  on  his  death  (and  which  may 
be  the  one  bequeathed  to  the  Goldsmith's  Company), 


and  of  eight  shares  held  by  trustees  for  his  use,  with 
more  or  less  power  of  appointment  over  the  reversion. 
Five  of  these  he  leaves  to  his  younger  children,  William, 
Henry,  Simon,  Elizabeth,  and  Aim.  To  the  poor  of 
Henllan  (his  birth-place),  of  Denbigh,  and  of  Amwell,  he 
leaves  small  legacies,  as  well  as  to  his  clerks  and  others, 
who  had  assisted  him  in  his  different  enterprizes, — and  he 
leaves  ^"5  to  each  of  his  men  servants,  "  except  the  boy 
in  the  kitchen,"  who  has  only  forty  shillings,  and  forty 
shillings  to  his  one  "  maid  servant." 
The  title  is  now  extinct. 

When  compared  with  the  engineering  •  works  of  the 
present  day,  the  New  River  may  perhaps  appear  a  small 
undertaking,  but  at  the  time  of  its  construction,  it  was, 
beyond  all  doubt,  the  greatest  enterprize  that  had  been 
attempted  in  England.  Myddelton  had  no  past  experi- 
ence for  his  guide,  and  with  only  his  practical  good  sense 
and  strong  determination  to  rely  upon,  he  had  to  en- 
counter, single  handed,  the  sneers  of  incredulity  and  the 
harassing  opposition  of  hostile  interest. 

The  stream  was  originally  forty-eight  *  miles  in  length, 

*  It  is  strange  that  every  writer  we  have  seen  should  have  stated 
this  length  to  have  been  under  forty  miles.  Our  authority  is  that  of 
Mr.  Mylne  (Min.  of  Evid.  6  May,  1852).  "2700 — What  is  the 
measured  distance  of  the  New  River,  as  constructed?"  "  It  was 
48  miles  when  I  was  appointed,  but  we  have  taken  off  some  of  the 
contours  nearer  London,  and  it  is  reduced  to  38  miles."  Since  1852 
the  length  has  been  still  further  diminished,  and  it  is  now  only  about 
28  miles. 


and  had  a  fall  of  two  inches  to  the  mile,  with  occasional 
weirs  across  its  bed  of  three  or  four  feet  in  height.  The 
water-course  was  ten  feet  wide  and  four  deep,  and  the 
number  of  bridges  160. 

The  surface  waters  of  the  district  were  carried  off, 
sometimes  by  a  culvert  under  the  bed  of  the  river,  and 
sometimes  by  a  "  flash,"  which  consisted  of  a  wooden 
trough  carried  over  it.  One  of  these  flashes  was  situated 
at  Clay-hill,  where  the  name  is  still  retained. 

Amongst  the  most  important  constructions  was  "  The 
frame,"  at  Bush-hill,  which  was  a  wooden  trunk  lined 
with  lead,  660  feet  in  length  and  5  feet  deep.  This  was 
supported  upon  eighty  brick  piers,  beneath  which  was  a 
lofty  tunnel  for  the  passage  of  the  Salmon-brook,  and  the 
storm-water  from  Enfield-chase. 

On  the  keystone  of  this  arch  are  the  arms  of  Sir  Hugh 
Myddelton, — argent,  on  a  pile  vert,  three  wolves'  heads, 


erased,  of  the  field.  Crest,  out  of  a  ducal  coronet,  or, — 
a  dexter  hand,  proper.  The  inscription  round  the  arch 
records  that  "this  arch  was  rebuilt  in  the  yeare  1652. 
The  Right  Hon.  Henry  Earl  of  Clarendon,  being 
Governor."  And  on  a  marble  tablet  above,  "  the  frame 
and  lead  was  raised  one  foot  higher  Ann.  Dom.  1725." 
Another  strong  timber  aqueduct,  similarly  lined, — 466 
feet  long  and  17  feet  high,  known  by  the  name  of 
"Myddelton's  boarded  river,"  was  situated  near  Islington. 

The  continuous  wear  of  the  current  for  above  a  century 
and  a  half  had  so  attenuated  the  lead  of  these  structures, 
and  the  consequent  leakage  had  become  so  great,  that  it  was 
decided  by  Mr.  Mylne  to  remove  them,  and  to  substitute 
clay  embankments  in  their  stead.  The  Bridgewater 
canal  had  just  been  completed,  and  Brindley  had  ex- 
hibited on  the  table  of  a  wondering  committee  of  the 
House  of  Commons  his  manufacture  of  "puddle? — a 
word  only  known  till  then  in  Johnson's  dictionary  as 
"  a  dirty  plash." 

In  May,  1778,  "the  Frame,"  at  Bush-hill,  was  taken 
down,  and  some  idea  may  be  formed  of  its  original  cost 
from  the  fact  that  the  wasted  remains  of  the  old  lead, 
which  even  then  weighed  fifty  tons,  were  sold  for  about 

*  A  professional  calculation, — based  upon  the  prices  of  lead, 
materials,  and  labour, — from  the  Churchwardens'  accounts  of  some 
of  the  London  parishes,  and  of  Battle-abbey,  in  the  seventeenth 
century, — and  computing  the  probable  original  thickness  of  lead  in 
these  two  structures,  estimates  their  first  cost  at  £4000, — being  more 
than  half  of  Pennant's  supposed  expenditure  for  the  whole  work. 


The  New  River  Company  has,  from  time  to  time, 
enlarged  its  works,  * — widening  the  stream  to  about 
twenty-five  feet,  and  adding  to  its  supplies  of  water  from 
various  sources,  the  principal  of  which  is  the  River  Lee, 
which  was  resorted  to,  to  compensate  for  the  loss  of  the 
Amwell  spring,  which  had  abandoned  its  source  and 
found  its  way  into  the  Lee.  No  opposition  was  at  first 
made  to  this  drain,  but  as  the  amount  became  serious, 
disputes  arose  with  the  Lee  trustees,  and  finally  a  long 
course  of  protracted  litigation  was  put  an  end  to  by  an 
Act  of  Parliament,  18  &  19  Viet.  c.  196,  which  enacted 
that,  subject  to  the  payment  of  a  gross  sum  of  forty-two 
thousand  pounds,  and  an  annual  payment  of  three 
thousand  five  hundred  pounds,  for  the  restoration  of 
the  locks,  "  all  the  water  flowing  down  the  River  Lee 
and  the  navigation  thereof,  should  be  transferred  to  and 
be  absolutely  vested  in  the  New  River  and  East  London 
companies  for  ever ;  reserving  to  the  trustees  of  the 
River  Lee  the  use  of  such  supply  as  was  required  for 
the  purposes  of  the  navigation.  By  the  latest  returns, 
taken  from  the  "  City  Press,"  the  daily  supply  now 
derived  from  its  different  resources  amounts  to  twenty- 
five  millions  of  gallons,  and  its  yearly  supply  to  nine 

*  The  cost  of  these  improvements  and  extensions  varied  from 
£20,000  to  £27,000  a  year,  and  was  paid  out  of  the  income  which 
would  otherwise  have  been  divided  among  the  shareholders, — between 
the  years  1810  and  1850,  upwards  of  £920,000  was  thus  expended. 


thousand  millions,  of  which  three  hundred  and  fifty 
millions  are  used  by  manufactories,  forty-five  millions  for 
flushing  sewers,  fifteen  millions  for  extinguishing  fires, 
and  ninety  millions  for  watering  the  streets,  8,500,000,000 
being  used  for  household  consumption. 

The  district  supplied  by  the  New  River  com- 
prises the  whole  of  central  London,  between  a  line 
extending  from  the  Tower  to  Stamford-hill,  and  one 
drawn  from  Charing-cross  northwards  by  Tottenham- 
court-road  to  Camden-town. 

To  meet  this  demand,  the  old  river  channel  stores  up 
117  million  gallons,  the  Cheshunt  reservoirs  75  millions, 
and  that  at  Hornsey  39  millions ;  while  those  at  Stoke 
Newington,  constructed  in  1833,  for  subsidence,  contain 
130  million  gallons.  Major  Bolton's  report  of  March, 
1873,  gives  the  joint  area  of  these  reservoirs  as  above 
100  acres.  The  total  water  area  amounts  to  215  acres, 
and  will  contain  467,000,000  gallons,  being  a  quantity 
sufficient  to  meet  the  whole  consumption  for  eighteen 

The  daily  average  supply  to  120,000  houses,  inhabited 
by  800,000  individuals,  is  24  million  gallons,  which,  if 
required,  could  be  increased  to  35  millions,  and  the 
resources  are  practically  unlimited. 

The  water  of  Loch  Katrine,  by  which  Glasgow  is 
supplied,  has  generally  been  considered  as -the  standard 
of  purity,  but  it  appears  from  an  article  in  the  Lancet, 
giving  the  results  of  an  elaborate  investigation,  -commu- 
nicated by  the  London  Institution,  that  the  Loch  Katrine 


water,  pure  as  it  undoubtedly  is,  contains  putrescible 
matter  corresponding  to  o-i3  parts  of  ammonia  in  a 
million  gallons,  being  one-third  more  than  that  in  New 
River  water,  which  contains  only  o'og.  The  returns  for 
the  month  of  March  last  state  that  "  the  water  of  the 
New  River  Company  was  perfectly  clear  and  colourless, 
when  examined  in  bulk  through  a  tube  two  feet  in 
length  ;" — the  analysis  gives  in  a  million  gallons  o'ooi  of 
saline  ammonia,  and  0^004  of  organic  ammonia,  being 
less  than  half  the  amount  contained  in  Loch  Katrine 
water. . 

For  the  purpose  of  ensuring  this  high  quality  of  purity, 
there  are,  in  addition  to  the  large  reservoirs  for  subsi- 
dence, thirteen  filtering-beds,  covering  altogether  a  sand 
area  of  more  than  n^  acres,  which  contain  upwards  of 
twelve  million  gallons.  The  steam  engines  employed  for 
raising  this  immense  body  of  water  possess  1780  horse- 
power, besides  water-wheels  which  work  fifty-one  pumps. 

The  length  of  cast  iron  mains,  some  of  which  are  four 
feet  in  diameter,  is  no  less  than  650 'miles,  and  extends 
over  an  area  of  above  1 7  square  miles  of  houses.  There 
are  also  about  two  miles  of  tunnelling  of  immense  bore, 
now  conveying  the  water  under  ground,  which,  for  250 
years,  had  flowed  in  an  open  stream  through  Islington. 

The  actual  cost  to  the  Company,  including  working 
expenses  and  interest,  is  stated  in  the  Report  of  the 
Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons*  to  be  £22  8s.  3d. 

*  1 6th  July,   1851. 


per  million  gallons,  and  the  charge  to  the  public 
£22  195.  3d.,  leaving  a  profit  of  not  more  than  2^ 
per  cent. 

In  small  quantities,  paid  for  in  the  bulk,  the  price  is 
from  6d.  to  7^d.  per  thousand  gallons,  a  price  much 
below  what  it  would  cost  any  one  to  pump  it,  if  he  had 
a  well  at  his  own  door.  The  Reform  Club,  in  Pall-mall, 
is  supplied  from  a  well,  the  cost  of  which,  and  of  a  four- 
horse  engine,  was  ^1230.  The  expense  of  pumping  is 
^170  per  annum. 

When  paid  by  water-rate,  the  charge,  as  authorized  by 
Parliament,  is  4  per  cent  on  rentals  under  ^£200,  and 
3  per  cent  on  those  above  £200,  but  the  actual  charge 
made  by  the  Company  is  never  more  than  half,  and  in 
some  cases  not  more  than  one-tenth  of  the  authorized 

In  point  of  fact,  all  the  water  that  is  consumed  for  all 
purposes,  throughout  the  New  River  Company's  district, 
in  one  week,  is  supplied  at  a  charge  of  less  than  two- 
pence a  head,  and  the  whole  of  the  water  used  for 
drinking  alone,  costs  less  than  two-pence  per  head  per 
annum, — being  less  than  the  price  of  half  a  pot  of  beer  to 
each  individual. 

The  average  daily  supply  to  each  house  is  two  hundred 
gallons,  being  at  the  rate  of  thirty  gallons  per  head  of 
population,  and  more  than  double  the  amount  laid  down 
by  the  Parliamentary  Commission.-  No  other  city  ap- 
proaches in  its  supply  to  that  given  to  London, — to 
which,  says  Sir  William  Clay,  "water  is  furnished  not 


only  in  greater  profusion  than  to  any  other  city  in  the 
world,  but  in  a  degree  beyond  the  utmost  want  of  its 

It  was  mentioned  above  that  the  early  records  of  the 
Company  were  destroyed  by  fire,  in  the  year  1769;  but 
"  a  valuation  of  the  entire  works  was  made  in  the  year 
1765,  and  an  account  subsequently  rendered  to  Parlia- 
ment up  to  1820."  *  From  that  time  a  continuous 
account  of  the  whole  expenditure  on  the  works  to  the 
year  1852  was  received  and  adopted  by  Parliament, 
when  the  capital  expended  was  fixed  by  statute  to  have 
been  ,£1,519,958, — or  £21, no  per  original  share, — in 
addition  to  which  the  Company  have  since  been  author- 
ized to  raise,  on  bond  and  debenture,  a  further  amount  of 
one  million.  In  1866  it  being  deemed  expedient  to 
authorize  a  further  sum  of  money  to  be  raised  by  the 
creation  of  new  shares,  power  was  given  by  the  29  &  30 
Viet.  cap.  230,  to  allot  shares  of  the  nominal  value  of 
;£ioo  to  the  extent  of  ^£5  00,000,  thus  raising  the  total 
amount  to  ;£3>OI9>958- 

It  is  very  seldom  that  "  a  share "  in  this  magnificent 
property  comes  into  the  market,  the  last  that  was  sold 
was  an  "Adventurer's  Share,"  in  1864. 

In  1870,  there  were  sold  at  the  Auction-mart,  by 
Messrs.  Fox  &  Bousfield,  four-fifths  of  one  King's  share, 
and  five-twelfths  of  one  Adventurer's  share,  in  lots  chiefly 

*  Minutes  of  Select  Committee,  May  6,  1852. 


of  one-twentieth  part.  These  were  purchased  at  the  rate 
of  about  forty-one  thousand  pounds  for  an  Adventurer's 
share.  The  King's  shares,  which  do  not  give  a  quali- 
fication for  a  seat  at  the  Board,*  and  are  burdened 
with  the  payment  of  "  the  King's  Clogg,"  sold  at  the 
rate  of  rather  less  than  forty  thousand  pounds.  Some 
of  the  new  ^100  shares  fully  paid  up  sold  at  ^195, 
and  some  on  which  only  £20  had  been  paid,  sold  at 
^"50  per  share.  At  this  time  the  dividend  per  share  was 
only  ^1578  on  the  Adventurer's,  and  ^£1516  on  the 
King's  shares ; — since  that  time  it  has  been  steadily 
rising,  being  now  upwards  of  ^1900,- — (of  which  about 
^"1820  is  derived  from  the  water,  and  ^80  from  the 
land,  so  that  the  present  market  value  of  a  share  cannot 
be  estimated  at  much  less  than  fifty  thousand  pounds.  )f 

It  has  been  said  above,  that  when  the  New  River  was 
first  made,  all  depended  upon  individual  enterprize  and 
influence,  and  that  joint  stock  companies  and  the  various 
resources  of  modern  finance  were  then  not  in  being. 
J3ut  this  was  only  a  small  part  of  the  difficulty.  Skill 

*  By  the  terms  of  the  agreement  with  the  King,  the  whole 
management  of  the  Company  was  left  in  the  hands  of  Sir  Hugh 
Myddelton  and  his  fellow  Adventurers.  The  Board  consists  of 
twenty-nine  members  who  receive  a  payment  of  about  £4000  a  year 
for  their  services.  (Patent  Roll,  lojas.  I — A.D.  1612.) 

t  Whilst  this  was  in  the  printer's  hands,  a  quarter  share  in  the 
King's  moiety  has  been  sold  in  four  lots  of  one-sixteenth  each  (May 
14,  1^73).  at  the  Rate  of  above  £49,000. 


and  knowledge  were  wanted  as  well  as  money.  Engin- 
eering, levelling,  surveying,  and  practical  mechanics,  were 
alike  wholly  unknown  in  this  country.  When  the  water- 
works at  London-bridge  were  constructed,  a  Dutchman, 
Peter  Moris,  was  employed, — the  great  level  of  the  Fens 
was  drained  by  Vermuyden,  Canvey  Island  was  embanked 
by  Coppenburgh  and  his  company  of  Dutch  workmen. 
A  Dutch  engineer  was  engaged  to  construct  the  haven  at 
Yarmouth,  and  even  when  old  Westminster-bridge  was 
built,  we  had  to  send  for  Labelye,  a  Swiss  engineer. 

Not  a  single  attempt  had  been  made  to  cut  a  canal  in 
all  England,  when  Myddelton  first  undertook  to  construct 
his  aqueduct, 

"And  roll  obedient  rivers  through  the  land." 
Notwithstanding  all  that  has  been  done  by  modern 
science, — with  the  aid  of  steam,  and  of  unlimited  resources 
of  capital,— the  New  River  still  remains  a  wonderful 
work, — and  bold  as  the  assertion  may  be,  it  is  beyond 
any  comparison  the  greatest  and  most  important  that  has 
ever  been  planned  and  executed  by  a  single  man, — single- 
handed,  single-headed,  and  single-hearted. 

The  monumental  pedestal  represented  in  the  accom- 
panying engraving,  bears  the  following  inscription. 

"  Sacred  to  the  memory  of 

whose  successful  care, 

assisted  by  the  patronage  of  his  King, 

conveyed  this  stream  to  London: 

an  immortal  work, 
since  man  cannot  more  nearly 

imitate  the  Deity 
than  in  bestowing  health.'' 


There  are, — as  Goldsmith  said,— a  hundred  faults  in 
this  thing,  and  a  hundred  things  might  be  said  to  prove 
them  beauties, — but  it  is  needless.  A  book  may  be 
amusing  with  numerous  errors,  or  it  may  be  very  dull, 
without  a  single  absurdity. 

Should  the  gentle  reader  meet,  here  and  there,  with 
something  to  please  or  inform  him,  he  may  be  assured 
that  it  was  written  expressly  for  intelligent  readers  like 
himself;  and  if  he  should  find  more  that  is  tedious  or 
common  place,  he  will  tolerate  it  as  being  intended  for 
those  of  duller  intellect  or  less  refined  taste. 

If,  perchance,  there  should  be  some, — more  critical  or 
more  learned, — whose  pleasure  may  consist  in  finding 
fault  or  detecting  errors,  they  will  no  doubt  have  abundant 
sources  of  amusement  in  these  pages, —  where  the  writer 
has  probably  often  been  misinformed,  without  erudition 
enough  to  set  him  right. 

To  conclude,  in  the  words  of  the  old  grammarian, — 

"  Aiunt, — 
Quid  aiunt,— ( 

Aiant, — Cat  (§rtittt 

PART    II. 








THE  church,  dedicated  to  S.  Andrew,  stands  within  a 
spacious    churchyard  on  the  north  side  of  the  Market- 
place, just   opposite  the  tenth  mile-stone  from  London, 
and  due  north  of  S.  Paul's.     We  know  from  Domesday 
Book  that  a  church   existed   here   at  the  time    of  the 
Conquest,  as  it  had  done  in  the  reign  of  Edward  the 
Confessor,  and  probably  for  several  centuries  previously. 
But  of  the  original  structure  no  vestige  remains,  nor  of 
any  building  of  the  Norman  period,  except  possibly  in 
the  basement  of  the  tower.     The  most  striking  features 
of  the   present   building,    externally,    are    an    array   of 
battlements,  and  an  abundant  use  of  stucco.     Internally, 
the  church  consists  of  a  nave  and  chancel  separated  by 
a  lofty  arch,  and  of  broad  aisles,  extending,  without  any 
break,   the  whole   length  both  of  nave  and  chancel,  so 
that  the  church   forms  a  parallelogram,  too  feet  by  63, 
with  a  south  porch  and  western  tower.     The  floor  of  the 
church  is  now  very  much  below  the  level  of  the  ground, 
so  that  you  descend  several  steps  on  entering.     This  is 
owing  to  the  gradual  accummulation  of  soil  in  the  course 
of  centuries^  as  may  be  clearly  seen  by  comparing  the 
level  of  the  churchyard  with  that  of  the  Bowling-green, 
to  the  west  of  It.     There  are  no  documents  in  existence, 
so  far  as  can  be  discovered,  which  throw  light  on  the 


architectural  history  of  the  church.  The  Bishop  of 
London's  registers  do  not  go  back  beyond  the  beginning 
of  the  1 4th  century,  and  since  that  time  there  has  been 
no  consecration.  We  are  left,  therefore,  to  the  evidence 
supplied  by  the  building  itself;  and  successive  altera- 
tions and  reparations,  in.  1771,  1789,  1810,  1824,  1853, 
and  1866,  have  effaced  so  many  landmarks,  that  it  is  very 
difficult  to  arrive  at  any-  satisfactory  conclusions ;  but,  so 
far  as  we  may  conjecture,  the  history  of  the  structure  has 
been  somewhat  as  follows  : — 

The  church  was  probably  rebuilt,  on  a  larger  scale, 
in  the  twelfth  century,  soon  after  its  connexion  with  the 
Monastery  of  Walden  began,  and  to  this  church  the 
present  tower  belongs.  It  is  built  of  flint  and  rubble, 
with  stone  quoins  in  three  stages,  without  any  buttresses, 
and  gradually  tapering.  The  battlements,  and  the  walls 
for  a  few  feet  below  them,  are  a  more  recent  addition. 
The  original  windows  remain  in  the  upper  stage,  but 
those  in  the  middle  stage  are  mostly  blocked  up,  and  th« 
lower  ones  have  debased  tracery  and  cement  hood 
mouldings.  Owing  to  this,  and  to  its  being  cased  in 
cement,  the  tower  has  lost  much  of  its  ancient  appearance. 

To  the  same  period  with  the  tower  belongs  the 
interior  wall,  to  the  south  of  the  altar,  pierced  by  a  lancet 
window  .of  the  twelfth  century,  formerly  blocked  up,  and 
only  opened  in  1866.  This  was  originally  the  external 
wall  of  the  chancel,  which  then  had  *no  aisles,  and 
extended  further  to  the  west  than  it  now  does,  as  is 


clearly  proved  by  the  old  sedilia  discovered  in  1852,  of 
which  a  drawing  is  here  given.  This,  it  will  be  observed, 
shows  the  arch  of  the  last  seat  towards  the  west,  cut 
in  two  by  the  present  pier. 

Below  the  lancet  window,  on  the  south  side,  there  is  a 
recess  in  the  wall,  which  (as  may  be  seen  in  the  same 
drawing),  formerly  went  through  the  wall,  and  is  repre- 
sented as  blocked  up.  This  was,  without  doubt,  one  of 
those  openings  which  have  perplexed  ecclesiologists, 
and  been  variously  named  Squints,  Hagioscopes,  Lychno- 
scopes,  &c.,  according  to  the  different  theories  propounded 
to  explain  their  use.  Some  have  supposed  that  they 
were  intended  for  watching  the  altar  light ;  others,  that 


they  were  to  allow  lepers  and  others  outside  the  church 
to  witness  mass  and  be  communicated ;  others,  that  they 
were  confessionals.  In  this  one,  there  is  the  peculiarity 
that  its  splay  is  away  from  and  not  towards  the  altar. 

Some  time  in  the  fourteenth  century,  the  whole  of  the 
church  to  which  this  wall  belonged,  from  the  present 
altar  steps  to  the  tower,  must  have  been  pulled  down  or 
othenvise  destroyed,  and  another  built,  to  which  belonged 
the  arcade  of  arches  with  clustered  columns,  which  extend 
the  whole  length  of  the  church,  five  being  in  the  nave 
and  two  in  the  chancel,  all  of  the  same  dimensions,  and 
giving  the  same  width  to  nave  and  chancel.  This  church 
had  chancel  aisles,  extending  as  far  east  as  the  present 
altar  steps,  and  the  building  of  them  must  have-  led  to 
that  curtailment  of  the  sacrarium,  which  affected  the 
sedilia,  as  we  have  seen.  These  aisles  were  in  all  pro- 
bability narrower  than  the  present  aisles,  and  had  sloping 
roofs.  The  corbels  on  which  the  roof  of  the  old  south 
aisle  rested  may  still  be  observed.  Foundations  of  a 
wall  within  the  present  south  aisle  were  discovered  in 
1824.  Of  this  church  again,  externally,  nothing  remains 
except  part  of  the  east  wall,  and  internally,  little  more 
than  the  columns  and  arches  ;  for  towards  the  end  of  the 
fifteenth  century  the  walls  of  the  nave  were  carried  up  to 
form  the  clerestory,  thereby  enclosing  within  the  church 
one  of  the  windows  of  the  tower,  now  blocked  up  behind 
the  organ,  which  formerly  opened  above  the  roof.  We 
are  enabled  to  approximate  to  the  date  of  this  clerestory 


•  from  the  ornaments,  which  may  be  observed  carved  on 
square  stones  between  the  windows,  a  rose  or  rather 
quatrefoil,  and  a  wing,  alternately.  (Two  on  the  south 
side  are  gone).  The  same  emblems  occur  on  the  tower 
of  Hadley  Church,  with  the  date  1494.  Of  these,  more 
will  be  said  presently. 

Probably  at  the  same  time  the  present  north  aisle  was 
built  with  the  external  turret  staircase  which  then  com- 
municated with  the  rood  loft  by  a  raised  passage  or 
gallery  across  the  aisle.  At  the  east  end  of  this  aisle 
there  seems  to  have  been  then  a  chantry  chapel,  that 
founded  by  Baldwin  de  Radyugton  in  the  year  1398. 
It  About  1471  another  chantry  priest  was  endowed  with 
YuA^  £l°  Per  <i.nnum,  charged  on  the  estate  of  Poynetts,  in 
Essex,  to  say  masses  for  the  souls  of  Robert  Blossom  and 
his  wife  at  the  altar  of  S.  Mary,  which  may  have  stood  in 
this  chapel,  or  in  a  corresponding  chapel  at  the  east  end 
of  the  south  aisle.  There  are  now  no  traces  of  an  altar 
in  either. 

Some  years,  probably,  after  the  building  of  the  north 
aisle  it  was  extended  eastward  so  as  to  include  the 
chantry  chapel,  and  this  part  was  made  to  correspond 
with  the  rest.  The  east  window  of  the  aisle  seems  of  a 
somewhat  different  character  from  those  on  the  north, 
and  a  stone*  which  was  found  under  the  plaister  of  the 

*  This  stone  is  now  let  into  the  west  wall  of  the  church,  by  the 
south  gallery  staircase. 


wall  externally  above  this  window,  with  the  inscription, 
ANNO  DOMINI  1531,  serves  to  fix  the  date  of  the  com- 
pletion of  the  work.  The  coat  of  arms  in  the  window 
itself,  with  the  date  1530,  points  to  the  same  conclusion, 
and  leads  us  to  suppose  that  the  alteration  was  connected 
with  the  building  of  the  arch  over  Lady  Tiptoft's  tomb, 
as  a  monument  to  her  grandson  Edmund  Lord  Roos, 
who  died  in  1508.  The  arms  are  those  of  Thomas  Lord 
Roos,  created  first  Earl  of  Rutland  (great  nephew  of 
Edmund),  by  whom,  probably,  the  arch  was  erected. 
The  initials,  T.  R.,  are  on  the  glass.  This  portion  of  the 
chancel  aisle  was  enclosed  and  used  as  a  vestry  till  1867, 
when  the  present  vestry  was  built. 

The  south  aisle  did  not  assume  its  present  character 
till  1824,  when  it  was  in  great  measure  rebuilt,  in  order 
to  correspond  to  the  north  aisle,  and  to  be  able  to  receive 
a  gallery  similar  to  one  which  had  been  built  over  the 
north  aisle  in  1819.  At  the  same  time  the  muniment 
room  above  the  south  porch,  and  the  turret  staircase 
which  led  to  it,  were  pulled  down,  and  many  of  the  con- 
tents, unfortunately,  dispersed  and  lost.  This  room  above 
the  porch  may  be  seen  in  the  view  given  of  the  church  as 
it  existed  in  1817. 

The  east  window  of  the  chancel  was  formerly  blocked 
up  to  within  three  feet  of  the  top  of  the  arch  by  an  oak 
altar-piece,  and  the  lower  portion  of  the  window  was 
bricked  or  plaistered  up  externally,  so  that  in  an  engraving 
of  the  church  in  1770  no  mullions  are  to  be  seen. 


Large  sums  were  expended  in  repairs  and  restorations  (?) 
in  1771  and  1789,  and  it  is  on  record  that  from  May, 
1789,  to  May,  1790,  no  Divine  service  was  performed  in 
the  parish  !  It  appears  from  a  stone  tablet  in  the  west 
wall  that  the  church  was  again  repaired  and  beautified  in 
1810.  In  1853  the  high  square  pews,  which  encumbered 
not  only  the  nave  but  the  chancel,  were  cleared  away, 
and  the  nave  and  aisles  repewed,  leaving  only  one  square 
pew,  for  which  a  faculty  was  claimed.  At  the  same  time 
the  chancel,  with  the  consent  of  the  rectors,  was  appro- 
priated to  the  choir,  and  the  organ  gallery  thrown  back 
one  bay  further  west.  But  the  most  extensive  restora- 
tions were  carried  out  in  1866-7,  at  a  cost  of  more  than 
^"4000,  raised  by  voluntary  contributions,  mainly  owing 
to  the  exertions  of  Rev.  W.  D.  Maclagan,  then  curate-in- 
charge  of  the  parish.  It  was  found  necessary  to  put 
entirely  new  roofs  to  nave,  chancel,  and  aisles,  and  to 
lay  down  a  new  floor  throughout  the  church,  which, 
unhappily,  is  already  (in  1873),  almost  destroyed  by  dry 
rot.  The  galleries  were  rebuilt,  and  very  much  was  done 
in  every  way  to  improve  the  appearance  and  comfort  of 
the  church.  The  stone  pulpit  and  brass  eagle  desk  were 
presented  by  Colonel  Somerset,  of  Enfield  Court.  The 
font  had  been  given  previously  in  1850  by  Mrs.  Everett, 
of  Chase-side  House.  The  east  window  will  shortly  be 
refilled  with  stained  glass  as  a  memorial  to  the  late  J.  J. 
Austin,  Esq.,  of  Jugla^als  Lodge  (who  died  in  1872,  at 
the  age  of  92),  at  the  expense  of  his  family. 

Allusion  has  been  already  made  to  the  Rose  and  Wing 
which  are  found  in  the  clerestory,  and  also  on  the  tower 
of  Hadley  Church.  They  were  supposed  at  one  time 
(Lysons)  to  have  formed  a  rebus  on  the  name  of  Rose- 
wing,  an  Abbot  of  Walden  invented  for  the  occasion,  as 
he  had  no  real  existence,  the  abbot  in  1494  being 

There  can  be  no  doubt  but  that  a  rose  and  wing  we' re- 
borne  as  badges  by  Sir  Thomas  Lovell,  K.G.,  who,  on 
the  death  of  Lord  Roos  in  1508  without  issue,  succeeded 
to  the  Manor  of  Worcester's  in  right  of  his  wife  Isabella, 
sister  to  Lord  Roos. 

In  the  vaulting  of  the  choir  of  St.  George's  Chapel, 
Windsor,  above  the  stall  formerly  assigned  to  Sir  T. 
Lovell,  as  Knight  of  the  Garter,  there  appears  "a  quatre- 
foil,  gules,  tied  by  a  cord,  or,  to  a  bird's  wing  erased, 
sable."  Willement,  in  his  account  of  the  S.  George's 
Chapel,  says,  in  a  note,  "A  wing  sable,  the  bone  embrued, 
is  given  as  the  badge  of  Lovell  in  the  Harleian  MS.  4632." 

Pennant  mentions  in  his  Itinerary  that  in  his  time  the 
same  emblems,  a  rose  and  a  wing,  were  to  be  seen  on  a 
wall  which  formerly  belonged  to  Holiwell  Nunnery  in 
Shoreditch,  to  which  Sir  Thomas  Lovell  was  a  great 
benefactor,  and  where  he  was  buried  in  1524,  after  his 
body  had  been  laid  in  state  in  Enfield  Church,  on  the 
way  from  Elsynge  Hall  to  London. 

A  full  account  of  the  ceremonies  observed  on  this, 
occasion  is  preserved  in  the  Herald's  College. 


Though  Sir  Thomas  Lovell  did  not  come  into  posses- 
sion of  the  Manor  of  Worcesters  till  the  death  of  Edmund 
Lord  Roos  in  1508,  yet  previously,  by  an  Act  of  Parlia- 
ment passed  in  1492,  "  the  guidance  and  governance  of 
Edmund  Lord  Roos  and  his  estates"  had  been  vested  in 
him,  "  the  said  Edmund  not  being  of  sufficient  discretion 
to  guide  himself  and  his  livelihood."  So  that  he  had  a 
connexion  with  the  neighbourhood  before  the  year  1494, 
the  date  found  at  Hadley. 

It  is  possible,  however,  that  Sir  Thomas  may  have 
adopted  a  device  or  badge  belonging  to  his  wife's  family, 
the  Rooses  or  Tiptofts,*  as  we  know  that  the  de 
Bohun  badge,  the  swan,  was  adopted  by  Thomas  of  Wood- 
stock and  Henry  Bolingbroke,  who  married  the  heiresses  of 
that  family. 

In  one  of  the  gallery  windows  of  the  north  aisle 
there  are  some  remains  of  stained  glass,  in  which  may 
be  traced  two  groups,  of  four  women  each,  on  each  side  of 
an  arch,  over  which  is  a  wing.  The  women  are  in  a 
praying  posture,  and  apparently  in  a  religious  dress. 
There  are  also  a  few  letters  of  an  inscription,  and  some 
flowers  resembling  wild  hyacinths,  but  the  whole  is  in  a 
fragmentary  and  confused  state,  and  nearly  effaced. 

*  Fuller  mentions  that  on  the  mantel-piece  of  the  Old  House 
at  Durants  was  a  bat's  wing.  It  may  be  merely  a  coincidence 
that  Roos  of  Lyme  Regis,  Dorsetshire,  has  for  crest — a  rose  gules, 
between  two  wings  expanded. 


This  was,  probably,  a  memorial  of  Sir  Thomas  Lovell. 
We  are  told  that  on  several  of  the  windows  of  Holywell 
Chapel  was  the  inscription  : — 

"  All  ye  nunnes.  of  Holywell, 

Pray  ye  both  day  and  night 
For  the  soule  of  Sir  Thomas  Lovell, 
Whom  Henry  the  7th  made  knight." 


The  upper  stage  of  the  tower  is  the  bell  chamber.  In 
this  are  hung  nine  bells.  Their  present  framework  was 
put  up  in  A.D.  1809,  and  can  all  be  taken  apart.  The 
eight  bells  constituting  the  peal  are  hung  on  the  same 
level.  The  remaining  bell,  known  by  the  name  of  Ting 
Tang,  and  employed  as  a  five  minutes'  bell  before  the 
services,  is  elevated  above  the  rest,  and  is  of  an  earlier 
date ;  it  bears  this  inscription  on  its  collar,  in  two  circles 
and  in  raised  capitals. 



No  i,  or  the  treble  bell  of  the  peal,  has  this  inscription 
in  three  circles  round   the   collar,   in   large   and    small 
capitals,  the  colons  indicating  the  completion  of  a  circle, 
and  the  latter  part  of  the  last  line  forming   the   third 
circle,  with  the  name  of  the  founder : — 

T.  MEARS  £  SON  OF  LONDON,  FECIT  1808  : 


No.  2  has  the  following  inscription  on  the  collar,  in 
cut  letters  : — 

CH.  WARDENS,  1808. 

and  in  raised  letters  below  it : — 

Nos.  3,  4,  5,  6,  and  7  have  all  of  them  this  inscription 
on  their  collars  in  raised  letters,  with  small  fleurs-de-lys 
between  the  words  : — 

R.   PHELPS,   FECIT  1724, 

Of  these,  No.  4  is  cracked  about  10  inches  from  the 
top  down  the  cannon,  and  requires  re-casting ;  No.  7  is 
said  to  contain  some  silver,  which  idea,  no  doubt,  arises 
from  its  being  the  clearest-toned  bell  in  the  belfry. 

No,  8,  or  the  tenor  bell,  weighs  about  a  ton  ;  its  note 
is  E ;  round  its  collar  is  this  inscription,  in  large  and 
small  capitals  : — 

RICHARD  PHELPS  MADE  ME,  1724  *  MR-  ROB  :  UDALL,  D  :  D  : 


In  the  chamber  below  is  the  clock  which  strikes  the 

hours  on  the  tenor  bell.     On  the  correcting  dial  is  the 

name  of  the  maker,  sic,  Will"1-  Rout,  Enfield,  1764. 

Below  this  again  is  the  chamber  where  the  ringing  now 
takes  place.  The  floor  was  erected  in  A.D.  1870,  on  four 
strong  oak  posts,  for  the  convenience  of  the  ringers,  who 
formerly  stood  on  the  ground  floor,  which  is  now  only 
used  as  a  lumber-room,  but  which,  it  is  hoped,  may  before 
long  be  put  into  a  better  state. 



The  organ  stands  in  the  west  gallery.  An  inscription, 
in  gilt  letters,  on  its  front,  sets  forth  that  it  "  was  the 
sole  gift  of  Mrs.  Mary  Nickells,  late  of  this  parish,  and 
was  erected  by  her  executors  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1752."  She  left  by  will  May  2,  1751,  ^900,  of  which 
,£500  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  an  organ,  and  the 
remainder  invested  to  provide  for  the  organist's  salary. 
Gibbs  was  the  builder,  and  it  was  re-built  and  enlarged 
by  Gray  and  Davidson  in  1867.  On  the  great  organ 
are  7  stops,  on  the  choir  5,  on  the  swell  8,  and  on  the 
pedals  i  stop,  and  there  are  also  5  couplers. 


The  oldest  and  by  far  the  most  interesting  monument 
in  the  church  is  that  of  Lady  Tiptoft,  who  died  1446. 
An  altar  tomb  occupies  the  eastermost  arch  on  the  north 
side  of  the  chancel,  over  which  is  a  stone  canopy  of  a 
later  date.  The  original  tomb  has  four  panels  on  each 
side,  each  containing  a  shield,  and  is  covered  by  a  slab 
of  grey  Purbeck  marble,  inlaid  with  a  very  fine  brass  in 
good  preservation.  Under  a  triple  canopy  richly  adorned 
with  finials  and  crockets,  is  a  full-length  figure  of  a  lady, 
with  the  hands  raised  in  prayer.  On  three  circles 

NOTE. — The  illustrations  of  Lady  Tiptoft's  brass  are  taken  from  a 
paper  in  the  Transactions  of  the  London  and  Middlesex  Archaeo- 
logical Society,  by  Rev.  C.  Boutell,  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal, 
and  I  have  largely  availed  myself  of  the  paper  itself.— ED. 



within  the  spandrils  of  the  canopy  are  respectively 
the  words  —  f^e^cy,  £hu,  Ignosce,  From  the  pillars  which 
support  the  canopy  hang  six  shields.  Round  the  edge 
of  the  slab  on  a  brass  fillet,  at  the  corners  of  which  were 
the  four  evangelistic  symbols,  (though  only  one,  that  of 


S.  Matthew,  now  remains),  is  the  following  inscription  in 
old  English  letters,  with  birds,  beasts,  leaves,  and  various 
other  devices  between  each  word. 

locosa  quondam  filia  et  una  heijed' 

ac  etiam  filia  et  una  he^ed*  $onot|abili$sime 
^at[chie,  et  uxoq  famosissirao  militi  ;  [Johanni 
t,  que  oblit  xx]ii  4ie  ^epte'bn*,  ^B'ni  mccccxlvi» 
cujus  anime,  et  omntu'  fideliu*  defunetot]',  X'h's^ 
pijo  $ua  sactjatissima  pas$ione» 


The  portions  within  brackets  are  concealed  by  the  arch 

Translation  : — (Here  lies)  the  Lady  Jocosa,  formerly 
daughter  and  co-heiress  of  Charlton  Lord  Powes,  and  also 
daughter  and  co-heiress  of  the  most  honourable  Lady 
March,  and  wife  to  the  most  famous  soldier,  John 
Tiptoft.  She  died  on  the  22nd  day  of  September, 
A.D.  1446,  on  whose  soul,  and  that  of  all  the  faithful 
departed,  may  Jesus,  for  his  most  holy  passion's  sake, 
have  mercyk 

The  costume  of  the  effigy  consists  of  a  long  and 
flowing  robe,  deeply  bordered  with  ermine ;  over  this 



appears  a  sleeveless  jacket,  also  enriched  with  ermine ; 
and,  above  all,  an  heraldic  mantle  secured  by  a  tasselled 
cordon,  richly  jewelled.  The  coiffure  is  an  elaborate  com- 
position of  the  horned  form,  bordered  with  jewels,  sur- 
mounted by  a  coronet,  and  with  a  cover-chef  completely 
conceals  the  ham  A  rich  necklace  supports  a  pendant 
jewel.  There  are  narrow  bracelets  about  the  wrists,  and 
on  the  third  finger  of  the  right  hand  is  a  large  ring. 

The  uppermost  shield,  on  the  right-hand  side,  bears  the 
arms  of  her  father — Powys,  Or,  a  lion  rampant,  gules. 
The  lowest,  the  arms  of  Tiptoft.  Argent,  a  saltire 
engrailed,  gules.  That  in  the  centre,  Tiptoft  impaling 
Powys,  which  is  itself  impaled  by  the  arms  of  Holland. 
Gules,  three  lions  of  England,  withiri  a  bordure  argent. 
On  the  left  side  of  the  canopy,  the  uppermost  shield  bears 
Tiploft  impaling  Powys ;  that  in  the  centre,  Powys  and 
Holland,  quarterly ;  and  the  lowest,  Powys. 

On  the  mantle  may  be  seen  the  lions  of  Powys  and 

This  Jocosa,  or  Joyce,  was  the  daughter  of  Edward, 
fourth  Baron  Charlton  de  Powys,  who  died  in  142  2,  leaving 
two  daughters,  between  whom  his  barony  fell  into  abeyance. 
He  married  Alianore,  widow  of  the  celebrated  Roger  Mor- 
timer, fourth  Earl  of  March,  and  daughter  of  Thomas  Hol- 
land, Earl  of  Kent,  whose  grandmother,  Joan  Plantagenet, 
was  sister  and  sole  heir  of  John,  son  of  Edmund  of 
Woodstock,  younger  son  of  Edward  I.,  created  by  him  in 
1321  Earl  of  Kent.  She  married  John  de  Tiptoft  or 



Tibetort,  who  was  summoned  to  Parliament  as  Baron 
Tiptoft  in  1426,  and  filled  many  high  offices  of  State 
during  the  reigns  of  Henry  IV.,  Henry  V.,  and  Henry  VI., 
till  his  decease  in  1443.  His  father,  Sir  Pain  de  Tiptoft, 
married  Agnes,  sister  to  Sir  John  Wroth,  who  had  married 
Maud,  daughter  and  heiress  of  Sir  Thomas  Durant,  of 
Durants,  and  in  this  way -the  Tiptofts  became  connected 
with  Enfield. 

Jocosa,  Lady  Tiptoft,  left  at  her  death  one  son  and 
four  daughters.  The  son  was  created  Earl  of  Worcester 
in  1449.  He  was  one  of  the  most  accomplished  scholars 
and  travellers  of  the  day,  and  was  made  by  Edward  IV. 
Chancellor  of  Ireland  and  Constable  of  England.  But 
his  adhesion  to  the  House  of  York  proved  fatal  to  him. 
During  the  few  months  of  Henry  VI. 's  restoration  in  1470 
he  was  beheaded  on  Tower-hill,  and  his  honours  were 
forfeited.  His  son  was  restored  by  Edward  IV.,  but  died 
unmarried  in  1485,  when  the  earldom  of  Worcester 
became  extinct,  and  the  barony  of  Tiptoft  fell  into 

The  estates  passed  to  Thomas,  ten'th  Baron  de  Ros  or 
Roos  of  Hamlake,  who  had  married  Philippa,  the  eldest 
daughter  of  Lady  Tiptoft,  and  who  died  under  attainder 
in  1461.  His  son  Edmund  obtained  the  reversal  of  his 
father's  attainder  in  1485,  but  was  of  weak  intellect,  and 
died  unmarried  in  1508,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  sister 
Isabel,  wife  of  Sir  Thomas  Lovell,  K.G.,  under  whose 
guardianship  he  had  been  placed  by  Act  of  Parliament  in 


I492-  She  also  died  without  issue,  and  the  barony 
which  had  been  in  abeyance,  devolved  on  George,  son  of 
her  sister  Eleanor,  who  had  married  Sir  Thomas  Manners. 

This  George,  Lord  Roos,  died  in  1513,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas,  who  in  1525  was  created  by 
Henry  VIII.  Earl  of  Rutland  and  K.G.,  and  died  in  1543. 
His  arms  appear,  as  has  been  already  mentioned,  in  the 
east  window  of  the  north  chancel  aisle,  with  the  initials, 
T.  R.,  and  the  date  1530,  enclosed  in  a  garter.  On 
another  shield  in  the  same  window  are  his  arms  impaling 
those  of  Paston,  his  second  wife. 

It  was  very  possibly  by  this  Earl  of  Rutland  that  the 
arch  or  canopy  above  Lady  Tiptoft's  tomb  was  erected  in 
memory  of  Edmund  Lord  Roos,  or,  more  probably,  as 
we  may  infer  from  the  armorial  bearings,  as  a  memorial 
at  the  same  time  of  his  sister  Isabel,  Lady  Lovel. 

A  depressed  four-centred  arch,  with  a  horizontal 
cornice,  surmounted  by  a  crest  of  Tudor  flower,  is  built 
up  so  as  to  fill  the  opening  of  the  pier  arch.  The 
masonry  stands  on  the  east  and  west  extremities  of  the 
tomb,  so  as  to  cover  portions  of  the  inscription  on  the 
brass  fillet.  Over  the  point  of  the  arch,  on  each  face  of 
the  tomb,  under  a  helmet,  on  which  is  a  wreath  sur- 
mounted by  a  crest,  a  peacock  in  his  pride,  hangs  in  a 
sloping  position,  a  shield,  quarterly,  i  and  4,  gules,  three 
water  bougets  argent,  for  Roos,  2  and  3,  Argent,  a  fess 
between  two  bars  gemelles,  gules,  for  Badlesmere.  (Both 
Rooses  and  Tiptofts  were  descended  from  heiresses  of  the 


Badlesmere  family.)  In  each  spandrel  is  a  shield.  .That 
on  the  dexter  side  bears  the  arms  of  Roos,  Holland, 
Tiptoft,  and  Badlesmere,  quarterly;  that  on  the  sinister 
bears  Lovell  and  Muswell,  quarterly,  impaling  Roos, 
Holland,  Tiptoft,  and  Badlesmere.  The  arms  of  Lovell 
are — Or,  a  chevron  azure  between  three  squirrels  sejant, 
gules.  Those  of  Muswells  Vert,  two  chevrons  argent, 
each  charged  with  3  cinquefoils,  gules. 

This  monument  has  lately  been  restored  at  the  expense 
of  the  Duke  of  Rutland,  who  is  the  representative  of  the 
Roos  family. 

From  the  other  daughters  of  Lady  Tiptoft,  Joan  and 
Joyce,  are  descended  many  noble  families  in  the  peerage. 
Margaret  died  a  nun. 

In  the  north  chancel  aisle,  near  the  vestry  door,  is  a 
large  and  richly-decorated  marble  monument  to  Sir 
Nicholas  Raynton,  of  Forty-hall,  who  died  in  1646,  at  the 
age  of  78,  and  of  his  wife  Rebecca,  who  died  six  years 
previously.  He  is  represented  in  armour,  reclining  under 
a  canopy  supported  by  two  columns  of  black  marble,  in 
his  robes  as  Lord  Mayor,  with  collar  and  badge,  his  head 
resting  on  his  right  hand,  and  in  his  left  hand  a  sword,  of 
which  the  blade  is  gone.  Below  him  is  the  figure  of 
his  wife  in  a  similar  posture,  holding  a  book  in  her  left 
hand.  Below  this  again  are  the  figures  of  his  son  and 
his  son's  wife,  •  also  Nicholas  and  Rebecca  kneeling 
at  a  desk,  with  books  open  before  them ;  behind 
the  man  two  sons,  and  behind  the  woman  three 



daughters,  all  kneeling.  A  son,  Thomas,  who  had  died 
before  his  parents,  is  represented  as  an  infant  lying  at  the 
foot  of  the  desk.  In  shields  at  the  top  of  the  monument, 
are  the  arms  of  Raynton  impaling  Moulton,  and  of 
Raynton  and  Moulton  separately.  On  the  wall  above 
is  a  shield,  with  those  of  Wolstenholme. 

In  the  same  aisle  are  brass  plates  on  the  east  wall,  com- 
memorating Robert  Rampston,  A.D.  1585,  and  Jasper 
Nicholls,  A.D.  1614,  both  of  whom  left  money  for  the 
poor  of  the  parish. 

In  the  south  chancel  aisle  is  a  very  fine  bust,  under  the 
drapery  of  a  tent,  all  in  Italian  marble,  of  -Thomas 
Stringer,  son  of  Sir  Thomas  Stringer,  of  Durants,  who 
served  with  great  distinction  under  William  III,  and  died 
at  Bruges  in  1706.  He  was  buried  in  the  Durants  vault. 
Against  the  south  wall  of  the  same  aisle  is  another 
monument  of  coloured  marble,  in  memory  of  Dorothie, 

wife  of  Robert  Middlesmere,  of  Enfield,  who  died  in  1610, 

leaving  a  son    and    daughter,   who  are  represented   as 

kneeling  below  at  a  desk. 

Above  it,  on  the  same  wall,  is  another  larger  monument 

with  the  figure  of  a  man  praying  at  a  desk.     It  is  that  of 

Francis  Evington,  who  died  A.D.  1614,. 

On  the  floor  are  brasses  of  William  Smith  and  Jane, 

his  wife,  "who  served  King  Henry  VIII.,  Edward  VI.,. 

Queen  Marie,  and  now  Queen  Elizabeth."     He  died  in 

1592,  leaving  £4  out  of  his  land  "to  be  given  to  the 

godlie  poore  of  Enfield." 


Against  the  north  chancel  pier,  by  the  altar  steps,  is  a 
brass  plate  with  an  epitaph  on  Dr.  Joseph  Gascoigne, 
who  died  in  1721,  aged  80,  having  been  for  40  years 
vicar  of  the  parish,  composed  by  his  friend,  Dr.  R. 
Uvedale,  Master  of  the  Grammar  School.  Above  this  is 
an  oval  monument  of  white  marble,  supported  by  female 
figures — 

"Sacred  to  the  revivinge  memory  of  Mrs.  Martha  Palmere,"  who 
departed  this  life  to  her  owne  gaine  and  the  world's  losse  in  the  year 

"  Whose  vertew  did  all  ill   so  over  swaye, 
That  her  whole  life  was  a  communion  day." 

Against  the  north  wall  of  the  north  aisle,  partly  con- 
cealed by  the  gallery,  there  is  the  figure  of  a  man,  kneeling 
at  a  desk,  under  an  arch,  in  memory  of  Robert  Deicrowe, 
citizen  of  London  and  grocer,  who  died  in  1586,  leaving 
money  for  bread  to  be  distributed  to  the  poor.  Other 
monuments  of  interest  are  those  of  Henry  Dixon,  1696, 
founder  of  Dixon's  charity ;  Sir  Charles  Rich,  Baronet, 
1677;  Stephen  Riou,  1740;  Elizabeth  Green,  grand- 
daughter of  SirHugh  Myddleton  ;  Rev.  Thomas  Brattell, 
1 703,  to  whom  Enfield  Court  belonged.  John  Abernethy, 
the  celebrated  surgeon,  1831  ;  James  Meyer,  Esq.,  182$; 
Rev.  H.  Porter,  1823. 

Previous  to  the  last  restoration  there  was  a  brass  plate  on 
the  chancel  floor  with  the  arms  of  Gery,  and  this  inscription : 
"  Here  lies  enterr'd 

One  that  scarce  err'd  ; 
A  virgin  modest,  free  from  folly, 
A  virgin  knowing,  patient,  holy, 


A  virgin  blest  with  beauty  here, 
A  virgin  crown'd  with  glorie  there. 
Holy  virgins,  read,  and  say 
We  shall  hither  all  one  day. 
Live  well,  yee  must 
Be  turn'd  to  dust. 
To  the  precious  memorie  of  Anne 
Gery,   daughter  of  Richard  Gery,  of 
Bushmead  in  ye  coun.  of  Bedford,  Esquire, 
Who  dyed  the  3 1st  of  August.     A°.  Dm.  1624," 
but  it  has  now  disappeared. 


was  enlarged  in  1778  by  the  addition  of  part  of  a  field, 
purchased  of  Mr.  Clayton,  which  was  consecrated  by 
Bishop  Lowth,  on  August  i3th.  In  1822  the  present 
fence  on  the  side  of  the  Market-place  was  erected  at  a 
cost  of  ^90.  In  1846  an  additional  piece  of  ground 
towards  the  north  was  purchased  and  enclosed.  In  1858 
the  old  portion  of  the  churchyard  was  closed  by  the 
Secretary  of  State  for  all  burials  except  in  vaults  and 
brick  graves  belonging  to  the  family.  Notwithstanding 
these  additions  it  was  found  necessary  in  1871  to  take 
measures  for  providing  still  further  ground.  Accordingly, 
a  Burial  Board  was  elected  in  October,  and- nine  acres  of 
land  belonging  to  the  parish  (part  of  the  100  acres),  were 
set  apart  for  a  cemetery,  a  portion  of  which  was  conse- 
crated in  July,  1872,  by  Dr.  Jackson,  Bishop  of  London. 
Amongst  the  tombs  worthy  of  notice  are  those  of  Lord 
and  Lady  Napier,  of  Murchiston,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Cress- 
well,  vicar,  both  hear  the  door  leading  to  the  Vicarage. 



If  the  materials  for  the  architectural  history  of  the 
church  are  scanty,  those  for  the  early  ecclesiastical 
history  of  the  parish  are  more  than  usually  abundant, 
from  its  connexion  with  two  monastic  foundations — 
Hurley  and  Walden. 

The  monks,  as  is  well  known,  were  excellent  chronic- 
lers, and  many  of  their  chronicles  have  been  preserved 
to  us.  Amongst  others,  there  is  in  the  British  Museum  a 
Register  or  Cartulary  of  Walden  Abbey,  written  by  order 
of  Abbot  Pentelowe,  A.D.  1387 — a  magnificent  folio  of 
270  pages  on  vellum.  This  contains  a  complete  collec- 
tion of  charters,  bequests,  leases,  and  other  documents 
relating  to  the  affairs  of  the  abbey  from  its  foundation, 
with  notices  of  its  founders  and  benefactors.  We  have 
already  seen  that,  at  the  time  when  Domesday  Book 
was  compiled,  Goisfrid  or  Godfrey  de  Mandeville  was 
in  possession  of  the  Manor  of  Enfield.  This,  with 
many  others,  had  been  granted  to  him  by  the  Conqueror, 
as  the  reward  of  his  prowess  in  the  war  against  Harold. 
With  the  manor  he  received  the  advowson  or  patronage 
of  the  church. 

It  may  be  as  well  here  to  say  a  few  words  in  explana- 
tion.    The  old  rule  of  law*  was  that  if  any  lord  of  a 

*  Si  quis  cum  assensu  Diocesani  ecclesiam  construxerit,  ex  eo  jus 
advocationis  acquirit. 


manor  built  or  endowed  a  church  for  the  benefit  of  his 
demesne,  he  acquired  the  "  jus  advocationis,"  or  advow- 
son — i.e.,  the  right  of  presenting  to  the  Bishop  of  the 
Diocese  a  fit  clerk  for  institution  to  the  benefice.  This 
right  was  appendant  to  the  manor,  and  passed  with  it. 

Lords  of  Manors,  also,  at  that  period  claimed  and  were 
allowed  great  latitude  in  the  disposal  of  the  tithes  of  their 
demesnes,  so  as  to  appropriate  them  to  whatever  religious 
purpose  they  chose,  and  there  was  a  growing  disposition 
to  transfer  the  endowments  of  parochial  churches  to 
monastic  institutions.  So  it  was  with  Godfrey  de  Mande- 
ville.  He  founded  a  religious  house  at  Hurley,  in  Berk- 
shire, well  known  to  many  as  lying  on  the  Thames 
between  Henley  and  Great  Marlow.  To  this,  at  the  time 
of  its  consecration  by  the  famous  Osmund  Bishop  of 
Sarum,  he  made  by  charter  large  grants  of  tithes  from  all 
the  manors  of  which  he  was  lord,  and  amongst  others  that 
of  Enfield,  assigning  to  the  Church  of  S.  Mary  of  Hurley 
one-third  of  the  tithe  of  corn,  two-thirds  of  the  tithe  of 
cattle,  and  the  whole  tithe  of  all  other  things,  including 
vineyards,  which  could  rightly  and  properly  be  tithed. 
Further,  he  granted  them  a  rustic,  or  serf,  with  eight  acres 
of  land,  in  each  one  of  his  manors,  and  in  his  park  (at 
Enfield),  a  swineherd  with  a  swineherd's  land. 

The  following  is  the  original  charter: — 

Sciant  universi  quod  ego  Goisfredus  de  magna  villa  dedi  predicte 
ecclesie  ea  die  qua  feci  earn  consecrari  Osmundo  Episcopo  Sarisburg : 
pontifical!  auctoritate  presente,  in  omnibus  maneriis  que  in  dominio 


meo  eo  tempore  erant  tertiam  partem  decime  totius  pecunie  omnium 
maneriorum  meorum  in  vivo  et  mortuo  et  totam  decimam  pannagiorum 
meorum  in  parcis  et  denariis  sine  parte,  et  totam  decimam  caseorum, 
lini  et  lane,  pullorum,  equorum,  vitulorum,  pomorum,  vinearum,  et 
totam  decimam  aliarum  rerum  mearum  de  quibuscunque  juste  et 
recte  debet  deo  decima  reddi.  Insuper  dedi  predicte  ecclesie  in 
unoquoque  manerio  totius  dominii  mei  unum  rusticum  qui  octo  acras 
terre  habeat  et  in  parco  meo  unum  porcarium  cum  terra  porcarii. 

The  monks  of  Hurley,  also,  had  from  him  the  right  of 
pannage  in  the  park  and  woods  at  Enfield — i.e.,  of  turning 
in  their  swine  to  feed  on  the  acorns,  beech  masts,  &c. 
This,  in  those  days,  was  a  very  important  right.  In  the 
Domesday  Book  there  is  said  to  be  pannage  in  Enfield 
for  2,000  swine.  For  several  generations,  the  church 
continued  to  own  a  swineherd  in  the  park.*  In  a  subse- 
quent charter  we  find  that  their  swineherd  at  that 
period  was  called  Serbo. 

The  grandson  of  the  founder  of  Hurley,  another 
Godfrey  Earl  of  Essex,  by  a  charter  in  the  reign  of 
Stephen,  gave  to  the  monks  of  Hurley  a  rent  of  too 
shillings  ('  solidatae'),  charged  on  his  own  estates  in  several 
places  in  Berkshire,  in  exchange  for  all  the  tithes  which 
they  held  by  their  Founder's  Charter  in  Edmonton  and 
Enfield,  with  the  exception  of  the  tithe  of  pannage,  and 
the  right  of  pannage  for  the  monks'  swine  in  his  park. 

These  tithes  he  restored  to  the  Churches  of  Edmonton 
and  Enfield  "  that  each  church  might  have  its  own  rights 

*  The  reader  may  be  reminded  of  Gurth,  in  Sir  W.  Scott's  Ivanhof. 


for  the  support  of  the  priests  who  there  perform  God's 
service,"  and  also  in  part  as  a  provision  for  the  Hermitage 
at  Hadley.* 

This,  however,  seems  to  have  been  done  with  an 
eye  to  the  interests  of  the  monastery  which  he  was 
founding  at  Walden,  in  Essex,  for  when  this  was  dedi- 
cated, A.D.  1136,  he  assigned  to  it  14  churches,  and 
amongst  others  those  of  Enfield,  Edmonton,  and  South 
Mymms,  with  all  their  tithes  and  other  revenues,  all  their 
rights  and  privileges,  and  transferred  to  the  Prior  and 
monks  his  own  advowson  or  right  of  patronage. 

The  original,  from  the  MS.  (Harleian,  3697)  in  the  British 
Museum,  is  as  follows  : — 

Carta  domini  Gaufridi  de  Mandevilla,   Comitis  Essexise. 
Monasterii  fundatoris. 

Ad  unjversitatis  vestre  notitiam  volo  pervenire  me  fundasse 
quoddam  monasterium  in  usum  monachorum  apud  Waldenam  in 
honorem  Dei  et  S.  Marie  et  beati  Jacobi  Apostoli,  quibus  devote 
contuli  et  hac  present!  carta  confirmavi,  omnes  ccclesias  inferius 
annotatas  tam  de  dominio  meo  quam  de  emptis  et  purchasiis  meis 
scilicet  ecclesiam  de  Waledena  .  ecclesiam  de  Enfelda  ecclesiam 
de  Edelmeton  ecclesiam  de  Mymmes  ecclesiam  de  Northala  (and  10 
others}.  Has  autem  ecclesias  concede  et  confinno  monasterio  S. 
Jacobi  de  Waldena  et  monachis  ibidem  in  servitio  Dei  constitutis  in 
liberam  puram  et  perpetuam  eleemosinam  cum  omnibus  ad  easdem 
ecclesias  pertinentibus  in  decimis  et  obventionibus,  in  terris  et 
redditibus,  in  hominibus,  et  eorum  servitiis,  in  pratis  et  pascuis  in 

* de  reliquo  fratribus  de  Hadlega  ibi  canonice  viventibus 

victum  et  vestitum. 


bosco  et  piano  in  aquis  et  stagnis,  in  vivariis  et  piscariis,  in  viis  et 
semitis,  in  omnibus  libcrtatibus  et  liberis  consuetudinibus. 

Et  ne  aliquis  heredum  aut  successorum  meorum  aliquam  donationem 
vel  presentationem  in  prescriptis  ecclesiis  ulterius  se  habere  estimet 
concedo  et  confirmo  predicto  monasterio  et  predictis  monachis  omne 
jus  et  omne  dominium  quod  egomet  vel  aliquis  antecessorum  meorum 
melius  et  liberius  in  prefatis  ecclesiis  habuimus  vel  habere  debuimus. 
Quare  volo  et  firmiter  precipio  quod  prelatus  predict!  monasterii  et 
monachi  habeant  et  teneant  in  perpetuum  ecclesias  jam  supradictas 
cum  omnibus  earum  pertinentiis  et  libertatibus,  ita  quidem  ut,  si  quis 
aliquam  illarum  ecclesiarum  aliquando  tenuerit,  de  prelato  et 
conventu  teneat.  Duo  autem  molendina,  unum  scilient  apud  Wale- 
denam  et  alterum  apnd  Enefeldam,  cum  omnibus  pertinentiis  et 
libertatibus  suis  in  aquis  et  stagnis  et  piscariis,  et  cum  multura* 
ambarum  villarum  sc.  de  Waledena  et  Enefelda."  Another  MS. 
(Vesp.  E.  vi. ),  adds  "  Cum  dimidia  virgata  terre  arabilis." 

The  monks  of  Hurley,  however,  retained  their  right  of 
pannage  in  Enfield,  including,  as  we  have  seen,  a  swine- 
herd and  his  piece  of  land,  and  to  this  William  de  Mande- 
ville,  the  next  earl,  A.D.  1181,  added  the  whole  tithe  of 
nuts  in  his  park  at  Enfield.  A  charter  of  William  de  S. 
Maria  Bishop  of  London,  A.D.  1219,  confirms  to  them, 
"  totam  decimationem  pannagii  in  parco  de  Enefeld  et 
decimationem  nucum  ejusdem  parci." 

But  in  the  year  1258,  with  the  laudable  object  of 
avoiding  any  ground  of  discord  or  litigation  unbefitting 
the  servants  of  God,  which  might  arise  from  joint  owner- 

"  Multura" — the  exclusive  right  of  grinding  corn. 


ship,  the  prior  and  monks  of  Hurley  gave  up  to  the 
abbot  and  monks  of  Walden  all  their  tithes,  &c.,  in  the 
parishes  belonging  to  the  latter,  and  received  in  exchange 
the  church  of  Strattley  or  Stretley,  in  Berkshire.  Thus 
ended  all  connexion  between  Enfield  and  Hurley,  after 
lasting  nearly  two  centuries. 

The  mill  assigned  by  Godfrey  to  his  monastery  at  Walden, 
with  the  right  to  grind  the  corn  of  Enfield,  was,  without 
doubt,  the  same  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book,  then  pro- 
ducing i  os.  per  annum  rent.  It  gives  its  name  to  Mill 
Marsh  and  Mill  Field,  both  still  belonging  to  the 
Rectory.  The  right  of  fishing  also  brought  in  a  rent, 
paid  in  styches  of  eels — i.e.,  eels  strung  on  sticks,  24  on 

We  find  confirmations  of  the  Founder's  Charier  by  every 
successive  Sovereign  and  Bishop  of  London. 

Stephen,  in  his  Charter,  more  particularly  defines  the 
liberties  of  the  Abbey,  as  consisting  in  "  Sacna  et  socna  et 
toll  et  theam  et  infangenatheofe." 

Henry  II.  confirms  to  them  the  view  of  frank  pledge. 

Accordingly,  the  abbots  exercised  certain  manorial 
rights  in  Enfield,  and,  when  in  the  22  Edward  I.  1292, 
they  were  called  on  by  a  writ,  "  quo  warranto,"  to  prove 
these  rights,  they  showed  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  King's 
Justices  that  they  and  their  predecessors  from  time  out  of 
mind  had  held  without  molestation,  "  quendam  visum  per 
annum  de  tenentibus  suis  in  predicta  villa  de  Enfeld, 
capiendse  emendaspanis  et  cervisiae  fractae" — /.*.,  inflicting 


fines  for  fraud  in  the  sale  of  bread  and  beer.*  A  note  in 
the  year-book  of  xx  Edward  I.  (a  collection  of  law  cases), 
states  that  this  belonged  -to  the  view  of  frank  pledge. 
"  Amendement  de  payn  e  de  serveyse  est  apendant  a  vewe 
de  franc  plegge." 

At  the  same  time  it  was  decided  that  the  abbots  had 
not  the  right  to  use  the  pillory  or  tumbril  as  punish- 
ments^ and  that  penalties  for  shedding  of  blood 
belonged  not  to  the  abbots,  but  to  the  bailiffs  of  the 
Counts  of  Hereford  and  Essex. 

This  would  seem  to  show  that  they  had  not  the  right 
of  "  mfangenetheof "  mentioned  in  Stephen's  Charter,  for 
in  the  same  Year-book,  which  has  been  referred  to,  we  read 
"  Amendement  de  payn  e  de  service  e  pyllory  e  tumbril 
e  fourches  sy  est  apendant  a  infangenetheof." 

It  may  be  observed  that  the  manorial  rights  of  the 
abbots  have  passed  on,  with  the  Rectory,  to  Trinity 
College.  A  court-leet  is  held  for  the  Manor  of  Surlowes 
or  the  Rectory. 

In  the  Cartulary  to  which  reference  has  been  made  we 
find  a  record  of  numerous  gifts  of  land  or  houses  in 
Enfield.  Amongst  others,  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of 

*  Dr.  Robinson  translates  cervisia  fracta — broken  victuals  ! 
but  cervisia  is  beer,  and  frangere  assisam,  means  to  sell  short  weight 
or  measure.  "  Si  quis  Brassiator  assisam  fregerit." — Liber  Albus. 

t  Et  dicunt  quod  predictus  abbas  nee  aliquis  antecesstorum 
habueruni  pillorium  nee  tumberellum  ad  judicia  de  hujusmodi 
transgressionibus  facienda. 

Hereford  and  Essex,  Constable  of  England,  gives  to  the 
Abbey,  "  All  that  virgate  of  land  which  Walter  held  of  us 
in  the  vill  of  Enfield."  There  is  nothing  to  identify  the 
land,  but  it  doubtless  still  belongs  to  the  Rectory. 

The  son  of  Serbo  (the  swinehead,  as  we  may  presume) 
follows  the  example  of  the  Constable  of  England,  and 
gives  a  house. 

In  a  subsequent  survey  of  the  churches  belonging  to 
the  Abbey  of  Walden,  it  is  said  that  Enfield  was  appro- 
priated to  the  use  of  the  monks,  with  all  the  tithe,  both 
of  demesne  and  other  lands.  The  monks  received  half 
a  mark  out  of  the  Vicarage,  three  marks  from  a  mill, 
twenty  shillings  from  the  tenants  of  the  glebe,  and  kept 
six  acres  of  meadow  in  their  own  hands. 

In  the  Taxatio  Ecclesiastica  of  Pope  Nicholas  IV., 
A.D.  1291,  we  find  under  the  head  of 

TEMPORALIA  :  '  bona  Abbatis  de  Walden 

de  redditibus  terre  «t  pratis         ^3   1 1     8 

Ecclesia       £40     o     o 


[      Vicana  ejusdem  ecclesie     ^6     o     o 

At  the  dissolution  of  monasteries,  the  Rectory  of 
Enfield,  with  the  advowson,  was  granted  by  Henry  VIII., 
in  May,  1538,  to  Thomas  Audley,  who,  in  November  of 
the  same  year,  was  made  Lord  Audley  of  Walden.  He 
presented  in  1540,  "  ratione  donationis  et  concessionis 
temporalium  dissoluti  monasterii  de  Walden  eidem 
domino  Thomae."  By  exchange  with  Lord  Audley,  the 
Rectory  came  again  into  the  King's  hands,  and  he  pre- 
sented in  1545.  Soon  afterwards,  in  1548,  he  granted  this, 


with  many  others  which  had  belonged  to  different  religious 
houses,  to  the  Master,  Fellows,  and  Scholars  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  which  he  was  then  founding,  and 
with  them  it  has  ever  since  remained. 

In  the  King's  books  it  is  thus  valued  : — "  Valet  in 
terris  et  tenementis  necnon  decimis  granorum  et  feni 
ac  omnibus  aliis  decimis  oblationibus  et  proficuis  dicte 
Rectorie  pertinentibus.  xxviii.  lib. 

It  was  then  let  for  this  sum,  as  appears  from  the  fol- 
lowing entry  in  the  Register  of  Benefactions  made  by 
Henry  VIII.  in  the  College  Library : — 

"  Firma  Rectorie  de  Enfeld  predict e,  in  com.  Midd. 
cum  omnibus  decimis  acaliis  proficuis  et  advantagiis  eidem 
Rectorie  spectaritibus  dimissis  Johanni  Butte  per  inde.nturam 
pro  termino annorum,  reddendum  indeperann.  xxviii.  lib." 

At  the  end  of  the  Register  there  is  the  following  note  : — 

MEM. — "  The  pretnmissez  doe  not  lye  nigghe  to  any  the  King 
Majestie's  howssez,  except  the  parsonage  of  Enfelde,  which  lyethe 
adjoynynge  to  the  King's  hovvse  of  Enfelde." 

In  3  Edward  VI.  the  Rectory  was  let  to  Sir  R.  Wroth 
for  40  years.     In    1631 — to  Earl  of  Pembroke,   for   16 
In  1647  it  was  let  to  Sir  Roger  Langley ;  the 

fine  paid  for  renewal  was,  for  7  years       ...  £200 
The  reserved   rent   was   ;£i8    135.   4d.,  and  a 

corn  rent  of  14  quarters  of  wheat  and  18  qrs. 

5  bus.  i  peck  of  wheat. 

In  1666 — to  the  Duke  of  Albermarle,  for  7  years     180 
In  1718 — to  Sir  R.  Nightingale  „  350 


In  1726 — to J.Gascoigne Nightingale,  Esq. for  7  years ,£320 

1785 — to    Wilmot,   Earl    of  Lisburne, 

(who  married  Miss  Nightingale) ...        „          1,400 

1806 — to  Sir  John  Eden  and  Sir  L.  Palk       „         3,5°o 

1813 — to  Sir  L.  Palk  (in  trust) „         4,200 

1820 — to  Colonel  Vaughan  (afterwards 

Lord  Lisburne)      ...          ...          ...       „         4,200 

1827-34 — to  Lady   Elizabeth  Palk  and 

Lady  Malet  Vaughan          ...        .,         „         3,400 

1855 — to  Lady  Malet  Vaughan ,,         3,720 

1862—10  Robert    S.    Palk,   Esq.,  and 

Rev.  Wilmot  Palk       „         3,925 

In  1869  the  College  refused  to  renew,  consequently,  as 
the  lease  is  for  20  years,  renewable  every  7,  the  lease  will 
expire  in  1882,  and  the  rectorial  estates  will  fall  directly 
under  the  management  of  the  College. 

In  1650  the  Parliamentary  Commissioners  reported 
as  follows  : — "  The  Parsonage  and  Glebe  lands  be 
worth  ^30  per  annum,  and  the  tythe  of  corn  and 
grass  be  worth  ^230  per  annum,  which  is  now  received 
by  Sir  W.  Langley.  The  said  Parsonage  House  hath 
belonging  to  it,  one  greate  barne  with  outhouses 
and  fish  ponds,  two  small  orchards,  and  four  closes 
of  pasture  thereto  adjoining,  containing  eight  acres 
or  thereabouts.  Also,  24  acres  of  arable  land  in 
the  Common  Field,  and  5  acres  and  i  rood  of  meadow 
in  the  Common  Marshes  being  lammas  ground." 


The  great  increase  in  the  value  of  the  Rectory  arose 
from  the  Enclosure  Acts  in  1777  and  1801,  by  the 
former  of  which  279  acres  (after  deductions  for  the 
Vicarage),  by  the  latter  950  acres  were  allotted  to  Trinity 
College  in  lieu  of  tithes. 


There  is  no  record  of  the  building  of  the  Parsonage 
House,  but  it  was  in  existence  before  the  time  of  Henry 
VIII.'s  grant  to  Trinity  College.  In  a  survey  (6  James  I.) 
it  is  thus  described: — "One  mansion  house,  one  barn 
and  stable  and  other  buildings  with  a  yard  and  garden, 
one  pigeon  house,  one  pigeon  house  close  with  a  pond 
therein,  situated  in  Parsonage-street  (now  called  Baker- 
street),  on  the  east  side,  and  next  a  little  lane  called 
Parsonage-lane,  on  the  south,  and  the  orchard  of  T. 
Meddows,  and  two  closes  of  pasture,  belonging  to  the 
said  Rectory,  on  the  north  and  west." 

It  has  been  generally  occupied  by  the  lessees  of  the 
college,  but  is  at  present  sublet  to  F.  Hasluck,  Esq. 

The  arms  over  the  iron  gates  at  the  entrance,  are  those 
of  the  Nightingale  family,  who  came  into  possession  as 
lessees  in  1718.  In  the  grounds,  which  on  the  side  of 
Parsonage-lane  are  enclosed  by  a  very  picturesque  old 
wall,  are  some  remarkably  fine  trees,  especially  two 
accacias.  The  old  fish  ponds  still  remain. 


We  learn  from  Domesday  Book  that  the  Parish  Priest 
of  Enfield  held  a  virgate  of  land,  of  course  in  addition  to 
tithes  and  offerings,  which  are  seldom,  if  ever,  mentioned 
in  that  book,  as  the  record  is  one  of  land. 

We  have   seen   that  in   1136  Godfrey  de  Mandeville 
granted  the  Church  of  Enfield,  with  all   its  tithes  and 
other   revenues,    to    his    newly-founded    Monastery    at 
Walden.    The  effect  of  this  here,  as  in  other  cases,  would 
be  to  make  the  Monastery  collectively  responsible  for  the 
cure  of  the  parish.      They  received  all  the  revenues,  and 
sent  one  or  another  of  their  body,  as  they  thought  fit,  to 
discharge  the  duties.    But,  after  a  time,  it  was  more  usual 
to  appoint  some  one  priest  permanently  to  serve  the  cure, 
who  thus  became  a  "  perpetual  vicar/'  and  had  assigned 
to  him  a  certain  portion  of  the  tithes  and  other  offerings, 
with    the    sanction   of  the   bishop.     We   are   told   that 
_  Reginald,    Prior    of    Walden,    afterwards    first    Abbot, 
appointed  vicars  to  his  churches  in  1190.    Consequently, 
we  may  assume  that  the  first  vicar,  properly  so  called, 
of  Enfield,  dates  from  that  year.     There  does  not  appear 
to  be  any  record  of  the  composition  made  with  him  by 
the  abbot  and  monks  ;   probably  he  received  the  small 
tithes,  subject  to  certain  payments  to  the  abbey,  as  was 
usually  the  case.     In  the  Taxation  of  Pope  Nicholas,  the 
Vicarage  was  valued  at  £6   per  ann.;    in   the  time  of 
Henry  VIII  at  £26.     In  the  report  to  the  Parliamentary 


Commissioners  in  1650,  preserved  in  the  Lambeth 
Library,  it  is  stated  that — 

"  The  Vicaridge  House,  with  the  barns,  outhouses, 
and  two  orchards,  with  one  close  of  pasture  adjoining, 
and  two  acres  of  arable  land  in  the  Common 
Field  are  worth  8  pounds  per  annum.  And  the  petty,  oblations,  and  other  dutyes  thereto  belonging, 
are  worth  about  ^50  per  ann."  They  further  report, 
"  that  Mr.  Walter  Bridges,  the  present  incumbent,  an  able 
and  painful  preacher,  was  presented  to  the  said  lyving  by 
the  Master  and  Fellows  of  Trinitye  Colledge,  and  re- 
ceiveth  for  salary  the  said  tythes  and  proffitts  belonging 
to  the  said  Vicaridge.  And  that  our  parish  (having 
no  chapel),  is  of  a  large  extent.  Butt  our  church  is 
conveniently  situated,  and  none  of  the  parishioners  are 
far  distant  therefrom  except  some  few  scattering  houses." 

In  1777,  when  the  Chase  was  enclosed,  80  acres 
out  of  519  allotted  in  lieu  of  tithes,  were  appropriated  to 
the  Vicar  of  Enfield.  At  the  same  time  power  was  given 
by  the  Act  (17  Geo.  III.  c.  18)  to  Trinity  College  further 
to  augment  the  Vicarage  by  an  endowment  of  160  acres 
out  of  their  tithe  allotment,  on  the  condition  that  any 
Fellow  accepting  the  living  should  vacate  his  fellowship. 
By  the  award  of  the  Commissioners  under  the  Enclosure 
Act  of  1 80 1,  a  further  allotment  was  made  to  the  vicar  of 
382  acres  3  roods  20  perches  of  land,  in  lieu  of  all 
.vicarial  tithes  in  the  parish,  with  the  exception  of  a  corn 
rent,  charged  on  certain  houses,  &c.  where  land  could 
not  be  allotted,  to  be  valued  every  2 1  years,  if  required. 


This,  when  the  Commissioners  made  their  award  in 
April,  1806,  was  valued  at  ,£43  6s.  nd. 

The  greater  portion  of  the  Glebe  land,  which  lies  on 
the  Chase,  has  never  been  properly  brought  under 
cultivation,  and  is  of  comparatively  little  value.  The 
rental  of  the  glebe  was  less  in  1870  than  in  1840. 


Between  Silver-street  and  the  Churchyard,  enclosed 
within  a  wall,  are  the  Vicarage  House  and  grounds, 
occupying  about  i  ^  acres. 

In  the  reign  of  Edward  I.,  Godfrey  de  Beston  gave  a 
piece  of  land  near  the  Churchyard,  with  the  buildings  on 
it,  to  Bartholomew,  Vicar  of  S.  Andrew's,  Enfield,  and 
his  successors,  subject  to  a  rent  of  12  pence,  as  appears 
from  the  following  deed — (Harleian  MS.  3697)  : — 

"  Carta  Godefridi  de  Beston  de  toto  messagio  suo  dato 
ecclesiae  S.  Andree  de  Enefeld. 

Sciant  praesentes  et  futuri  quod  ego  Godefridus  de 
Beston  concessi  dedi  et  hac  plena  carta  mea  confirmavi 
Deo  et  ecclesie  Sancti  Andree  de  Enefeld  et  Bartholomeo 
ejusdem  ecclesie  vicario  cum  omnibus  vicariis  ibidem 
eidem  succedentibus  totum  messagium  meum  quod  emi  de 
Ricardo  de  Plesseto  situm  prope  cimiterium  dicte 
ecclesie  cum  domibus  desuper  edificatis  et  omnibus  aliis 
pertinentibus  habendum  et  tenendum  illi  et  successoribus 
suis  libere  quiete  pacifice  integre  per  servitium  duodecim 
denariorum  annuatim  solvendorum  Ricardo  de  Plesseto 
et  heredibus  suis  ad  quatuor  terminos,  videlicet  ad 
Pascha,  iij.  denm  :  ad  nativitatem  S.  Johannis,  iij.  denm- 


ad  festum  S.  Michaelis  Archangeli  iij.  den"1:  et  ad 
nativitatem  Domini,  iij.  clenariorum:  pro  omni  servitio 
consuetudine  exactione  et  dcmanda. 

".Ut  autem  hac  mea  concessio  donatio  et  carte  mee 
confirmatio  perpetuum  robus  obfineat,  presentum  paginam 
sigilli  mei  munimine  duxi  roborandum  His  testibus. 
Ricardo  de  Plessito,  &c.,  &c." 

To  this  gift,  Richard  de  Plessito,  of  whom  Godfrey  had 
purchased  the  messuage,  subsequently  added  18  perches 
of  garden  ground,  between  the  churchyard  and  the  King's 
Highway,  called  Ernygstrate,  now  Silver-street. 

"  Noverit  universitas  me  pro  salute  anime  mee  et 
animarum  patris  et  matris,  &c.,  concessissee  et  dedisse 
et  hac  plena  carta  mea  confirmasse,  Deo  et  eccl'esie  S. 
Andree  de  Enefeld  et  ejusdem  ecclesie  Vicario  Bartholo- 
meo  et  successoribus  suis,  1 8  perticatas  gardini  mei  cum 
pertinentibus,  incipientes  a  messagio  predicti  Vicarii  quod 
tenet  de  me  per  servitium  xii.  denariorum  annuatim  et 
extendentes  se  in  longitudinem  versus  Austrum  in  totam 
latitudinem  ejusdem  gardini  quod  jacet  inter  cimiterium 
predicte  ecclesie  et  viam  regalem  que  vocatur  Ernygstrate 
habendum  et  tenendum." 

Richard  de  Plessito  died  in  1289,  so  that  the  Vicarage 
must  have  occupied  its  present  site  for  nearly  six 
centuries.  A  great  part  of  the  house  is  extremely  old, 
built  of  timber,  and  only  cased  with  brick  in  1845,  ^"hen 
new  kitchens  and  offices  were  built.  Great  alterations 
had  previously  been  made  in  1801  by  Mr.  Porter,  who 
took  down  the  old  chimneys. 

In  the  windows  of  the  dining-room  are  two  diamond- 
shaped  quarries  of  stained  glass,  evidently  taken  out  of 
some  older  window,  with  Henry  VIII. 's  badges  of  the  Red 
Rose  and  the  Portcullis. 

The  wall  between  the  garden  and  the  churchyard,  362 
feet  in  length,  was  built  by  the  parishioners  in  1800,  as. 
stated  in  a  stone  tablet  over  the"  door. 


The  first  vicar,  as  we  have  seen,  was  appointed  in  1 190, 
but  his  name  is  not  preserved.  One  Bartholomew  was 
vicar,  when  the  vicarage  house  was  given  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  I.,  and  an  Absolom  is  mentioned  in  a  later  deed, 
but  there  is  no  complete  list  till  the  early  part  of  the  i4th 
century,  when,  for  the  first  time,  'we  can  avail  ourselves  of 
the  Bishop  of  London's  register,  which  furnishes  the 
following  names  and  dates  of  presentation  (with  the 
exception  of  those  in  italics). 


DATE.                                                     PATRONS. 

Henry  de  Chippenham, 

February  18,  1333. 

Thomas  Cradock, 

July  14,  1391. 

Thomas  Exeter, 

September  i,  1408. 


John  Westland, 


William  Appleby, 

September  29,  1435. 

Monastery  of 

Edmund  Causton, 

November  2,  1466. 


John  Hobil,  M.A. 

November  18,    1491. 

Thomas  Thompson,  B.D. 

January  7,  1504. 

Henry  Lockwood,  D.D. 

October  4,  1540.         Thos.  Lord  And  ley 

Robert  Stringfellow, 

Octqbera?,  1545.        Henry    VIII. 


Christopher  Downes,  D.D.  April  7,  1530. 

Thomas  Segeswick,  B.D.  March   12,  1555. 

John  Malham,  M.A.  November    n,    1556. 

Richard  Clapham,  February  9,  1557. 

Robert  Thacker,  M.A.  April  7,  1576. 

Philip  Jones, 

Leonard  Chambers, 
Samuel  Heron,  D.D. 
Thomas  Prowde,  B.D. 
William  Roberts,  D.D.* 
Walter  B 'ridges,  t 
Daniel  Manning, 
John  Hawkins,  B.D. 
Henry  Dearsley,  B.D. 
Benjamin  Young,  M.A. 
Joseph  Gascoigne,  M.A. 
Robert  Uvedale,  D.D.J 
John  Hackett,  D.D. 
James  Whitehall, 
William  Smelt,  B.D. 
Richard  Newbon,  B.D. 
Harry  Porter,  M.  A. 
Daniel  Creswell,  D.D. 
John  Moore  Heath,  M.A 
George  Hewitt  Hodson,M 

August  1 8,  1579. 

February  3,  1579. 

October  10,  1598. 

December  23,  1601. 

July  12,  1616. 

August  27,  1646. 

May  6,  1659. 

October  3,  1662. 

January  15,  1663. 

October  8,  1672. 

October  29,  1681.. 

August  u,  1721. 

April  29,  1758. 

June,          1 767. 

July,  1801. 

March,       1823. 
,     July,  1844. 

A.  January,    1870. 

Trinity  College, 

Archbishop  of 


by  lapse. 




*  William  Roberts  was  turned  out  of  his  Vicarage  in  1642,  by  the  Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners,  but  lived  some  years.  Walker,  in  his  "  Sufferings  of  the 
Clergy,"  mentions  that  the  Vicar  of  Enfield  was  sent  for  as  a  delinquent,  and 
his  estate  sequestered,  but  he  apparently  mistakes  the  name. 

f  Walter  Bridges,  called  by  the  Commissioners  an  able  and  painful  preacher, 
is  said  by  them  to  have  been  appointed  by  Trinity  College,  but  we  must  bear  in 
mind  that  at  that  time  the  Master  and  the  majority  of  the  Fellows  had  been  expelled 
as  Royalists.  He  was  of  S.  John's  College,  B.A.  1635.  He  left  the  parish  in 
April,  1658,  and  was  succeeded  after  some  interval  by  Daniel  Manning  (of  Cath. 
Hall,  Cambridge,  B.  A.  1649)  who  was  deprived  at  the  restoration. 

t  Son  of  Dr.  Robert  Uvedale,  who  was  Master  of  the  Grammar  School,  and  a 
distinguished  botanist. 


In  the  first  leaf  of  the  volume  of  the  Parish  register, 
which  begins  in  1666,.  is  the  following  entry  by  Mr. 
Gascoigne,  vicar : — 

"  Ministers  of  this  parish  that  can  now,  in  the  year 
"  1717-18,  be  remembered. 

"  Dr.  Roberts,  formerly  fellow  of  Trinity  Coll.  in  Cam- 
"  bridge,  who  continued  for  many  years,  till  turned  out 
"in  the  late  times  in  1642.  After  him  in  those  times 
"  succeeded  several,  as  Mr.  Bridges,  Mr.  Manning,  which 
"  latter  was  turned  out  by  the  Bartholomew  Act  in  the 
"year  1661.  After  him  came  Mr.  John  Hawkins, 
"Fellow  of  Trinity  Coll.,  in  Cambridge,  who  stayed  not 
"  much  above  a  year,  and  returned  to  the  College. 

"  Mr.  Henry  Dearsley,  Fellow  of  Trin.  Coll.,  came  in 
"  the  year  1663,  and  continued  till  the  year  1672,  when 
"he  dyed.  After  him  succeeded  Mr.  Ben.  Young,  Fellow 
"of  Trin.  Coll.,  in  the  year  1672,  who  lived  till  July  in 
"the  year  1681,  and  in  the  same  year  after  him  came 
"  Mr.  Jos.  Gascoigne,  Fellow  of  Trin.  Coll.,  in  the  month 
"of  October,  1681,  who,  by  the  mercy  of  God,  is  still 
"  alive,  and  in  very  good  health." 

With  the  exceptions,  already  referred  to,  of  Mr.  Bridges 
and  Mr.  Manning,  the  College  has  always  presented  one 
of  its  Fellows  to  the  Vicarage. 


In  the  year  1631  Henry  Loft  gave  £4  per  annum  for 
a  lecturer,  who  was  to  preach  in  the  Parish  Church  on 


the  afternoon  of  the  Lord's-day,  not  omitting  above  one 
month  in  the  year.  This  magnificent  endowment  was  for 
many  years  augmented  by  the  Vestry,  but  their  liberality 
has  ceased.  The  present  lecturer  is  the  Rev.  E.  H. 
Egles,  M.A.,  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge. 

The  Rev.  J.  M.  Heath,  shortly  after  he  became  vicar, 
instituted  a  third  service  on  Sunday  evenings,  at  which 
the  whole  church  is  free  and  open  to  all  parishioners  ; 
the  service  being  entirely  voluntary  on  the  part  of  the 
clergy.  This  is  still  continued.  There  is  also  an  early 
service  at  8  a.m.  on  Sunday  for  the  celebration  of  the 
Holy  Communion,  and  daily  service  morning  and  evening. 


Are  elected  annually  on  Easter  Monday.  There  were 
originally  four  (as  appears  by  the  oldest  vestry-book 
remaining,  of  the  date  April  13, 1691),  one  for  each  of  the 
four  quarters  of  the  parish,  which  were  then  called — 
Enfield-greene,  Bull's-cross,  Greene-street,  and  PonderV 
end,  and  such  was  the  practice  till  1696,  when  one 
churchwarden  was  chosen  to  represent  both  Greene-street 
and  Ponder' s-end  Quarters,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the- 
year  1699,  when  four  were  again  chosen,  three  has  con- 
tinued to  be  the  number  to  the  present  day,  Greene- 
street  and  Ponder's-end  being  considered  as  one  quarter. 
The  churchwarden  for  Enfield-green  (now  called  the 
Town)  Quarter,  is  nominated  by  the  Vicar.  The  others 
are  chosen  by  the  Vestry. 


The  division  of  the  parish  into  four  quarters,  for 
other  purposes,  continued  till  iSro,  when  the  Vestry,  on 
September  22,  agreed  "that  the  three  divisions,  now 
"  called  BulPs-cross,  Greene-street,  and  Ponder's-end 
"  Divisions  be  reduced  into  two  divisions,  the  one  to  be 
"  called  Bull's-cross,  to  commence  at  Mr.  Duncan's,  at 
"  White  Webb's-gate,  and  to  extend  to  Carterhatch-lane, 
"  at  Enfield-highway  ;  and  the  other  to  be  called  Green- 
"  street  and  Ponder's-end  Division,  to  commence  at,  and 
"  to  include  Carterhatch-lane,  and  to  extend  over 
"  Ponder's-end  and  South-street." 

The  Churchwardens,  in  former  times,  were  zealous  in 
the  extermination  of  vermin.  In  the  year  1780,  as 
appears  by  the  Vestry-book,  they  paid  for  the  destruction 
of  three  otters,  at  is.  each;  twelve  polecats,  at  8d.  each; 
sixty-five  hedgehogs,  at  4d.  each. 

No  church-rates  have  been  collected  in  the  parish 
since  the  year  1853,  so  that  the  Churchwardens  are 
entirely  dependant  on  voluntary  contributions  to  supply 
funds  for  the  repairs  of  the  church  and  maintenance  of 
the  services. 

Easter  offerings  have  also  been  discontinued  for  some 
years  past,  though  the  Vicar's  claim  to  them  was  reserved 
by  the  Enclosure  Act  of  1801. 


The  registers  of  baptisms,  marriages,  and  burials,  all 
extend  back  to  1550,  and  with  the  exception  of  an 


interval  between  January,  1556,*  and  August,  1557,  are 
complete  to  the  present  day,  though  they  were  kept  very 
irregularly  during  the  times  of  the  Rebellion  and  Com- 

The  Act  by  which  parochial  registers  were  enjoined  was 
not  passed  till  1536,  and  was  not  at  once  generally 
observed,  so  that  the  registers,  which  we  have,  are  probably 
the  first  kept  in  the  parish. 

The  oldest  volume  is  on  paper,  and  extends  from  1550 
to  1588.  The  succeeding  volumes,  as  now  bound  up, 
from  1588  to  1639;  1639  to  1666  ;  and  1666  to  1704, 
are  on  parchment. 

It  is  curious  to  observe  the  uncertainty  in  the  beginning 
of  the  year.  The  years  1550,  51,  52,  53,  begin  with  the 
Feast  of  the  Annunciation,  March  25.  The  years  from 
1554  to  1577  with  the  Feast  of  the  Circumcision, 
January  4 1.  After  that  they  return  again  to  March  25 
and  so  continue  till  the  New  Style  came  into  use,  in 
January,  1753. 

There  is  a  curious  mode  of  registering  baptisms  to  be 
noticed  during  the  years  between  1576  and  1586.  In 
the  case  of  a  boy  it  is  "  baptizatus  est,"  or  some- 
times "  baptizabatur"  (the  force  of  which  is  somewhat 
difficult  to  explain) ;  in  the  case  of  a  girl  "  renata  fuit." 

*  Where  there  is  this  note: — "Memorandum:  that  I  found  this 
nexte  leaf  or  leaves  cut  out  at  my  receiving  the  book  fromMr.  Hall  ; 
as  witnesseth  Robert  Wilbro." 


The  Register  has  this  entry,  Sept.  i8th,  1653  : — "  Be 
it  remembered  that  Walter  Bridges,  Vicar  of  the  Parish  of 
Enfield,  was  this  day  and  year  above  written,  elected  and 
chosen  Registrar,  and  was  approved  and  sworn  by  Edwyn 
Rich,  Esq.,  J.P.,  according  to  a  late  Act  of  Parliament," 
and  the  following  in  April,  1658  : — 

"  Mr.  Walter  Bridges,  min.  of  the  parish,  who  for  some 
few  years  before-mentioned,  as  it  doth  appear  from  ye 
beginning  of  this  book,  left  the  books  in  good  order,  and 
sett  downe  the  baptizings  exactly,  but  he  leaving  the 
parish  about  the  beginning  of  Aprill,  1658,  the  parish 
being  destitute  of  a  minister  was  constrained  to  hire  one 
or  other  to  preach  on  the  Lord's  Days.  Mr.  Bridges, 
above-mentioned,  being  gone,  and  strangers  preaching 
here  for  some  time  till  Mr.  Manning;  minister,  came, 
the  names  of  children,  for  a  short  time,  could  not  exactly 
be  registered." 

There  are  many  indications,  in  the  registers  of  the  pre- 
ceding years,  of  the  disorder  prevailing  in  church  matters. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  in  1645  the  use  of  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  either  in  public  or  private,  was  for- 
bidden by  the  Parliament,  under  heavy  penalties  of  fine 
and  imprisonment ;  and  the  Directory  substituted  for  it. 
All  religious  services  at  the  burial  of  the  dead  were  for- 
bidden— the  dead  body  was  to  be  "  interred  without  any 

In  1642,  as  we  have  seen,  the  Vicar,  Dr.  Roberts,  was 


ejected.  Between  September,  1642,  and  September, 
1644;  only  one  marriage  is  registered.  Afterwards  we 
find  such  entries  as  these,  in  1653: — "All  these 
three  couples  were  married  by  Thomas  Hubbert,  Esq., 
and  by  him  declared  man  and  wife,"  and  in  1655, 
"  The  truly  worthy  John  Bernard,  of  Huntingdon,  Esq., 
single  man,  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth  St.  John,  daughter 
of  the  Right  Hon.  Oliver  St.  John,  Lord  Cheefe 
Justice  of  the  Comon  Pleas,  were  married  before  her  said 
father,  and  by  him  declared  man  and  wife,  February  26, 
1655.  Coram  testibus  non  puucis  venerabilibus  egregiis 
et  fide  dignis." 

In  August  i,  1678,  the  Act,  for  burying  in  woollen,  came 
into  operation,  and  accordingly  in  every  case  of  burial 
the  parish  register  records  that  an  affidavit  was  made  and 
delivered  to  the  Vicar,  as  required  by  the  Act,  within 
eight  days,  but  on  September  18  of  that  year,  we  find  a 
memorandum  regarding  Dennis  Younge,  "  No  affidavit. 
Information  given  of  her  being  buried  in  linnen,  and  the 
moiety  of  five  pounds  was  paid  to  the  poor,  according  to 
the  Act  for  burying  in  woollen.''  And  again,  in 
November,  when  Alary,  wife  of  Nicholas  Raynton,  was 
buried  in  a  vault  in  the  vestry,  there  is  the  same  memo- 

After  a  few  years  the  practice  seems  to  have  become 
more  lax,  as  there  are  many  burials,  where  no  affidavit  is 

The  number  of  nurse-children  registered  as  buried  is 
very  remarkable,  and  also  the  number  of  foundlings 


baptized.  The  neighbourhood  of  the  Chase  will,  in  some 
measure,  account  for  both,  as  also  for  the  number  of 
"strangers  unknown  "  who  are  buried. 

With  the  year  1569  begins  mention  of  those  who  died, 
or  were  suspected  to  have  died,  of  the  Plague  : — 

Between  August  and  December  in  that  year,  29  deaths 
are  recorded. 

Between  June  and  December,  1578.  50  deaths. 

In  three  months  of  1603,  September  to  November,  103. 

In  the  year  1625,  67  died;  in  1665,  the  year  of  the 
great  plague,  only  55. 

It  is  said  that  some  of  those  who  died  of  the  plague 
were  buried  in  the  churchyard,  some  in  other  places. 
In  the  original  survey  of  the  Chase,  made  in  1658,  a  site 
on  the  Green,  now  occupied  by  an  isolated  house  and 
garden,  known  as  "  the  Limes,"  is  marked  as  "  the  Pest 
House,"  and  in  the  presentment  to  the  jury  of  the  Manor 
in  1636,  it  is  described  as  "a  cottage  erected  by  the 
"  appointment  of  His  Majestie's  Justices  of  the  Peace,  for 
"  the  harbouring  of  infected  people  the  last  great  infec- 
"  tion." 

A  small  pond  at  the  back  of  these  premises  has  pro- 
bably been  caused  by  the  subsidence  of  the  ground,  and 
indicates  the  site  of  the  "  plague  pit."  De  Foe  mentions 
that  a  similar  "  mark  was  to  be  seen  on  the  surface, 
parallel  with  the  passage  between  Houndsditch  and 
Whitechapel,"  where  a  pit  had  been  dug  40  feet  in  length, 
15  feet  in  breadth,  and  20  feet  deep. 

This  house  is  again  presented  "  at  a  Court  of  the 
"  Mannor  and  Chace  of  Enfield,  held  the  eighth  day  of 


"  October,  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  our  Sovereign, 
"  Lord  James  the  Second,"  &c. 

"  (19.)  An  house  formerly  ordered  by  the  Justices  for 
"  a  pest-house  erected  on  the  said  Chace,  and  now  in  the 
"  tenure  of  John  Boone,  which  we  desire  may  continue 
"  for  a  pest-house  still,  if  there  should  be  an  occasion." 

At  a  vestry  had  of  ye  most  part  of  ye  ancient  parish- 
ioners aforesaid,  2ist  Jan.   1620,   the  "  duties  for  buryalls 
in    the  churchyard,"  were   fixed  for   parishioners,   "un- 
coffined"  2d.,  strangers,  4^. 

For  one  hours  knell  of  ye  i  st  Bell  ...     6d.,   strangers  i2d. 
„        t        „  2nd  Bell...     Sd.,         „         i6d. 

„  „'          3rd  Bell...    iod.,         „         i8d. 

„  ,,     ye  great  Bell...  . 1 2d.,         „          24^. 

To  ye  Vicar,  for  his  office  of  bury- 
ing a  child  ...          ...          ...      7^/.,          „          2\d. 

To  him  for  a  communicate  person   iod.,         „         24^. 
To  Clerk  for  a  child  ...          ...     4^.,         „          izd. 

More    to   him   for   a    communicate 

person      ...          ...          ...          ...     6d.,         ,,          izd. 

Duties  for  buryalls  coffined--double  the  above. 
The  fee  for  a  person  churched  at  church,   was  sixpence. 
The  fee  for  a  person  churched  at  home,  was  one  shilling. 

The  Clerk's  duty  was  "  to  attend  ye  Vicar  and  Curate 
at  divine  service,  marriages,  churchings,  sac.  visiting  of 
sick,  burying  of  dead,  to  lay  up  ye  books,  to  write  ye 
burrialls  in  a  book." 

"  The  Sexton's  office  is  to  keep  ye  clock  and  church 
clean,  to  ring  and  toll  ye  bells,  to  make  the  graves  five 
foot  deep." 


Notwithstanding  the  increase  in  the  population  of  the 
parish,  no  provision  was  made  for  increased  church 
accommodation  till  the  year  1831,  when  a  Chapel-of-ease 
was  built  by  subscription,  on  ground  given  by  Woodham 
Connop,  Esq.,  and  consecrated  on  i5th  of  October,  by 
Dr.  Blomfield,  Bishop  of  London. 

A  district  was  assigned  by  Order  in  Council,  Dec.  9, 
1833,  comprising  the  whole  of  the  parish  of  Enfield  east 
of  a  line  drawn  at  a  distance  of  150  yards  to  the  west  of 
the  Turnpike-road  from  Edmonton  to  Cheshunt.  The 
church  was  licensed  for  marriages  by  the  Bishop  of 
London  in  1845,  May  26th. 

An  addition  to  the  churchyard  was  consecrated  in 

The  present  chancel,  added  at  the  expense  of  the  Rev. 
J.  Harman,  in  memory  of  his  wife  Elizabeth  (who  died 
April,  1859),  was  consecrated  in  November,  1864.  The 
east  window  is  filled  with  stained  glass  in  "  Memory  of 
Ezekiel  and  Sarah  Harman,  of  Theobalds,  Cheshunt,  and 
of  Mary  Wright,  sister  of  Sarah  Harman."  The  windows 
of  the  chapel  are  memorials  respectively  to  Mary 
Harman,  and  the  wife  of  Henry  Parry,  Esq.,  of  the 
Limes,  Ponder's-end. 



A  vicarage  house  has  since  been  built  opposite  to  the 

The  Vicar  of  S.  Andrew's,  Enfield,  is  the  patron. 

T.  W.  Thirl  wall,  M.  A.,  1834. 
Charles  Warren,  M.A.,  1835. 
Incumbents,  -j      J.  R.  Nicholi,  M.A.,  1838. 

J.  Fuller  Russell,  B.C.L.,  1841. 
John  Harman,  M.A.,  1854. 


This  church  was  erected  in  1835  at  tne  so^e  expense  of 
Christian  Paul  Meyer,  Esq.,  of  Forty  Hall,  and  endowed 
by  him  with  ^4000  conveyed  to  trustees,  and  with  a 
house  and  7)^  acres  of  land  adjoining  the  church.  A 
district  was  assigned  by  Order  in  Council,  December, 
1845.  It  is  now  a  vicarage.  The  Vicar  of  S.  Andrew's 
is  patron.  In  1871  an  additional  endowment  of  seven 
acres  of  land  was  given  by  Trinity  College.  The  first 
incumbent  was  the  Rev.  C.  W.  Bollaerts,  M.A.,  who 
died  in  1863,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  same  year  by 
Rev.  Archibald  Weir,  D.C.I,.,  Trin.  Coll.,  Oxford. 


Christ  Church,  situated  at  Cock  Fosters,  at  the  western 
extremity  of  the  parish,  was  built  in  1839  at  the  sole 
expense  of  R.  C.  L.  Bevan,  Esq.,  of  Trent  Park,  who  is 
the  patron,  who  also  built  a  parsonage.  A  district  has 

been  assigned  by  the  •  Bishop  of  London.  The  present 
incumbent  is  the  Rev.  James  Swinbourn,  who,  in  1865, 
succeeded  the  Rev.  Claremont  Skrine. 


This  church  was  built  in  1857,  from  the  designs  of  Mr. 
P.  St.  Aubyn,  as  a  chapel-of-ease  to  the  mother  church,  on 
land  belonging  to  the  Vicarage,  which  had  been  bought 
with  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  a  portion  of  glebe  to 
the  New  River  Company.  The  greater  part  of  the  cost 
of  the  building  and  endowment  was  borne  by  the  Vicar, 
the  Rev.  J.  M.  Heath.  The  church  was  opened  by 
license  in  November,  1858,  but  not  consecrated  till 
July  31,  1865.  It  did  not  become  a  district  church  till 
March  19,  1867. 

The  Rev.  G.  B.  P.  Viner  has  since  that  time  been 
incumbent.  There  is  a  vicarage  house  adjoining  the 

NEW    CHURCH    OF    S.    MICHAEL    AND    ALL    ANGELS. 

Notwithstanding  these  district  churches,  the  accom- 
modation at  the  mother  church  of  S.  Andrew's  had  been 
for  some  time  found  quite  inadequate  to  the  wants  of  a 
population  rapidly  increasing.  A  new  church  was  conse- 
quently determined  on,  of  which  the  first  stone  was  laid 
on  May  7th  of  this  year  (1873),  on  a  portion  of  what  was 
formerly  the  Gordon  House  Estate.  The  site  and  ^2,000 


were  given  by  George  Batters,  Esq.,  of  Brigadier  Hall. 
The  church,  when  complete,  will  consist  of  a  chancel 
with  aisles  and  a  groined  apse,  a  nave  of  five  bays,  with 
aisles,  and  a  western  tower ;  two  bays  of  the  nave  and  the 
tower  are  left  for  completion  hereafter.  It  is  built  of 
Kentish  rag,  with  Bath  stone  dressings,  from  the  designs 
of  Messrs.  Slater  and  Carpenter,  of  London,  under  the 
superintendence  of  Mr.  Hill,  of  Enfield.  It  will  be  a 
chapel-of-ease,  served  by  the  clergy  of  the  parish  church. 


The  cemetery  occupies  a  very  beautiful  and  commanding 
site,  of  about  nine  acres,  between  Lavender-hill  and  Clay- 
hill,  at  a  distance  of  i^  mile  from  S.  Andrew's  Church, 
to  the  north-west.  The  cemetery  was  laid  out  and 
the  buildings  erected  from  the  designs  and  under  the 
superintendence  of  Mr.  Hill,  architect,  of  Enfield,  at 
a  total  cost  of  about  ^9,000.  It  was  opened  July 
27th,  1872. 



On  the  west  side  of  the  churchyard  stands  an  old 
red-brick  building,  with  dormers  in  the  roof,  and  a 
turret  staircase,  which,  for  nearly  three  centuries,  has 
been  the  Free  Grammar  School.  Modern  sash  windows 
have  been  inserted  in  the  wall  facing  the  churchyard, 
and  two  bay  windows,  one  at  each  end  of  the 
building,  have  been  bricked  up,  so  that  the  original 
effect  is  very  much  destroyed.  A  "  school-house"  is 
mentioned  in  1557,  but  in  1586,  William  Garratt  left  the 
sum  of  £50  by  will,  towards  building  a  school-house  in 
Enfield,  and  a  deed  of  1598  speaks  of"  the  Schole  House 
now  of  late  new  built  there."  It  stands  on  part  of  an 
estate  called  Prounce's,  belonging  to  the  parish. 

In  the  different  trust  deeds  from  1623  to  1717, 
inclusive,  the  chamber  and  garret  over  the  school  were 
reserved  to  such  uses  as  the  trustees  and  vestry  should 
direct,*  the  schoolmaster  then  residing  in  Prownce's  house, 
also  in  the  churchyard,  known  as  the  Old  Coffee-house, 
now  the  School  of  Industry,  but  about  1739  or  1740  the 
chamber  and  garret  were  divided  into  several  bedrooms, 
and  a  wing  was  added  to  the  school-house  as  a.  residence 
for  the  master.  The  passage  to  the  chamber  and  garret 
was  by  a  circular  staircase  in  a  tower  erected  outside  the 

*  e.g.,  for  the  meeting  of  the  trustees  and  vestry.     See  /.  323. 


school-house,  but  the  building  of  the  wing,  by  enclosing 
within  itself  the  foot  of  the  staircase,  completely  shut  out 
all  access  to  the  chamber  and  garret,  unless  by  passing 
through  the  master's  house.  The  trust  deed  of  1740  put 
the  master  into  possession  of  "  the  school-house,  with  the 
improvements  lately  made  thereto,"  and  no  further  mention 
is  made  in  that,  or  any  subsequent  deed,  of  the  chamber 
and  garret,  so  that  the  whole  has  been  in  the  possession 
of  the  master  for  more  than  130  years  ;  and  in  1825  the 
Court  of  Chancery  decreed,  "That  the  master  should 
have  the  school-house  for  his  residence." 

It  has  been  already  mentioned  that  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  IV.  a  licence  was  granted  to  found  a  Chauntry 
in  Enfield  Church,  called  "Blossom's  Chauntry,"  which 
might  be  endowed  with  10  marks  per  annum.  It  was 
apparently  with  this  intent  that  in  1471  (n  Edw.  IV.), 
Robert  Ingleton  conveyed  to  Edmund  Causton,  Vicar  of 
Enfield,  John  Bristowe,  and  others  the  Manor  of  Poynetts 
or  Poynants,  which  had  belonged  to  R.  Blossom,  but 
there  is  no  delaration  of  trusts. 

It  is  clear  that  an  estate  described  as  consisting  of  three 
messuages  and  740  acres  of  land,  must  have  been  worth 
far  more  than  10  marks  per  annum,  but  there  is  no 
mention  in  the  deed  of  the  Chauntry,  nor  anything  to 
indicate  the  purposes  to  which  the  remaining  rents  were 
to  be  applied. 

In  1491  (7  Hen.  VII.),  on  the  death  of  Edmund 
Causton,  the  vicar,  John  Bristowe  and  others  conveyed 


Poynetts  to  fresh  feoffees.  In  1500(16  Henry  VII.), 
John  and  Agnes  Spottell  conveyed  it  to  John  Hobel, 
Vicar  of  Enfield,  and  others.  In  1501  John  Hobel  con- 
veyed to  Thomas  Sawyer  and  Margerie  his  wife,  John 
Honesbie  and  Agnes  his  wife,  and  William  Spottell. 
From  them  it  passed  to  Roger  Carewe  or  Crowe  (as 
appears  by  record  of  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  15  Henry 
VII.),  and  from  him  to.  his  son  John  Carewe.  or  Crowe. 
In  1506  (21  Henry  VII.),  John  Carewe  or  Crowe 
conveyed  the  Manor  of  Poynetts  (which  is  still  described 
as  three  messuages  and  740  acres  of  land)*  to  Wm. 
Ockburn,  John  Goddard,  William  Woodam,  Robert 
Alford,  and  others,  but  there  is  no  trust  declared  or 
schedule  appended,  and  as  far  as  the  documents  in  the 
possession  of  the  trustees  are  concerned,  there  is  nothing 
to  support  the  statement  that  John  Carewe  founded  a 
school  or  did  anything  but  convey  the  estate  to  new 
feoffees,  on  the  same  conditions  as  before.  There  can  be 
no  doubt  but  that  Poynetts  was  charged  originally  with 
the  payment  of  ten  marks  for  a  chauntry  priest,  though  it 
is  somewhat  remarkable  that  in  a  presentation, t  made  by 
the  Churchwardens  of  Enfield  early  in  the  i6th  century? 
of  "  the  chauntries,  &c.,  within  the  Church,"  no  mention 
is  made  of  Blossom's  Chauntry  amongst  the  rest.  At  any 

*  The  present  estate  is  by  survey  273  acres. 
t  See  p.  132  supra. 


rate,  the  surplus  rents  were  at  the  disposal  of  the  Church- 
wardens. An  indenture  made  in  1520  records  that  "the 
"Churchwardens,  with  the  assent  of  all  the  inhabitants  of 
"  the  said  parish,  and  to  the  use  and  profit  of  the  said 
"  parish  church  have  bargained  and  sold  to  Avery  Rawson 
"and  Thomas  Geffery,  the  wood  belonging  and  apper- 
taining to  the  said  Churchwardens,  in  right  of  the  parish 
"  church  of  Enfield,  growing  in  a  wood  called  Ship- 
"  wrights  of  xxvii  acres,"  part  of  the  Poynett's  estate,  and 
there  is  a  similar  indenture  made  in  1532. 

In  the  ist  Edward  VI.,  1547,  Chauntries  were 
abolished  by  statute,  and  the  lands,  &c.,  belonging  to 
them  granted  to  the  king,  partly  with  a  view  to  founding 
schools.  Accordingly  in  1548,  the  King  sold  Poynetts 
to  Walter  Farr  and  Ralph  Standish  for  ^200,  but  as  the 
Court  of  Augmentations  decreed,  July  8,  1549,  that  the 
king's  title  was  doubtful,  the  purchase-money  was 
returned.  This  was  probably  on  the  ground  that  Poy- 
netts belonged  to  the  parish,  not  to  the  chauntry,  and 
that  the  king  could  claim  at  most  the  ten  marks  assigned 
to  the  Chauntry  Priest.  Meanwhile,  the  parish  continued 
in  possession  of  Poynetts,  and  by  a  deed,  January  7, 
4  and  5  Phillip  and  Mary,  1557,  John  Goddard,  William 
Woodham,  and  Robert  Alford  three  of  the  feoffees  named 
in  John  Carewe's  deed  of  1505,  convey  the  estate  to 
John  Butte  and  many  others  in  trust  for  the  purpose  of  a 
school  according  to  a  schedule  annexed.  This  deed  was 
never  executed,  and  Robert  Alford  having  died  in  April, 


the  two  survivors,  John  Goddard,  maltman,  and  William 
Woodham,  yeoman,  in  May  of  the  same  year,  after  a  recital 
of  title  extending  back  to  Thomas  Sawyer  and  others  in 
1501,  conveyed  to  Simon  Potter,  John  Butte  and  18  others, 
"  pro  et  in  consideration  cujusdam  schole  pro  eruditione 
et  instructione  puerorum  pauperum  inhabitantium  in 
Enefield  in  Litteris  Alphabeticis  et  Arte  Grammatical!, 
and  pro  aliis  considerationibus  in  quadam  schedula 
expressis  et  significatis." 

"  This  schedule  indented  and  made  in  the  yeare  of  our 
Lorde  God,  according  to  the  course  and  reckeninge  of  the 
Churche  of  Englande,  a  thousande  fyve  hundrede  fiftee  and 
eight,  and  in  the  fourth e  and  fiveth  yeares  of  the  raines 
of  our  Soveraigne  Lorde  and  Ladye  Phillipe  and  Marye," 
declares  the  intent  of  the  deed  of  feoffement  to  be  that  the 
feoffees  shall  "  gyve  and  paye  yearlie  to  a  schole  master 
to  teache  within  the  sayde  towne  of  Enfielde  the  children 
of  the  poor  inhabitants  to  knowe  and  read  their  alphabet 
letters  and  to  read  Laten  and  Englyshe,  and  to  understand 
grammar  and  to  wrigt  their  Lateines  according  to  the 
trade  and  use  of  grammar  scholes,  the  summe  of  six 
poundes  thirteen  shillings  and  foure  pence."  The 
Churchwardens  of  the  parish  church  were  to  be 
authorised  to  act  as  bailiffs  of  the  feoffees  to  collect  and 
gather  the  rents.  . 

In  40  Elizabeth,  1598,  the  estate  was  conveyed 
by  John  Taylor,  Simon  Potter,  and  others,  to  new 
feoffees,  Sir  Robert.  Wroth,  of  Durants,  his  son 
Robert  Wroth,  Esq.,  Vincent  Skinner,  Esq.,  and  others, 


with  the  same  directions  as  to  the  schoolmaster  and 
children,  and  also  to  "  give  and  distribute  unto  the  poor 
impotent  people  from  time  to  time,  inhabiting  in  the 
parish  of  Enfield,  or  unto  such  other  good  and  godly 
deeds,  intents,  and  purposes,  as  the  said  feoffees  should 
think  meete  and  convenient,  all  the  residue  of  the  rents 
and  proffitts  of  the  said  messuages,  lands,  &c.,  after 
providing  for  repairs  of  the  said  messuages  and  of  the 
"  schole  house  in  Endfield  now  of  late  new  built  there." 

If  the  rents  improved,  the  feoffees  might  at  their 
discretion  deal  more  liberally  with  the  schoolmaster  in 
respect  of  stipend,  always,  however,  having  regard  and 
consideration  of  the  other  good  and  godly  uses  and  pur- 
poses expressed. 

In  1619  Sir  Nicholas  Salter,  Nicholas  Raynton,  and 
Benjamin  Deycrowe  purchased  for  p£ioo  is.,  the  claims 
of  the  crown  upon  Poynetts,  which,  after  lying  dormant 
for  some  time,  had  been  revived,  and  by  letters  patent  of 
James  I.,  1615,  sold  to  Edmund  Duffield  and  John 
Babington,  and  which  from  them  had  passed  to  Thomas 
Kenethorpe,  of  London.  Though  the  terms  of  James' 
grant  were  muchmore  extensive,  it  seems  tolerably  certain 
that  what  he  really  did  grant  was  "  the  sums  of  money 
issuing  out  of  certain  lands,  tenements,  or  hereditaments 
in  the  parishes  of  South  Benfleet  and  given  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  singing  chaplain  or  priest  in  the  parish 
church  of  Enfield,"  belonging  to  the  king,  "  by  reason  of 
the  Statute  of  Colleges  of  Singers,  ist  Edward  VI." 


Some  years  before,  in  1596,  38  Elizabeth,  the  then 
feoffees,  John  Taylor,  Simon  Potter  and  others,  had 
let  all  that  messuage  at  South  Benfleet,  &c.,  exclusive 
of  wood  and  underwood,  and  reserving  to  themselves 
"  all  rights  of  hawkinge,  huntynge,  fishinge,  and  foul- 
inge,"  for  twenty-one  years,  at  a  yearly  rent  of  ^35 
for  eleven  years,  and  of  £3  7  for  the  remainder  of  the 
term.  It  is  hardly  credible  that  an  estate  of  this  value 
could  have  been  sold  for  ^100,  nor  is  there  anything  to 
show  that  it  had  ever  passed  out  of  the  possession  of  the 
parish,  or  that  the  school  was  not  kept  up  continuously 
from  1558.  Bradshawe  is  mentioned  as  master  in  1600, 
and  Richard  Ward  in  1606-7. 

Shortly  after  the  purchase  from  Thomas  Kenethorpe, 
by  a  new  trust  deed  of  ist  September,  1621,  Hugh 
Mascull  and  thirteen  other  feoffees  are  directed  to 
pay  £20  yearly  to  a  learned,  meet,  and  competent 
master  to  teach  the  children  of  all  the  inhabitants  of 
Enfield  the  cross-row  or  alphabetical  letters,  and  the  arts 
of  writing,  grammar,  and  arithmetic,  and  to  employ  the 
residue,  after  providing  for  repairs,  for  the  relief  of  poor 
orphans,  and  other  poor  and  impotent  people  of  the 
parish,  and  for  any  other  good  and  charitable  purposes. 

The  feoffees  were  to  do  nothing,  with  regard  to  the 
property  of  the  school,  or  the  appointment  or  dismissal  of 
the  master,  except  in  a  vestry,  at  which  ten  at  least  of  the 
parishioners,  not  being  feoffees,  must  be  present,  to  be 
held  in  the  chamber-  above  the  school,  after  public  notice  in 
the  church  on  the  preceding  Sunday.  Whenever  the 


number  of  feoffees  was  reduced  to  five,  four,  or  three,  at 
the  least,  fourteen  new  ones  were  to  be  chosen  by  the 

The  school  continued  to  be  managed  according  to  the 
provisions  of  this  trust  till  the  year  1825,  when  a  new 
scheme  was  established  by  the  Court  of  Chancery  on  the 
termination  of  legal  proceedings  between  the  master  and 
trustees,  which  had  lasted  seven  years.  This  provided, 
"  inter  alia,"  "  That  the  master  be  required  to  teach  and 
instruct  the  children  of  the  inhabitants  in  the  school-house, 
in  the  arts  of  reading,  writing,  grammar,  and  arithmetic,  on 
every  day  in  the  week  (except  Sunday),  from  9  a.m.,  to 
12,  and  from  2  p.m.  to  5  p.m.,  except  in  the  afternoons 
of  Wednesday  and  Saturday,  and  except  one  month  in 
the  summer  and  one  in  the  winter  ;  and  the  same  master 
or  the  usher  shall  attend  the  scholars  to  and  during 
Divine  service  at  the  parish  church  ot  Enfield  on  Sundays 
and  prayer-days." 

When  the  number  of  scholars  reached  60,  on  the 
average  of  five  months,  the  master  was  to  receive  a 
salary  of  ^120  per  annum,  and  might  appoint  an  usher, 
subject  to  the  approval  of  the  trustees,  who  were  to  pay 
him  ^50  per  annum. 

The  Inspector  under  the  Schools'  Inquiry  Commission 
says,  in  his  report,  "  The  history  of  this  school,  during 
one-half  century,  affords  a  notable  example  of  the 
disastrous  results  of  ill-defined  relations  and  consequent 
conflicts  between  the  masters  and  governing  bodies  of 

endowed  schools.  Since  the  year  1818,  the  Trustees 
have  been  continually  engaged  in  litigation,  the  result  of 
which  has  been  to  saddle  the  charity  with  a  debt  of 
^£650,  incurred  for  costs,  and  to  paralyse  the  action  of 
the  school."  In  1873  the  Trustees  having  no  funds  for 
the  repair  of  the  school  premises,  which  were  reported  to 
be  unfit  for  school  use,  and  having  no  power  under  the 
Trust  Deed  to  levy  capitation  fees,  determined,  with  the 
consent  of  the  Vestry,  to  close  the  school  for  a  time  and 
apply  to  the  Endowed  School  Commissioners  for  a  new 
scheme,  which  has  been  prepared  and  is  now  under  the 
consideration  of  the  parish. 

The  income  of  the  school  arising  from  the  Poynett's 
Estate,  at  Benfleet,  of  273  acres,  and  from  90  acres,  part 
of  the  Edward's  Hall  Estate,  bought  in  1817,  with  the 
accumulations  from  sale  of  timber  at  Poynetts,  has 
amounted  of  late  years  to  about  ^280,  but  is  likely 
to  increase. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  masters  of  the  Free 
School :— 

—  Bradshawe  was  master  in  1600,  at  a  salary  of  ,£20 
per  annum. 

Thomas  Taylor  was  appointed  master  in  the  same 
year,  on  the  death  of  Bradshawe. 

Richard  Ward,  in  1606-7,  and  was  put  into  the  deed 
of  1621,  and  continued  master  until  1647. 

William  Holmes  was  the  next  master.  He  died  in 
1664,  and  was  succeeded  by 

William  Nelson,  clerk. 


Robert  Uvedale,  L.L.D.,  Fellow  of  Trin.  College,  Cam- 
bridge, was  master  in  1670. 
—  Harper  in  1700. 

John  Allen  in  1732. 

Daniel  Shipton,  in  1761. 

Samuel  Hardy,  M.A.,  was  appointed  in  1762;  he 
resigned  in  1791,  and  died  in  1793. 

John  Milne  (Member  of  the  University  of  Aberdeen), 
was  appointed  in  1791.  He  died  in  1836. 

James  Emery  succeeded  in  1831,  and  was  called  upon 
to  resign  in  1846.  This  led  to  a  trial  in  the  Court  of 
Common  Pleas,  in  which  a  verdict  was  returned  for 

Charles  Chambers  was  elected  i4th  December,  .1846, 
but  as  Emery  would  not  vacate  the  school-house  till  a 
compensation  of  ^450  was  paid  him,  Chambers  did 
not  enter  upon  his  duties  till  the  following  year. 

An  attempt  to  remove  Mr.  Chambers  from  the  master- 
ship in  1858,  after  a  public  inquiry  by  authority  of  the 
Charity  Commissioners,  led  to  a  Chancery  suit,  which  left 
Mr.  Chambers  in  possession.  The  costs  were  paid  by  a 
mortgage  upon  the  estates. 



(i.)  THE  NATIONAL  SCHOOLS  for  boys  and  girls  in 
London-road,  were  built  by  subscription,  without  any 
Government  aid,  in  1839.  In  1868,  a  Class  Room  and 
Infant's  School-room  were  added.  They  are  now  attended 
by  120  boys,  70  girls,  and  70  infants,  who  are  taught 
by  a  master,  mistress,  and  infant  school  mistress,  all 
certificated,  together  with  an  assistant  master  and  two 
pupil  teachers. 

They  are  annually  examined  by  one  of  H.  M. 
Inspectors,  and  have  for  many  years  received  the  most 
favourable  reports. 

They  are  under  the  management  of  a  committee  of 
gentlemen  and  ladies,  of  which  the  Vicar  is  chairman, 
and  P.  Twells,  Esq.,  treasurer. 

(2.)  The  S.  MICHAEL'S  SCHOOL,  Gordon  Estate,  was 
built  in  1870,  as  the  small  room  previously  used,  was  not 
found  sufficient.  About  150  children  are  taught  by  a 
certificated  mistress,  assistant,  and  two  pupil  teachers. 

(3.)  A  NEW  SCHOOL-ROOM  for  60  infants  was  built  in 
1872,  in  Gordon-lane,  Baker-street,  on  ground  given  by 
Trinity  College. 

(4.)  Another  INFANT  SCHOOL,  also  in  connection  with 
the  Parish  Church,  is  held  in  Love's-row,  in  a  hired 
building,  formerly  used  as  a  dissenting  chapel. 

(5.)  The  CHURCH  SCHOOL  OF  INDUSTRY,  established 
in  1800,  under  the  management  of  a  committee  of  ladies, 
for  the  industrial  training  of  30  girls,  is  carried  on  in  a 
building  in  the  Churchyard,  belonging  to  the  Free 
School,  formerly  known  as  the  Old  Coffee-house, 


In  the  district  of  S.  JAMES',  Highway,  there  are, — 

(i.)  A  SCHOOL  FOR  160  BOYS,  with  a  master's  house, 
built  in  1872,  near  the  Church,  under  a  certificated 
master  and  three  pupil  teachers. 

(2.)  GIRLS'  AND  INFANTS'  SCHOOL,  at  the  Highway, 
for  260  children,  taught  by  a  certificated  mistress,  and 
four  pupil  teachers. 

(3.)  A  MIXED  SCHOOL,  in  South-street,  for  120 
children,  under  a  certificated  mistress,  assistant,  and  two 
pupil  teachers. 

(4.)  A  SCHOOL-ROOM  at  the  end  of  Lock-lane,  not  yet 

for  boys,  girls,  and  infants,  with  three  certificated  teachers 
and  seven  pupil  teachers,  supported  by  the  War  Office. 
They  supply  accommodation  for  more  than  500  children. 

In  the  district  of  JESUS  CHURCH,  Forty-hill,  are  boys' 
and  girls' schools,  built  in  1851,  and  enlarged  in  1868, 
so  as  to  accommodate  140  children,  with  a  certificated 
master  and  mistress.  There  is  also  a  school  for  infants 
near  Maiden's-bridge,  built  and  supported  by  James 
Meyer,  Esq. 

In  connection  with  S.  JOHN'S,  Clay-hill,  is  a  school  for 
60  children,  built  in  1859,  near  the  Church. 

In  the  district  of  CHRIST  CHURCH,  Cockfosters,  are 
girls'  and  infant  schools,  built  by  D.  Bevan,  Esq.,  in  1840, 
and  a  school  for  boys,  built  by  subscription,  in  1859, 
providing  altogether  for  180  children. 


The  No.  of 

The  population  of  the  Parish  of  Enfield  Houses. 

by  the  Census  of  1 81 1  was...     6,636  ijUS 

„  1821         ...     8,227  1,309 

1841         ...     9,367  1,706 

1851         ...     9,453  *>**7 

„  1861         ...   12,410  2,308 

1871         ...   16.053  2,895 

Previous  to  1811  we  can  only  approximate  to  the 
population.  In  1793  there  were  said  to  be  about  920 
houses;  in  1801,  926.,  The  average  of  burials  during 
the  last  20  years  of  the  eighteenth  century  (144),  was 
somewhat  larger  than  during  the  first  20  years  of  the 
present  (136),  but  it  is  clear  that  the  mortality  was  much 
greater  in  proportion  to  the  population. 

According  to  the  return  of  the  Registrar  of  Births, 
Deaths,  and  Marriages,  there  were  in  the  parish  of 

BIRTHS.       DEATHS.     In  Church.       In  Registered 

In  the  year   ending  Buildings. 

March    21,    1869. ..548          221  60  8 

1871. ..482         373  52  7 

„  1873. ..657          244  60  6 

In  the  two  first  quarters  of  1873  there  were  registered 
276  births,  and  113  deaths. 

The  population  in  1871  was  thus  divided  amongst 
the  several  districts  : — S.  Andrew's,  5,087  ;  S.  James', 
Highway,  8,027;  Jesus,  Forty-hill,  1,213;  S.  John's, 
Clay-hill,  997  ;  Christ  Church,  Trent,  730. 



Enfield  belongs  to  the  Edmonton  Poor  Law  Union, 
and  has  eight  elected  guardians. 

The  rateable  value  of  the  parish  was  in  1821,  ,£32,599  ; 
in  1871,  ^"68,981. 

The  rate  levied  for  the  relief  of  the  poor  was,  in  1821, 
2S.  id.  in  the  pound;  in  1871,  23.  3d.  in  the  pound. 

The  whole  control  of  the  draining,  lighting,  paving, 
&c.,  of  the  parish  is  vested  in  the  Local  Board  of  Health, 
which  was  constituted  August  19,  1850,  under  the  pro- 
visions of  the  Public  Health  Act  (1848).  There  are  twelve 
members,  of  whom  four  retire  every  year.  James 
Meyer,  Esq.,  has  been  chairman  from  the  beginning. 
The  rate  was,  in  1873,  35.  in  the  pound. 



A  congregation  of  Presbyterian  Dissenters  was  estab- 
lished in  Enfield  as  early  as  1687,  by  Obadiah  Hughes, 
an  ejected  minister,  and  son  of  George  Hughes,  Vicar  of 
Tavistock.  At  that  time  they  held  their  meetings  in  a 
barn,  but  on  the  passing  of  the  Toleration  Act  a  meeting- 
house was  built  in  Baker-street,  and  Mr.  Hughes  was 
chosen  pastor  in  1688-9.  The  society  took  a  lease  of  the 
ground  in  1702,  when  the  meeting-house  was  rebuilt.  In 
1752  the  freehold  was  purchased  for  ^200,  and  con- 
veyed to  trustees.  In  1771  it  underwent  considerable 
repairs  and  alterations,  and  was  newly  floored  and  pewed. 
The  present  chapel  is  the  third  erected  upon  the  same 
site,  and  is  capable  of  holding  about  400  people.  School- 
rooms adjoining  were  built  in  1860,  at  an  expense  of 
^350.  The  present  minister  is  the  Rev.  S.  J.  Smith,  B.A. 


This  chapel  was  opened  in   1768.     The  first  minister 
was  the  Rev.  Mr.  Alliston,  of  London  ;  he  was  succeeded . 
by  the  Rev.  John  Knight,  who  continued  .for  20  years.. 
In  1825  the  Rev.  G.  Clarke,  of  London,  was  chosen,  and 
remained  till  his  death,  a  period  of  seven  years. 



The  original  Congregational  Chapel  at  Chase-side, 
known  as  Zion  Chapel,  was  built  in  1780,  and  opened  on 
the  7th  of  June.  The  ground  was  purchased  by  Matthias 
Peter  Dupont,  landlord  of  the  Castle  and  Falcon,  in 
Aldersgate-street,  who  erected  the  present  building,  with 
the  assistance  of  contributions  amounting  to  ^240. 
Tavern-keepers  are  so  seldom  •  church-builders,  that 
his  name  deserves  to  be  recorded.  Messrs.  Woodgate 
and  Midley  opened  the  chapel  by  two  sermons,  each 
being  an  hour  and  a  half  in  length.  Yet  abundant 
as  was  the  mental  fare,  it  was  supplemented  by  a  no  less- 
substantial  repast  at  the  George  Inn,  where  an  item 
of  ^"3  for  coach-hire,  and  another  of  ^£4  125., 
"  expenses  of  ministers  at  the  George,"  bear  witness  to 
the  hospitality  of  the  genial  and  pious  founder.  The 
events  of  the  day  are  duly  chronicled  in  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine,  p.  295.  The  first  minister  appears  to  have 
been  a  Mr.  Whitefoot,  on  whose  induction  a  similar 
liberality  was  exercised,  the  earliest  entry  in  the  chapel 
books  being  "  chaise  for  ministers  to  attend  the  ordination 
of  Mr.  W.  Whitefoot,  £i  IDS. — expenses  at  the  George, 

£*  13*." 


In  the  year  1793,  in  consequence  of  a  schism  among 
the  brethren,  the  seceding  party  built  the  adjoining  Chase- 
side  Chapel.  The  present  structure  was  erected  in  1832. 


In  December,  1871,  at  a  united  meeting  of  the  two  con- 
gregations, called  for  the  purpose,  a  resolution  was  passed 
"  that  the  members  and  office-bearers  of  Zion  and  Chase- 
side  Churches  do  hereby  unite  to  form  one  church," 
after  which  the  Rev.  H.  S.  Toms  was  chosen  to  the 
united  pastorate,  the  venerable  Mr.  Stribling  retiring  on 
his  full  stipend,  after  40  years  of  faithful  service. 

It  is  now  in  contemplation  to  build  a  new  chapel  large 
enough  for  the  accommodation  of  the  two  congregations, 
which  have  been  so  long  dissevered.* 


The  Congregational  Chapel  at  the  Highway,  with 
school-rooms  adjoining,  was  opened  in  1854. 


This  congregation  took  its  origin  from  itinerant 
preachers,  who  some  twenty  years  ago  collected  a  number 
of  hearers  on  Chase-green,  and  afterwards  took  a  barn  at 
the  Holly-bush,  which  thiey  fitted  up  as  a  temporary 
chapel,  where  they  continued  to  meet  till  on  the  receipt 
of  a  liberal  donation  from  Mrs.  Tolputt  (the  wife  of  a 
clergyman  of  the  Church  of  England),  they  raised  by 
additional  subscriptions  a  sufficient  amount  for  the  erec- 
tion of  the  present  chapel,  a  neat,  unpretending  building, 
which  was  opened  on  the  28th  October,  1858. 

*  From  a  paper  by  Rev.  H.  S.  Toms. 



The  Wesleyan  Methodist  Chapel,  in  Cecil-road,  was 
built  in  the  year  1864.  The  land  was  given  for  the 
purpose  by  Mr.  Cave,  of  Enfield,  who  also  contributed 
liberally  towards  the  cost  of  the  building,  the  amount  of 
which,  ,£1,030,  was  raised  by  subscription.  It  is  calcu- 
lated to  accommodate  230  sitters.  There  is  no  settled 


The  Baptist  congregation  in  Enfield  was  formed  on  the 
loth  June,  1867,  and  for  a  short  time  held  its  meetings 
in  the  Assembly-room  at  the  "  Rising  Sun,"  but  receiving 
notice  to  quit  from  the  landlord,  and  being  unable  to 
obtain  any  other  room  for  the  purpose,  they  erected  the 
present  iron  building  in  the  London-road,  which  was 
opened  on  the  third  of  December  the  same  year. 


The  Baptist  chapel  in  the  Totteridge-road  was  opened 
in  1872. 

There  are  also  chapels  at  BOTANY  BAY  and  WHITE 
WEBBS,  chiefly  supplied  from  Lady  Huntingdon's  College 
at  Cheshunt. 

Religious  services  are  held  at  the  MISSION  ROOM, 
Baker-street,  conducted  by  the  London  City  Missionary. 

Services  are  also  held  in  a  room  on  CHASE  GREEN, 
near  the  river,  by  the  PLYMOUTH  BRETHREN. 



Some  years  ago  a  Roman  Catholic  gentleman  purchased 
a  commodious  site,  with  ample  space  for  church  and 
presbytery,  and  having  a  frontage  to  the  London  and 
Cecil-roads.  Upon  this  ground  a  building  was  erected, 
in  which,  for  the  present  requirements  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  residents,  numbering  about  50,  mass  is  said  by 
the  priest  from  Waltham  Cross  on  Sundays  and  holy  days 
of  obligation,  by  the  direction  of  the  Archbishop  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Diocese. 


The  BRITISH  SCHOOLS,  at  Chase-side,  were  built,  with 
the  assistance  of  a  Government  grant  of  ^200,  at  a  cost 
of  £i  100,  in  the  year  1838,  when  the  first  stone  was  laid 
by  Lord  Brougham.  At  this  time  there  was  no  school 
for  boys  in  Enfield,  except  the  Grammar  School.  The 
building  was  opened  on  the  ipth  November  in  the  same 
year,  on  which  day  80  boys  and  30  girls  were  entered  on 
the  books.  The  adjoining  houses  for  the  master  and 
mistress  were  built  in  1857.  During  the  34  years  that 
the  schools  have  been  in  existence,  above  1,400  boys, 
and  1,050  girls  have  been  admitted.  The  education  is 
wholly  unsectarian,  no  creed  or  catechism  being  used,  and 


the  only  text-book  for  religious  instruction  being  the 
Bible.  The  children  are  expected  to  attend  the  Sunday 
services  at  whatever  place  of  worship  may  be  selected  by 
their  parents. 

Mr.  Wakley,  who  has  been  the  master  from  the  com- 
mencement of  the  school,  received  a  Government  certifi- 
cate last  year  (1872).  The  mistress  has  since  obtained 
one,  and  both  schools  will  now  participate  in  the  advan- 
tages offered  by  the  Education  Act. 

The  present  number  of  children  on  the  books  is,  98 
boys  and  74  girls. 

The  joint  secretaries  are  Rev.  S.  J.  Smith,  Baker-street 
Chapel,  and  Rev.  H.  S.  Toms,  Chase-side  Chapel. 

The  BAKER  STREET  INFANT  SCHOOL  was  established 
in  1846.  It  is  conducted  by  a  committee  of  ladies,  who 
are  elected  yearly  by  the  subscribers.  The  average 
number  of  children  who  attend  is  about  50. 

Schools  have  lately  been  opened  in  connection  with  the 
BAPTIST  CHAPEL  in  the  Totteridge-road. 

There  is  also  an  INFANT  SCHOOL  at  Ponder's-end. 


THE  following  account  of  the  Enfield  Charities  is 
taken  from  that  drawn  up  in  1789  by  the  Vicar  and 
Churchwardens  and  Overseers,  and  published  by  their 
authority.  As  this  is  the  original  document  from  which 
all  subsequent  statements  have  been  adopted,  it  has  been 
thought  best  to  reprint  it  verbatim,  with  the  addition  of 
"  NOTES,"  which  have  been  supplied  by  Mr.  Purdey,  the 
Vestry  Clerk,  and  of  an  appendix  containing  gifts  of  a 
later  date,  thus  completing  the  record  down  to  the 
present  time. 

A  PARTICULAR  of  the  several  charitable  gifts,  rents, 
and  revenues  belonging  to  the  parish  of  Enfield,  in  the 
county  of  Middlesex  ;  with  the  names  of  the  donors,  for 
what  uses  to  be  disposed  of,  according  to  the  wills  of  the 
donors,  and  constitutions  of  every  respective  gift  and 

Abstract  of  deeds  of  trusts,  wills  of  the  donors,  and 
orders  of  Vestry. 


|-'ll<<T    (IlFT. PoYNKl's. 

A  farm,  called  Poynet's,  in  South  Benfleet,  Hadleigh, 
and  Thundersly,  in  the  county  of  Essex,  formerly  lett  at 
^55  per  annum  (now  on  lease  from  Michaelmas,  1786, 
for  fourteen  years,  at  £80  per  annum),  .which  the  feoffees 
in  trust  shall  from  time  to  time  for  ever  dispose  and  pay. 
as  followeth — viz.,  £20  part  of  the  rents,  issues,  and 
profits  thereof  yearly,  for  and  towards  the  maintenance 
of  a  learned,  meet,  and  competent  schoolmaster,  to'keep 
a  free  school  for  the  teaching  and  instructing  of  the 
•children  of  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield, 
in  the  cross-row,  or  alphabetical  letters,  and  in  the  art  of 
:  writing,  and  in  the  arts  of  grammar  and  arithmetic,  within 
the  town  and  parish  aforesaid,  in  the  new-built  "school 
there  (which  school,  and  house  for  the  schoolmaster  to 
dwell  in,  the  parishioners  purchased  and  built  at  their  own 
proper  costs  and  charges),  to  be  paid  quarterly — viz.,  at 
Lady-day,  Midsummer -day,  Michaelmas-day,  and  Christ- 
mas-day, orwithin  twenty-eight  days  next  after  any  of  them; 
and  all  the  residue  thereof  for  and  towards  the  relief  of  poor 
orphans,  and  other  poor  and  impotent  people  of  the  said 
parish  for  the  time  being,  and  to  any  other  good  and 
useful  uses,  to  be  done  and  performed  within  the  said 
parish,  except  so  much  thereof  as  shall  be  sufficient  to 
pay  and  discharge  all  such  other  charges  and  expenses  as 
shall  from  time  to  time  grow  to  be  due  and  payable,  or 
upon  any  other  meet  or  reasonable  occasion  to  be  laid 

out  for,  upon,  about,  or  by  reason  of  the  said  premises. 
When  the  feoffees  are  dead,  to  five,  four,  or  three  at  the 
least,  this  feoffment  to  be  renewed. 

N.B. — There  has  been  received  several  sums  for  timber 
cut  on  this  estate. 

Particular  of  the  annual  receipts  and  disbursements  of 
each  gift. 

Annual  Receipt. 

Annual  Application. 

£   f-  d. 

£    '•    d- 

A  Year's  Rent  80    o    o 

To  the  Schoolmaster*  20    o    o 

To  the  Lecturer*     ...  26    o    o 

Land  Tax,  about     ...     3     o    o 

Quit     Rent     to     the 

Manor  of  Hadleigh     I     2     6 

Ditto  to  South  Ben- 

fleet       128 

Charges  of  repairing 

marsh   walls,   on    a 

medium         i     o    o 


To     be     applied    in 

repair  of  the  school  - 

house,   or    to  such 

uses    as    contained 

in  the  abstract     ...   27  14  10 

£So    o    o 

£80    o    o 



Farm-house  and  Land  of  Poynetts,  containing  270 
acres  in  South  Benfleet  and   Hadleigh,  let  on  21 

years  lease  from  29  September,  1853 150    o     o 

Edward's  Hall,  let  on  yearly  term    80    o     o 

Two  cottages  and  Field      8     o     o 

Dividend  on  £21  143.  4d.  3  percent,  consols  exparte 

Tilbury  and  Southend  Railway     9     9     o 


£247    9 

*  The  duty   of-  schoolmaster  and  lecturer  is  performed   by   one 



ROBERT  RAMSTON,  of  Chinckford,  in  the  county  of 
Essex,  gent.,  by  a  codicil  annexed  to  his  will,  bearing 
date  the  ist  of  August,  1585,  gave,  for  the  comfort  and 
relief  of  the  poor  people  of  the  parish  of  Enfield,  the  sum 
of  403.  to  be  paid  in  the  month  of  November,  yearly, 
for  ever,  to  the  Churchwardens  for  the  time  being. 

N.B. — This  gift  is  paid  by  Mr.  Patrick,  of  the  Dividend 
Office  in  the  Banlc  of  England. 

It  is  now  paid  by  Lord  Maynard. 

Annual  Receipt.                               Annual  Application. 

£  s.  d. 

£    '. 


A  Year's  Gift  Money 

By  an  allowance  for 

of     George    How- 

Land  Tax     o    6 


land,      Esq.,     due 

Bread     given     away 

yearly  on  the   12th 

every  other  Sunday     I   14 


1  of  November       ...     2    o    o 


£2     o 



This  money  is  now  given  in   clothing  to   the  poor  at 


THOMAS  WILSON,  of  London,  brewer,  by  will  dated  the 
3oth  of  October,   1590,  gave  all  the  rents,  issues,  and 

profits  of  three  houses,  with  the  appurtenances,  being  in 
Whitechapel,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  on  the  south 
side  of  the -High-street  there,  near  the  Bars,  to  be  yearly 
for  ever  bestowed  on  six  poor. men  of  the  parish  of 
Enfield,  to  be  paid  to  them ,  quarterly,  or  within  one 
month,  which  said  houses  are  now  lett  on  lease  for  2  r ; 
years  from  Lady-day,  1786,  at  ,£8-2.  tos.  per  annum, 
clear  of  deductions  ;  and  that  the  same  poor  men  shall 
from  time  to  time  be  chosen  and  appointed  by  the 
Churchwardens  and  six  parishioners  of  the  said  parish,  of 
Enfield,  always  at  a  Vestry  ;  and  if  any  of  the  said  poor 
men  shall  go  to  dwell  out  of  the  parish,  or  decease,  or 
any  such  so  chosen  to  have  a  part  of  the  said  rents 
happening  to  be  wealthy,  or  able  to  live,  without  the 
same,  then,  from  time  to  time,  one  other  poor  person  or 
persons  of  the  said  parish  to  be  chosen  in  form  aforesaid, 
in  the  room  of  such  person  so  dying,  or  dwelling  out  of 
the  said  parish,  or  of  ability  to  live  without  it.  When 
feoifees  reduced  to  three,  the  feoffment  to  be  renewed  to 


One  of  these  houses  was  sold  under  Act  of 
Parliament  (42  Geo.  III.  c.  101),  to  the  trustees  of  the 
Commercial-road,  and  the  purchase-money, ,£2, 091  53.  8d. 
(invested  in  consols),  may  be  applied  to  the  purchase  of 
any  real  estate. 


Annual  Receipt. 

Annual  Application. 

£  s.  d. 

£  '•  * 

Of  Mr.    Daniel  Law- 

To six  poor  men,  at 

rence,  for  No.  I  ...  28  10    o 

£12  I2s.*  per  an- 

Of Mr.  Wm.  Wright, 

num  each  75  I2    ° 

for  No.  2      28     o     o 

To  re-pay  the  parish 

Of  Mr.  Bendahan,  for 

£16  os.    5d.,  ad- 

No. 3    26     o    o 

vanced  forinsuring 

the    premises    for 

seven  years,  from 

August,  1788     ...     4  II     6| 

Towards  a  fund  for 

keeping   the    pre- 

mises insured     ...     2     6     5^ 

£82  "10    o 

£82  10     o 

*  From  Michaelmas,  1 795,  this  sum  will  be  increased. 

t  This  insurance  cost  £32  os.  iod.,  the  half  of  which  was  paid 
out  of  the  rents  of  the  estate,  the  other  ^i  6  os.  $d.  was  advanced  by 
the  parish,  to  be  repaid  by  annual  payments  at  ^4  I  is.  6^d.  per 
annum,  which  expires  at  Lady-day,  1792,  from  which  time  to 
Michaelmas,  1 795,  when  the  present  insurance  expires,  it  is  to  be 
added  to  the  above £2  6s.  S^d-,  to  raise  a  sufficient  fund  to  keep 
the  premises  always  insured,  as  under  : — 

Three  years  and   a-half   to    Lady-day,    1792,    at 
£2  6s.  5^d.  per  annum       8     2    6^ 

Three  years  and  a  half  from  Lady-day,  1792,  to 

Michaelmas,  1795,  at  £6  i8s.  per  annum         ..24     3    a 

£32    5    W 


£     s.    d. 
Two  Messuages  in  High-street,  Whitechapel 160    o    o 

Dividend  on .£209 1  155.  8d.  3  per  cent.  Consols    ...     61     8     7 

£221     8     7 


WILLIAM  SMITH,  of  the  parish  of  Enfield,  in  the  county 
of  Middlesex,  yeoman,  by  will  dated  the  26th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1592,  gave  £4*  per  annum  for  ever,  to  be  paid 
to  the  Vicar  and  Churchwardens  of  the  Parish  Church  of 
Enfield  aforesaid,  for  the  time  being,  by  four  even 
portions,  viz.,  at  Christmas  205.;  at  Lady-day  205.;  and 
at  Midsummer  and  Michaelmas,  203.  each;  which  said 
money  in  such  sort  paid,  the  said  Vicar  and  Church- 
wardens, calling  unto  them  some  four  other  men  of  the 
same  parish,  shall,  within  six  days  after  every  such 
receipt,  distribute  it  among  the  poor  inhabitants  where 
most  need  is.  And  if  it  shall  chance  that  the  said  sums 
of  money,  or  any  of  them,  shall  be  in  the  whole  or  in  part 
unpaid  by  the  space  of  two  months  after  any  of  the  feasts 
wherein  they  should  be  due,  he  did  will  then  that  his 
house,  with  all  and  every  the  parcels  of  land  hereafter 
named,  should  be  demised  or  lett  out  from  time  to  time, 
by  the  said  Vicar  and  Churchwardens,  and  in  case  no 
Vicar,  the  Churchwardens  and  four  other  men,  at  such 
price  as  they,  or  the  greater  part  of  them,  shall  think 
good,  and  pay  the  rent  as  aforesaid,  viz.,  the  house  where 
John  White  did  dwell,  with  five  acres  of  pasture  adjoining 
to  the  same,  and  four  acres  of  pasture  near  Phipps  Hatch 
Gate,  and  three  acres  of  arable  in  Broadfield,  and  two 

*  There  is  now  only  received  ^3  135.  4d. ;  the  other  6s.   8d.  has 
been  lost  to  the  parish  many  years.  ' 


acres  in  Maypleton-field,  and  one  acre  called  a  five-rod 
acre,  at  or  near  Bullock's  Stile. 

Annual  Receipt. 

Annual  Application 





s.    d. 

Of  the    Overseers   of 

To  one  poor  woman, 

the    town    quarter, 

at     1  8s. 

4d.     per 

for   the   workhouse     o 



quarter  . 


13     4 

Of  Mr.   Shroder  one 

year       o 



Of  Mr.  Maurer         ...     i 



Of  ditto,  for  late  Jenks     I 







13     4 

•    [NOTE]. 
The  full  amount  of  this  charity  is  now  received,  viz. — 

£  s.  d. 

One  year's  rent  charge,  C.  Walford 216  8 

S.  L.  Lucena        o  10  o 

Overseers  for  Workhouse  Premises    ...     013  4 



JOHN  DAVID,  of  Enfield,  Middlesex,  yeoman,  by  will 
dated  the  2oth  of  November,  1620,  did  will  and  devise 
that  the  rents,  issues,  and  profits,  from  time  to  time 
coming,  growing,  and  arising  of  and  in  all  that  his  mes- 
suage or  tenement,  with  the  barns,  stables,  yards,  and 
outhouses  whatsoever  thereunto  belonging,  situate,  lying, 
and  being  on  the  left  side  of  the  Market-place  at  Enfield- 
green,  should  be  yearly  employed  and  bestowed  to  and 


upon  the  relief  of  four  poor,  aged,  and  well-disposed 
widows  of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield  for  ever,  to  be  paid 
unto  them  at  the  four  usual  feasts,  or  within  2 1  days  next 
after,  by  even  portions ;  and  that  the  same  poor  widows 
should,  from  time  to  time,  be  chosen  and  appointed  by 
the  Churchwardens  and  six  parishioners  of  the  said  parish, 
always  at  a  vestry  to  be  holden  at  the  said  parish  ;  and 
if  any  of  the  said  poor  widows  should  go  and  dwell  out 
of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield,  marry  or  decease,  then,  from 
time  to  time,  one  other  poor  widow  or  widows  of  the  said 
parish  should  be  chosen  in  manner  and  form  aforesaid, 
in  the  room  of  her  or  them  so  dwelling  out  of  the  said 
parish,  marrying,  or  deceasing.  There  are  six  feoffees, 
and  when  reduced  to  three  the  feoffment  to  be  renewed 
to  six. 

N.B. — The  estate  is  now  lett  on  lease  for  99  years, 
from  Midsummer,  1788,  at  ^40  per  annum. 

Annual  Receipt. 

Of  Mr.  John  Ostlife, 


the  lessee      40 


Annual  Application. 

£  * 

To  four  poor  women, 
at  £10  per  annum 
each  40  o 

£40    o    o 

N.B. — This  estate  used  to  be  lett  to  different  tenants  at  £48  los. 
per  annum,  but  great  part  thereof  being  so  old  and  decayed  as  to 
make  it  necessary  to  be  re-built,  the  same  was  lett  to  Mr.  Ostlife  at 
the  above  rent,  he  covenanting  to  expend  ,£500  in  repairing  or 
re-building  the  same. 

[For  Note  to  David's  Gift,  see  next  page.] 



Rent  of  Public  Offices  and   Houses  in  Market-place 

(£40— less  loss  of  Common  right,  £2  us.  od.)     ...  37     90 
Allotment  of  Chase  let  on  yearly  tenancy 6  12     o 

£44     i     ° 


JOHN  DEYCKOWE,  by  will  dated  the  25th  day  of  May, 
1627,  gave  a  moiety  of  his  messuage  or  farm,  situate  at 
or  near  a  street  in  Enfield,  called  Green-street,  and  of  all 
barns,  stables,  houses,  outhouses,  gardens,  orchards, 
lands,  tenements,  and  hereditaments  thereunto  belonging 
and  appertaining,  as  the  same  are  mentioned  in  a  certain 
presentment  or  survey  made  by  a  jury  at  a  court  holden 
for  the  Manor  of  Worcester,  to  be  held  freely  of  the  said 
manor,  to  Thomas  Sone,  his  heirs  and  assigns  for  ever, 
and  requires  him  and  them  for  ever  to  pay  thereout  to  the 
poor  of  the  parish  of  Enfield  £4  yearly,  by  205.  quarterly, 
to  be  paid  on  every  of  the  four  most  usual  quarter  days 
of  payment  in  the  year,  or  within  eight  days  next 
following,  to  the  Churchwardens  and  Overseers  of  the 
said  parish  of  Enfield  ;  and  they  calling  and  taking  unto 
them  two  others  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  parish, 
such  as  they  shall  think  well  of,  do  and  shall  give  and 
bestow,  dispose  and  distribute  the  said  203.  quarterly  to 
and  amongst  the  poor  people  of  Enfield  aforesaid  for  the 
time  being,  for  ever. 

Annual  Receipt. 

£    s.    d. 
Of  Mr.  Boddam      ...     4    o    o 


Annual  Application. 

£    J-     d. 

To  two  poor  women, 
at  IDS.  per  quarter 
each  4  o  o 



HENRY  LOFT,  of  Enfield,  Middlesex,  yeoman,  by  will 
dated  March  the  3rd,  1631,  gave  to  the  parish  of  Enfield 
the  sum  of  ^20  per  annum  for  ever — viz.,  ^12;  part 
thereof  to  be  paid  to  the  Minister  and  Churchwardens 
for  the  time  being,  to  and  for  the  only  use,  benefit,  and 
behoof  of  six  poor  widows,  to  be  chosen  after  his  decease 
by  the  said  Minister,  Churchwardens,  and  six  others  of 
the  vestrymen  of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield,  at  a  vestiy, 
equally  to  be  divided  amongst  the  said  six  poor  widows, 
at  the  four  most  usual  feasts  or  terms  in  the  year,  or 
within  14  days  next  ensuing  every  of  the  said  feast  days, 
by  even  portions  ;  and  if  any  of  the  said  poor  widows 
shall  depart  this  mortal  life,  or  go  to  live  out  of  the  said 
parish  to  dwell,  or  happen  to  be  married,  that  then  one 
other  poor  widow  to  be  chosen  in  her  stead  or  room  by 
the  said  Minister,  Churchwardens;  and  six  others  of  the 
vestrymen  of  the  same  parish  for  the  time  being,  at  a 
vestry  as  aforesaid ;  and  ^4,  another  part  thereof,  to  the 
said  Minister  and  Churchwardens,  at  the  days  and  times 
aforesaid,  to  and  for  the  use  and  only  benefit  and  behoof 


of  a  preacher  or  lecturer,  which  shall  preach  in  the  after- 
noon of  the  Lord's-day,  in  the  said  Parish  Church  of 
Enfield  (the  said  preacher  or  lecturer  for  the  time  being 
not  omitting  preaching  above  one  month  in  the  year  in 
the  said  Parish  Church);  and  £4,  the  other  part  thereof, 
at  Midsummer-day,  or  within  14  days  then  next  following, 
to  the  Minister  and  Churchwardens  as  aforesaid,  to  be 
bestowed  by  them  for  and  towards  the  cloathing  of  the 
poor  of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield,  or  providing  of  them 
such  necessary  apparel  as  they  shall  think  fitting ;  which 
said  sum  of  £20  is  to  be  paid  out  of  the  premises  here- 
after named — viz.,  one  messuage,  three  barns,  one  garden, 
one  orchard,  and  39  acres  and  a  half  of  land,  with  the 
appurtenances  situate,  lying,  and  being  at  Horsepool 
Stones,  in  the  parish  of  Enfield  aforesaid ;  also  one 
cottage  and  one  acre  of  land,  in  Baker-street,  then  in  the 
occupation  of  Robert  Morphew ;  and  also  one  close  of 
pasture,  called  Bullocks  Stile,  and  two  acres  and  a  half  of 
land,  then  in  the  occupation  of  Henry  Hunsdon,  the 
elder ;  and  also  of  and  in  two  and  twenty  acres  of  land, 
with  the  appurtenances,  lying  and  being  in  Chigwell,  in 
the  county  of  Essex,  then  in  the  tenure  of  Abraham 

Annual  Receipt.  Annual  Application. 

£    s.    d.    \  £    s.     d. 

Of  Benjamin  Crew  ...  20    o    o       To  six  poor   women, 

at  I  os.    per  quarter 

each       12    o    o 

To  the  Rev.    Samuel 

Hardy,  as  lecturer  .400 
To  the   Minister  and 
Churchwardens,   to 
cloathe  the  poor  ...     4     o     o 

£20    o     o 

£20    o     o 


The  lands  in  En  ft  eld  from  which  this  sum  is  paid  are 
numbered  on  the  parish  map — 1292,  1293,  1362,  1374, 
1608,  and  1894. 


GEORGE  COCK,  of  the  parish  of  St.  James,  Clerk  en  well, 
in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  brewer,  by  will  dated  the 
i6th  of  September,  1635,  gave  to  the  poor  of  the  parish 
ef  Enfield  the  sum  of  ^30  for  a  stock  for  the  increase  of 
profit  thereof  to  be  yearly  given  to  the  poor  of  Enfield  in 
bread,  with  which  said  sum  the  parishioners  purchased  a 
tenement,  with  a  little  close  of  pasture  ground  adjoining 
to  the  same,  at  Clay-hill,  in  the  said  parish  of  Enfield, 
and  it  is  disposed  of  for  bread  given  to  the  poor  on 

N.B. — The  tenement  is  in  the  possession  of  Thomas 
Richardson,  as  one  of  the  paupers  of  the  said  parish ; 
the  close  of  pasture  is  on  lease  to  Mrs.  Ann  Schroder 
for  31  years,  from  Michaelmas,  1762. 


In  the  year  1829  the  late  Mr.  Harman  agreed  with  the 
parish  to  exchange  the  above  property  for  premises  in 
Enfield  Town,  adjoining  the  Greyhound  Inn,  which 
exchange  was  accordingly  made  by  deed,  and  the 
premises  conveyed  to  trustees. 

Annual  Receipt. 
£    *•    d. 
Of   the   Overseers   of 

Annual  Application. 
£    s-     d- 
By  bread  given  away 

the    town    quarter, 

every  other  Sunday 

for  the  tenement  ...      I     8     o 

in  the  year    

2    II 


Of     Mrs.     Schroder, 

Quit     Rent     to     the 

for  the  close  I     4     o 

Manor  of  Worcester 

O      O 


£2    12      0 

£2    12 



1871.  £    s.    d. 

One  V'ear's  Rent  of  Commissioners  of  Police 15     o    o 

E.  Letchworlh,  Esq 12  10    o 

One  Year's  Rent  of  Allotment  of  Land  on  Enfield 

Chase 220 

£29  12     o 


SIR  NICHOLAS  RAYNTON,  Knt.,  and  Alderman  of  the 
City  of  London,  by  will  dated  May  the  2nd,  1646,  gave  to 
the  parish  of  Enfield  ,£10  per  annum  for  ever,  to  put  out 
three  poor  children,  born  in  the  town  of  Enfield,  appren- 
tices ;  which  said  sum  is  to  be  paid  to  the  Churchwardens 
for  the  time  being,  at  Michaelmas  in  every  year,  by  the 
Master  and  Four  Wardens  of  the  fraternity  of  the  art  and 
mystery  of  Haberdashers  in  Ix>ndon,  out  of  some  houses 


in  the  parish  of  St.  Kdmoncl  the  King,  in  Lombard-street, 

N.B.— Since  the  dreadful  fire  of  London  in   1666,  the 
Churchwardens  never  received  the  full  sum  o 


In  July.  1813,  the  attention  of  the  Vestry  was  called 
to  the  subject,  when  an  application  was  made  to  the 
Haberdashers'  Company  for  the  full  payment,  and  also 
for  the  arrears  for  the  last  35  years,  to  which  the  Company 
assented,  and  accordingly  paid  over  the  sum  of  ^70, 
which  was  invested  in  the  purchase  of  ^100  three  per 
Cents.,  in  the  names  of  trustees. 

Annual  Receipt.  Annual  Application. 

£    s.    d.  £    s.    d. 

Of  the  Haberdashers'  Binding    three     chil- 

Company      10     o     o  dren  apprentice,  at 

£2  135.  4d.  each  ...     8     o    o 
Land  Tax,  at  45.   in 

the  pound     2     o    o 

,£10    o    o  £10    o    o 

£    *•    d. 

Annuity  from  Haberdashers'  Company     10    o    o 

Dividend  on  Stock        3     o     o 


WILLIAM  BILLINGS,  of  Enfield,  Middlesex,  yeoman,  by 
will  dated  June  the  nth,  1659,  gave  205.  per  annum  for 
ever,  to  be  paid  to  the  Minister  and  Churchwardens  at 
Bartholomew-tide,  every  year,  for  and  towards  the 
cloathing  of  poor  children  of  the  said  parish  of  Enfield  ; 
which  said  money  is  to  be  paid  out  of  one  messuage  or 
tenement,  with  the  appurtenances,  and  the  closes  of 
several  pasture  grounds  thereunto  adjoining  and  belonging, 
situate,  lying,  or  being  near  unto  Cole's  Bridge,  near 
Clay  Hill,  in  the  parish  of  Enfield  aforesaid. 

This,  and  Ann  Osbourn's  Gift,  being  now  disposed  of 
together,  the  account  is  stated  in  No.  16. 


ROGER  GRAVE,  of  Enfield,  Middlesex,  yeoman,  by  will 
gave  405.  yearly  for  ever,  to  the  Schoolmaster  of  the  Free 
School  of  the  parish  of  Enfield  for  the  time  being,  for  and 
towards  his  recompence  for  teaching  and  instructing  the 
poor  children  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  parish  of  Enfield 
aforesaid  ;  to  be  paid  out  of  the  issues  and  profits  of  a 
certain  tenement,  with  the  appurtenances,  situate,  lying, 
and  being  by  the  New  River,  near  Forty-hill,  in  Enfield 
aforesaid ;  which  said  403.  is  to  be  paid  half-yearly,  by 
even  and  equal  portions. 


Annual  Receipt. 

Of  Richard  Gough, 
Esq.,  for  his  late 
house  at  Patten's 
Ware  . 



Annual  Application. 

£    s.     d. 

To  the  Rev.  Sam. 
Hardy,  the  School- 
master ..  200 


SIR  HENRY  WROTH,  in  consideration  of  his  inclosing 
part  of  Stonard  Field,  near  Ponder' s-end,  in  the  parish  of 
Enfield,  agreed  to  pay  the  parish  of  Enfield  £i  73.  6d. 
per  annum,  at  Michaelmas,  yearly,  to  one  or  more  of  the 
Churchwardens  for  the  time  being,  and  whosoever  enjoys 
the  same  are  to  pay  the  said  sum,  which  the  said  Church- 
wardens are  to  distribute  amongst  the  poor  people  of  the 
said  parish  of  Enfield,  as  they  at  their  discretions  shall 
think  fit. 

Annual  Receipt. 


Of  Mr.  Chapman,  for 
Durance  Estate    ...     I 


£i     7    6 

Annual  Application. 

£    s.    d. 

This  gift  is  usually 
received  and  distri- 
buted by the church- 
wardens of  Green- 
street  and  Ponder's- 
end  quarters I  7  6 

£i     7    6 


KING  JAMES  THE  FIRST  gave  to  the  parish  of  Enfield  a 
sum  of  money  in  consideration  for  his  taking  some  part 


of  Enfield  Chace  to  enlarge  Theobald's  Park,  with  which 
money  the  parishioners  of  Enfield  purchased  an  estate 
called  Marches  and  Devises,  in  the  parish  of  North 
Mimms,  in  the  county  of  Hertford,  and  which  is  now  lett 
on  lease  at  £18  i8s.  per  annum,  for  21  years  from 
Michaelmas,  1784,  which  rent  is  at  the  disposal  of  the 
parish.  When  the  feoffees  are  reduced  to  five,  four,  or 
three  at  the  least,  the  feoffment  to  be  renewed. 

Annual  Receipt. 

.£    *    d> 
Of  John  Philips,  the 

tenant   ...  ..     18  18     o 

£18  18     o 

Annual  Application. 

£    t.    d. 

Land  Tax 2     9     o 

To  be  disposed  of  at 
the  discretion  of  the 
Vestry 16  9  o 

18    o 


This  estate  was  sold  under  Act  of  Parliament  (48  Geo. 
III.  c.  156),  and  the  purchase-money  invested  in  Consols, 
till  in  the  year  ?8i6  the  trustees,  under  the  sanction  of 
the  Court  of  Chancery,  purchased  that  part  of  Edwards' 
Hall  lying  south  of  the  road  which  passed  through  the 
estate,  containing  94a.  2r.  34p.,  for  the  sum  of  ^1700, 
which  was  raised  by  the  sale  of  the  said  stock,  added  to 
the  sum  of  ,£341  133.  7d.,  at  that  time  owing  to  this  gift 
from  the  Benfleet  Estate.  The  rent  of  this  estate  is  "  at 
the  disposal  of  the  vestry  for  any  general  use  that  doth 
concern  the  town  and  parish  of  Enfield  or  the  poor 

The  rental  of  Edward's  Hall  is  ^50. 



JASPER  NICHOLS,  of  St.  Sepulchre's,  London,  yeoman, 
by  will  dated  the     .......     gave  £50  to  the 

poor  of  the  parish  of  Enneid,  with  which  money,  and  a 

benevolence  of  his   executors,  the  parishioners,  with  the 

consent  of  Thomas  Coats,    gent.,    and   Robert    Curry, 

citizen  and  cordwainer  of  London,  executors  of  the  said 

Jasper  Nichols,  have  purchased  an  estate,  lately  lett  at 

52s.    per   annum    (besides   the   quit   rent),    which   is    a 

messuage  or  tenement,   lately  called  or  known  by  the 

name  of  the   Bull  and  Bell,  situate,  lying,  and  being  at 

Horsepool  Stones  in   the  parish  of  Enneid,  with  several 

parcels  of  land  thereunto  belonging,  lett  to  Thomas  Hill 

on  lease  for  30   years,  from    Michaelmas,    1781;    525. 

whereof  is  to  be  paid  for  bread,  at  i2d.  per  \veek,  and 

thirteen  loaves  to  the  dozen,  and  given   to  the  poor  on 

Sundays,  according  to  the  will  of  the  said  Jasper  Nichols, 

deceased.     When  the  feoffees  are  reduced  to   five,  four, 

or  three  at  least,  the  feoffment  to  be  renewed. 

Annual  Receipt. 
Of  Thomas  Hill        ...  4 

Annual  Application. 

£     * 

Bread  given  away 
every  other  Sunday 

in  the  year    2  12 

Towards  the  paying 
of  a  forty  shilling 
gift  I  8 



This  land  was  let  on  building  leases  by  order  of  the 
Charity  Commissioners  in  1860,  for  terras  of  80  years, 
and  now  produces  ground-rents  to  the  amount  of 
A  part  is  still  not  built  upon. 


A  inessaage  or  tenement  called  the  KING'S  HEAD,  and 
the  MARKET  PLACE  thereunto  adjoining  •  also  a  close  of 
pasture  to  the  same,  with  the  market,  and  all  liberties, 
free  customs,  tolls,  stallage,  pickages,  fines,  amerciaments, 
and  all  the  shambles,  shops,  and  stalls,  for  the  use  of  the 
market,  with  the  market-house  there,  together  with  all 
the  ground  and  soil,  and  all  other  profits  whatsoever, 
formerly  lett  at  the  yearly  rent  of  £40  per  annum,  now 
divided  as  follows — viz.,  the  King's  Head  and  close  of 
pasture,  now  a  garden  and  bowling  green,  is  lett  to  David 
Walker,  as  tenant  at  will,  at  £20  per  annum.  The 
houses  on  the  west  side  of  the  Market-place,  and  the 
market,  &c. ,  are  lett  to  Thomas  Vaughan  on  lease  for 
57  years,  from  Christmas,  1789,  at  £12  per  annum,  and 
the  messuage  in  the  Churchyard  lett  to  George  Skegg  on 
lease  for  21  years,  from  Lady-day,  "1772,  at  £$  per 
annum.  And  whereas  by  one  indenture  of  feoffment, 
dated  October  the  24th,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1691, 
and  inrolled  in  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  at  West- 

minster,  in  that  Michaelmas  Term,  it  is  therein  particu- 
larly mentioned  and  expressed  that  the  feoffees  shall  and 
will  permit  and  suffer  such  person  or  persons  as  the 
Minister,  Churchwardens,  and  other  parishioners  of  the 
parish  of  Enfield  shall  nominate  and  appoint  to  receive 
the  rents,  issues,  and  profits  of  the  said  premises  ;  the 
same  to  be  distributed  to  the  only  proper  behoof,  use, 
and  benefit  of  the  poor  of  Enfield,  from  time  to  time, 
inhabiting  and  residing  in  the  said  town  of  Enfield,  in, 
such  manner  and  form  as  the  Minister,  Churchwardens, 
and  others  the  parishioners  of  the  said  parish  shall  from 
time  to  time  appoint.  The  Free-school  house,  and  small 
garden  thereto  belonging,  is  occupied  by  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Hardy,  as  schoolmaster  and  lecturer. 

Annual  Receipt. 

£    s.    d. 
Of  David  Walker,  for 

the  King's  Head  ...  20  o  o 
Of  Thomas  Vaughan  12  o  o 
OfGeo.  Skegg  ...  5  o  o 


Annual  Application. 

£    s.   d. 

By  Window  and  House 
Tax,  for  the  School- 
house          . .         . . .  10    8    4 
To  be  disposed  of  by 

order  of  Vestry    ...  26  u     8 

£37    o    o 


s.   d. 

King's  Head,  now  let  on  yearly  tenancy  to  George 

Baldwin       ..............         ...  58    o    o 

Allotment  on  Chase         ...        ...        ...        ...         ...410 



ANN  OSBOURN,  of  the  parish  of  St.  Saviour's,  Southwark, 
in  the  county  of  Surrey,  widow,  by  her  will  dated 
February  the  23d,  1666,  gave  to  the  parish  of  Enfield, 
Middlesex,  the  sum  of  ;£ioo  to  purchase  land,  which 
shall  remain  for  ever,  the  profits  thereof  arising  yearly  to 
be  bestowed  and  employed  every  year  for  the  relief  of 
poor  widows  that  are  of  good  report,  and  of  setting  to 
school  one  or  more  poor  child  or  children  that  are  either 
fatherless  or  motherless,  in  the  said  parish  of  Enfield, 
and  to  be  converted  to  no  other  use ;  and  the  parishioners 
did  add,  out  of  the  parish  rents,  £20  more,  and  pur- 
chased with  the  said  money*  one  messuage  or  tenement, 
since  pulled  down,  a  garden,  and  tvyo  acres  of  land,  in 
the  parish  of  Enfield  aforesaid,  at  or  near  Cole's-bridge,  and 
one  acre  and  a  half  of  meadow  jn  Wild-marsh,  and  one  acre 
of  land  in  Dung-field,  and  two  acres  of  land  in  the  same 
Dung-field,  called  Locker  Croft,  and  five  roods  of  land 
in  Long-field. 


At  the  time  of  the  Enclosure  Act  (41  Geo.  III.  c.  143), 
a  part  of  the  property  of  this  Charity  was  exchanged  by 

*  These  are  the  same  premises  as  were  charged  by  the  will  of 
Wjlliam  Billings  with  the  payment  of  2Os.  per  annum  to  the  parish 
of  Enfield. 


the  Commissioners  for  3a.  i2f.  lop.  of  land  at  the  bacR 
of  the  Workhouse,  numbered  1641  on  the  parish  map, 
and  now  rented  by  the  Edmonton  Union. 

Annual  Application, 
s.    d,  £    s.    dt 

Quit     Rent     to    the 

3  10    o  Manor  of  Chapless     076 

400       To  four  poor  widows, 
at  7s.  6d.  a  quarter 

each       6    o    Q 

To  the  Minister  and 
Churchwardens,  to 
be  bestowed  at  Bar- 
tholomew-tide, for 

Annual  Receipt. 


Of  Richard  Connop, 

one  year 
Of  [os.  Jennis,  ditto 

£7  I0 

cloathing  poor  chil- 

2      <5 
£7    10      Q 


One  year's  rent  of  Edmonton  Union 15     o     o 

Ditto  of  Mr.  Lucena     220 

Ditto  of  Mr.  Jennings 4     o     o 

Interest  on ,£100  lent  to  the  Market-place  Charity   ...400 

£25      2      O 


HENRY  DIXON,  citizen  and  draper  of  London,  and 
inhabitant  of  the  town  of  Enfield,  in  the  county  of 
Middlesex,  by  will  dated  November  the  Qth,  1693,  did 
give  and  bequeath  all  his  messuages,  lands,  tenements, 
and  hereditaments,  situate  in  the  towns  or  parishes  of 


Benington  or  Munden  in  the  county  of  Hertford,  and 
Enfield,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  and  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Mildred  in  the  Poultry,  London,  to  the  Company  of 
Drapers,  London,  and  their  successors  for  ever,  upon 
trust  that  the  said  Company  of  Drapers  and  their 
successors  (after  deducting  all  charges  incident  to  the  said 
lands  and  premises,  and  other  payments,  in  his  will 
mentioned),  should  dispose  of  the  residue  to  the  use 
hereinafter  mentioned,  that  is  to  say,  in,  for,  and  towards 
placing  apprentices  to  handicraft  trades.  In  the  first 
place,  of  such  poor  boys,  wheresoever  born,  as  bear  his 
Christian  name  and  surname,  and  are  of  the  age  of  15 
years  or  more,  the  sum  of  j£$  for  each  boy  ;  and  for  the 
payment  of  the  like  sum  of  ^5  to  every  such  boy  so 
placed  out  apprentice  as  aforesaid,  that  shall  duly  and 
truly  serve  his  said  apprenticeship,  within  a  month  after 
he  shall  be  made  free  of  the  city  of  London,  for  the  better 
enabling  him  to  set  up  and  follow  his  trade  ;  and  in  the 
next  place,  in,  for,  and  towards  placing  apprentices  to 
handicraft  trades,  such  poor  boys,  wheresoever  born,  as 
bear  his  surname  only,  and  are  above  the  age  of  15 
years,  the  sum  of  £4  for  each  boy ;  and  for  the  payment 
of  the  like  sum  of  £4  to  every  such  boy  so  placed  out 
apprentice,  that  shall  duly  and  truly  serve  his  said 
apprenticeship,  within  a  month  after  he  shall  be  made 
free  of  the  City  of  London,  for  the  better  enabling  him 
to  set  up  and  follow  his  trade  ;  and  for  want  of  such,  then 
in  and  for  placing  out  •  apprentices  to  handicraft  trades, 

of  such  and  so  many  poor  boys  born  and  resident  in  the 
several  parishes  of  Benington  and  Enfield  aforesaid,  and 
of  the  parishes  of  Saint  Katherine  Coleman  and  Saint 
Mildred,  in  the  Poultry,  London,  that  are  above  the  age 
of  15  years,  the  sum  of  £4  for  every  such  boy,  and  for 
the  payment  of  the  like  sum  of  ^4  to  every  such  boy  of 
the  said  several  parishes  so  placed  out  apprentice  that 
shall  duly  and  truly  serve  his  said  apprenticeship,  within 
a  month  after  he  shall  be  free  of  the  City  of  London, 
for  the  better  enabling  him  to  set  up  and  follow  his 
trade  ;  and  for  want  of  such,  then,  in  the  next  place, 
in  and  for  the  placing  out  apprentices,  to  the  trades 
aforesaid,  of  such  of  the  sons  of  the  tenants  which  now 
are,  or  hereafter  shall  be,  tenants  of  the  hereby  devised 
lands,  or  any  part  thereof,  whose  parent  or  parents  shall 
desire  the  same,  and  are  of  the  age  of  15  years,  the  sum 
of  ^3  for  each  such  son,  and  for  the  payment  of  the  like 
sum  of  ^3  to  every  such  son  of  a  tenant  so  placed  out 
apprentice,  within  two  months  after  he  shall  have  served 
the  term  of  seven  years  as  an  apprentice,  and  shall 
produce  a  certificate  of  his  serving  such  apprenticeship, 
under  the  hands  of  the  Churchwardens' for  the  time  being 
of  the  parish  in  which  he  shall  have  served  his  said 
apprenticeship,  and  also  a  certificate  of  his  having  been 
above  the  age  of  15  years  at  the  time  he  was 
bound  apprentice  as  aforesaid,  from  the  hands  of  the 
Churchwardens  for  the  time  being  of  the  parish  in  which 

he  was  born,  for  the  better  enabling  him  to  set  up  and: 
follow  his  trade  ;  and,  for  want  of  such,  in  the  last  place, 
to  and  for  the  placing  out  apprentices,  to  the  trades 
aforesaid,  of  any  poor  boys  as  the  Court,  commonly 
called  the  Court  of  Assistants,  of  the  said  Company  of 
Drapers,  for  the  time  being,  shall  from  time  to  time 
nominate,  think  fit  and  appoint,  and  are  above  the  age  of 
1 5  years,  the  sum  of  £4  for  each  such  boy  ;  and  for  the 
payment  of  the  like  sum  of  ^£4  to  every  such  boy  so 
placed  out  apprentice  that  shall  duly  and  truly  serve  his 
said  aprenticeship,  within  a  month  after  he  shall  be  made 
free  of  the  City  of  London,  for  the  better  enabling  him  to 
set  up  and  follow  his  trade.  And  he  desired  that 
immediately  after  his  decease  a  copy  of  so  much  of  his 
will  be  delivered  to  the  respective  ministers  of  the  said 
several  parishes  as  shall  concern  each  parish,  and  to  be 
entered  in  their  respective  vestry  books,  for  their 
parishioners  (for  the  time  being)  respective  better  infor- 
mation and  observation  of  his  said  bequest,  and  gave  to 
each  minister  of  such  respective  parish  the  sum  of  205. 
as  a  legacy,  and  for  his  care  in  causing  such  clause  of  his 
will  to  be  entered  in  the  vestry  book  of  his  respective 

The  method  of  applying  for  this  gift  is  by  producing  a 
certificate  under  the  hands  of  the.  Minister  and  Church 
wardens  of  Enfield,  for  the  time  being,  in  the  form 
following,  viz.: — 

To  the  Worshipful  the  Master,  Wardens,  and  Assistants 
of  the  Company  of  Drapers,  London. 

We,  whose  names  are  hereunto  subscribed,  the  Minister 
and  Church \vardens  of  the  parish  of  Enfield,  in  the  county 
of  Middlesex,  do  hereby  certify  the  Company  above- 
named  that  A.B.,  the  son  of  C.D.  by  E.  his  wife,  is  a 
poor  boy  of  this  parish,  and  was  baptized  the  .... 
.  day  of  .  .  .  .  17  .  as  by  the  register  appeareth ; 
and  having  first  made  due  enquiry,  we  like  and  approve 

of  G.  H.  of  the  parish  of in  the  City  of 

London,  citizen  and  ,  to  be  a  fit  master  for  the 

said  A.B.  And  we  do,  therefore,  desire  your  worships 
consent  for  Mr.  Henry  Dixon's  gift,  for  him  to  be  put 
out  apprentice  to  the  said  G.H.  for  the  term  of  seven 
years,  according  to  the  last  will  and  testament  of  the  said 
Hemy  Dixon,  deceased. 

Witness  our  hands  this      .     . 


N.B. — The  boy  must  be  presented  at  Drapers'  Hall  on 
a  Court-day,  being  the  first  Monday  in  every  month,  by 
one  of  the  Churchwardens  who  signed  the  certificate  for 
the  Company's  approbation,  before  he  is  bound,  otherwise 
the  gift  will  not  be  paid. 



The  Company  has  now  increased  its  payment  to 
and  upwards. 


THOMAS  PIGOT,  by  his  will  bearing  date  February  the 
25th,  1681,  gives  to  the  parish  of  Enfield,  yearly  for  ever, 
i  os.  to  the  poor  of  Ponder' s-end  quarter,  to  be  laid  out 
in  bread  and  distributed  to  them  on  St.  Thomas's  Day, 
and  if  default  shall  be  made  in  payment  of  the  said  IDS. 
he  gives  a  power  of  distress  and  sale  in  any  of  his  lands 
given  to  his  kinsman,  Thomas  Pigot  and  his  heirs,  on 
which  the  same  is  charged. 

4§T  This  gift  has  not  been  paid  many  years,  nor  is  it 
known  for  any  certainty  which  are  the  lands. 


A  messuage  or  tenement,  with  the  garden  and  pre- 
mises, situate  at  the  Chace-side,  in  Enfield,  purchased  by 
the  parish  of  Enfield  in  the  year  1740,  and  now  used  as 
a  workhouse  for  the  poor  of  the  said  parish. 

gg|F  This  is  part  of  the  premises  charged  with  the 
payment  of  Smith's  gift. 


At  the  time  of  the  enclosure  in  1801,  sixteen  poles  of 
land  were  added  to  the  garden  at  the  back  of  the  work- 

house,  and  an  allotment  of  35  poles  was  awarded  in  lieu 
of  common  rights,  the  rent  of  which  is  paid  to  the 


MRS.  MARY  NICHOLS,  of  Enfield,  by  her  will  dated  May 
the  22nd,  1751,  left  to  the  parish  of  Enfield  ,£900,  part 
thereof  to  be  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  an  organ,  the 
other  part  thereof  to  be  deposited  in  Government 
Securities,  the  interest  thereof  to  be  applied  towards 
paying  an  organist.  When  the  organ  was  compleatly 
built  and  erected,  there  remained  as  much  money  as 
purchased  ,£319  8s-  io^d.  3  per  cent.  Consolidated 
Bank  Annuities,  which  stands  in  the  name  of  the 
Accomptant  General  of  the  Court  of  Chancery,  and 
placed  to  the  credit  of  a  cause  intitled  the  Attorney 
General  against  Patteshall,  the  interest  whereof  is 
£9  us.  8d.  per  annum,  and  paid  to  the  organist  for  the 
time  being. 

The  parish  pays  the  organist  an  additional  salary, 
us.  8d. 

The  said  Mary  Nichols  also  left  ^50  to  the  said 
parish,  to  be  laid  out  at  interest,  the  interest  to  be 
distributed  yearly  in  bread  amongst  the  poor  for  ever,  on 
the  day  she  was  buried,  which  was  on  June  the  i2th, 
1751.  This  ^50  purchased  ^46  IDS.  Old  South  Sea 
Annuities,  subscribed,  the  interest  of  which  is  £i  js.  lod 
per  annum. 

Annual  Receipt. 

Interest  on  .£319  8s. 
loid.  3  per  cent. 
Consolidated  Bank 

Interest  on  £46  IDS. 
Old  South  Sea  An- 
nuities, subscribed 


9  ii     8 

7  10 

Annual  Application 

£10  19    6 

Cash  received  at  the 
Dank  by  the  Or- 
ganist, by  warrant 
from  the  Accomp- 
tant  General  ..... 

Bread  given  annually 
to  the  poor  on  June 
I2th  ......... 

911     8 

7  10 

£10  19     6 

N.B. — When  a  new  organist  is  appointed,  an  affidavit 
of  the  appointment  must  be  made  either  by  one  of  the 
Church\vardens  or  the  Vestry  Clerk  of  the  parish,  of  such 
appointment,  and  the  new  organist  produced  at  the 
Accomptant  General's  Chambers  by  the  person  making 
such  affidavit,  to  identify  his  person. 


FREDERICK  MAURER,  of  Enfield,  Esq.,  left,  by  his  will 
dated  March  the  2 2nd,  1772,  ^50  to  the  poor  of  the 
parish  of  Enfield,  to  be  distributed  amongst  them,  at  the 
discretion  of  the  Ministers  and  Churchwardens  of  the 
said  parish. 

*#*  With  this  sum  the  parish,  by  consent  of  the 
executor,  purchased  ^57  los.  3  per  cent.  Consolidated 
Bank  Annuities. 

s.     d. 

Annual  Receipt. 

Interest  on  £57  ios; 
3  per  cent  Consoli- 
dated Bank  An- 
nuities .........  i  14  6 

Annual  Application. 

C  *.'* 

Bread  given  to  the 
poor,  every  other 
Sunday  in  tlie  year  I  14  6 

14     6 


In  the  year  1813  the  parish  added  to  this  gift  several 
small  balances  of  different  charities,  which  arose  from 
returned  property  tax,  and  therewith  purchased  ^,100 
more  of  the  same  stock,  making  the  whole  income 
£4  143.  6d. 


RICHARD  DARBY,  of  Gray's  Inn,  in  the  county  of 
Middlesex,  Esq.,  by  will  dated  January  the  i2th,  1735; 
gave  to  the  poor  of  Ponder's-end  quarter,  in  the  parish  of 
Knfield,  ,£ioo  to  be  distributed  to  such  persons,  and  in 
such  proportions,  as  his  wife  should  think  proper. 

The  said   Sarah  Darby  never  distributed  the    above 
legacy;  but,  by  order  of  the  Court   of  Chancery,    the 
same  was,  on  the  2nd  September,    1776,  paid,  together 
with    the  interest   thereof  to  the   5th   of  August,    1776, 
making     together    ^£278     6s.    3d.,    with     which,     and 
£$  95.  5cl.  out  of  the  Benfleet  Rents,  the  then  Overseers 
purchased  ,£333  6s.  8d.,  3  per  cent.  Consolidated  Bank 
Annuities;   the  interest  whereof  is  to  be   paid    by  half- 
yearly  payments,  at  Midsummer  and  Christmas,  in  every 
year,  to  four  poor  persons  of  Ponder's-end  quarter,   in 
equal  proportions,  such  poor  persons  to  be  nominated 
and  appointed  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  parish  of 
Enfield,  in  vestry  assembled,  by  giving  notice  of  such 
vestry  in  the  Church  on  the  two  Sundays  next  preceding 
the  same. 

A  initial  Receipt. 

Interest  on  £333  6s.  8d. 
3  per  cent.  Consoli- 
dated Bank  Annui- 
ties .. 


£10    o    o 

Annual  Application. 


To  4  poor  persons  of 
Ponder's-end  quarter 
by  Half-yearly  pay- 
ments, at  Midsum- 
mer and  Christmas  10 

£10     o    o 

MARY  TURPIN,  of  Enfield,  spinster,  by  will  dated  June 
the  3oth,  1775,  directed  her  executors  to  lay  out  ^200 
in  the  purchase  of  3  per  Cent.  Bank  Annuities,  in  the 
names  of  the  Vicar  of  Enfield  and  the  Churchwardens 
and  Overseer  of  the  town  quarter,  for  the  time  being,  in 
trust,  to  apply  the  interest  towards  teaching  and.  in- 
structing three  poor  girls  of  the  said  parish  and  quarter, 
(whose  parents  do  not  receive  alms  of  the  said  parish)  in 
reading,  writing,  and  needle  work.  Messrs.  John 
Cradock  and  John  Fenton,  the  executors,  laid  out  the 
said  sum  of  £200  in  the  purchase  of  ,£240,  3  per  cent. 
Consolidated  Bank  Annuities,  in  the  names  of  the 
Reverend  Richard  Newbon,  John  Ostlife,  and  Robert 

Annual  Receipt.  Annual  Application. 

£    s.   d.  £    s.   d. 
A  Year's  Pay  to  the 
School  Master  and 
740           Mistress,  for  teach- 
ing 3  girls 74° 

£740  £740 

Interest  On  £240,  3  per 
cent.  Consolidated 
Bank  Annuities  . 



Out  of  the  monies  received  for  timber,  felled  on  the 
Benfleet  Estate,  being  No.  i  of  the  Gifts,  there  has  been 
purchased  ,£400,  3  per  cent.  Consolidated  Bank 

Annual  Receipt. 


Interest  on  £4°°  3  per 
cent.  Consolidated 
Bank  Annuities  ...  12  o  o 

£12     o     o 

Annual  Application. 

£    s.    d. 
B  read  given  away  every 

other  Sunday  in  the 

year,  at  the  Church 

Door          768 

Towards   three  Forty 

Shilling  Gifts  to  2 

poor    men    and     I 

poor  Woman        ...     4  12     o 
At  the  disposal  of  the 

Vestry        o     I     4 

£12    o    o 

N.B. — The  above  £4  I2s. 
and  Nichols  Gift .  £l     8s. 

£6    o 

makes    the  three  403.   Gifts,    called 
Bread  Gifts. 


By  the  foregoing  state  of  the  Gifts  it  appears  that 

the  annual  amount  of  the  same  is    357  18  10 

That  the  annual  outgoings  of  the  same  are   287     3     4 

Remains  to  be  disposed  of,  at  the  discretion  of  the 

Vestry 70  15  6 

JW  Out  of  this  the  assistant  School-master  is  paid 

annually  40  o  o 

Undisposed  of 

30  15     6 


Particulars  of  the  several  Gifts  in  the  foregoing  account 
said  to  be  disposed  of  in  bread. 

£   '•  4. 

Robert  Raniston 

George  Cock    

Jasper  Nichols 

Mary  Nichols 

Freder.  Maurer 

The  Surplus  of  the  In- 
terest of  the  £400, 
3  per  cent.  Consoli- 
dated Bank  Annui- 
ties, bought  with 
the  money  received 
for  timber  cut  on 
the  Benfleet  estate 

jf,  S. 

1  1-4 

2  II 

2  12 


7  IO 
14    6 

7    6    4 

Forty-nine  3d.  loaves 
distributed    to    the 
'  poor     every     other 
Sunday  in  the  year    15  1 8    6 
Bread  given  to  the  poor 
annually      on     the 
1 2th  of  June,  being 
•     the    burial    day    of 

Mary  Nichols       ...     I    .7  10 

6    4 


KANDS  FORD,        \ 

JOSEPH   WELCH,  (  Churchwardens. 

JOHN   ALLEN,         ) 



THOMAS    WOOD,  1789- 


On  the  west  side  of  Enfield-highway  are  six  almshouses, 
bearing  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  These  almshouses  were  erected  and  endowed  by  Mr. 
Charles  Wright,  of  Enfield-highway,  for  the  support  of  six 
poor  widows,  A.D.  1847." 

Mr.  Wright  was  for  many  years  a  resident  at  Enfield- 
highway,  where  he  died  Aug.  19,  1851,  aged  83  years. 

A  few  years  before  his  death  he  built  these  aims- 
houses,  and  placed  six  poor  widows  therein,  and  by  deed 
dated  Oct.  4,  1848,  conveyed  them  and  a  perpetual  rent- 
charge  of  ;£8o  a  year,  chargeable  upon  nineteen  freehold 
houses  in  the  parish  of  St.  Luke's,  to  trustees,  for  the 
benefit  of  six  poor  widows, — not  possessing  an  income 
exceeding  ^£10  a  year,  and  not  receiving  parochial  relief, 
or  being  under  60  years  of  age, — who  had  for  1 2  months 
preceding  election  lived  in  Enfield-wash,  Enfield-highway, 
Green-street,  South-street,  or  Ponder' s-end. 

The  said  widows  are  to  be  elected  by  the  trustees,  and 
to  occupy  the  almshouses,  and  to  receive  a  sum  of  ;£io 
yearly,  by  quarterly  payments,  and  one  ton  of  good  coals 
before  Christmas  in  every  year  ;  and  if  there  should  be  any 
surplus  remaining  after  providing  for  the  repairs  and 
insurance  of  the  almshouses,  it  is  to  be  disposed  of  for 
their  benefit. 

The  present  trustees  are  : — Mr.  Ellis  Hall,  James 
Pateshall  Jones,  Esq.,  the  Rev.  John  Harman,  Mr. 


William  Mitchell,  and  Mr.  William  Walker.  The 
appointment  and  the  filling  up  the  trust  when  a  vacancy 
occurs,  are  vested  in  the  trustees  for  the  time  being 


Mrs.  Ann  Crowe,  of  Enfield,  by.  will  dated  Feb.  26, 
IT^3>  gave  to  her  brother,  Matthew  Kenriek,  £500  three 
per  cent.  red.  stock,  in  trust,  to  apply  the  dividends 
towards  repairing  her  almshouses  in  Turkey-street,  and  to 
buy  the  four  inhabitants  thereof  three  chaldrons  of  coals 
yearly,  to  be  divided  along  with  the  remainder  of  the 
income,  if  any,  equally  between  them. 




JOSEPH  ELLSOM,  of  Enfield,  butcher,  by  his  will  dated 
March  6th,  1797,  left  the  sum  of  ^200  five  per  cent 
stock  (now  £210  new  three  and  a  half  per  cent  stock), 
the  interest  thereof  to  be  given  in  equal  portions  every 
half  year,  within  one  month  after  it  becomes  due,  to  two 
poor  widows,  or  single  women,  of  the  age  of  sixty  years 
and  upwards,  born  in  the  parish  of  Enfield  ;  to  be  elected 
by  the  Trustees  and  the  Churchwardens,  or  the  majority 
of  them.  He  also  gave  the  residue  of  his  five  per  cent, 
stock,  and  of  his  effects,  to  be  laid  out  in  the  same  stock, 
which  being  done,  produced  together  ^312  125.  stock 
(now  ^328  45.  7d.  new  three  and  a  quarter  per  cent, 
stock  ;)  the  interest  thereof  to  be  given  in  the  same 
manner,  and  in  case  either  of  the  said  four  poor  women 
depart  this  life,  then  another  poor  woman  to  be  elected 
in  manner  aforesaid  in  her  room  ;  and  in  the  event  of  the 
death  of  either  of  the  three  trustees,  another  trustee  to  be 
appointed  by  the  survivors,  within  three  months  ;  if  they 
neglect  to  do  so,  then  the  Churchwardens  are  to  make  the 



MRS.  ELIZABETH  ANNE  EATON,  of  London,  by  will  dated 
August  24th,  1806,  gave  all  her  estate  at  Enfield  for  the 
benefit  of  six  poor  widows  ;  but  as  the  will  was  not  legally 
executed,  so  as  to  pass  real  estates,  and  as  no  heir-at-law 
could  be  found,  an  inquisition  was  held  at  Enfield,  on 
July  3rd,  1815,  when  it  appeared  that  fourteen  acres  of 
land,  in  Broadfield,  were  within  the  Manor  of  Enfield, 
and  therefore  escheated  to  the  Crown,  in  right  of  the 
Duchy  of  Lancaster  ;  three  houses,  and  ten  acres  of  land, 
being  within  the  Manor  of  Worcesters,  fell  tp  James 
Meyer,  Esq.,  as  Lord  of  that  Manor — who,  having  sold 
part  thereof  for  as  much  money  as  produced  ^1700,  three 
per  cent,  consols,  added  thereto  ^300  of  the  same  stock, 
being  the  value  of  that  part  of  the  estate,  which  he  him- 
self retained  ;  and  acting  upon  the  original  intention  of 
the  said  Mrs.  Eaton,  he  made  over  the  whole  ^2,000 
stock  to  trustees,  by  a  deed  dated  November  i6th,  1816, 
enrolled  in  Chancery ;  the  interest  to  be  disposed  of 
according  to  the  intentions  of  the  said  Mrs.  Eaton.  The 
trustees  are  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Worcesters  for  the 
time  being,  the  Vicar  of  Enfield  for  the  time  being,  and 

Any  vacancy  in  the  trust  to  be  filled  up  by  the  sur- 
vivors, but  if  the  survivors  be  less  than  three,  then  the 
vacancy  to  be  filled  up  by  a  Vestry,  whereof  notice  shall 
have  been  given  in  the  church  on  two  Sundays  preceding. 
Two  widows  are  chosen  by  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  of 


Worcesters  for  the  time  being,  one  by  the  Vicar  of  Enfield 
for  the  time  being,  and  three  by  the  majority  of  the 
trustees  ;  the  said  Lord  of  the  Manor  to  have  the  casting 
vote ;  and.  in  case  either  of  the  said  widows  die,  or 
remove  out  of  tl>e  parish,  or  marry,  oj  cease  to  be  poor, 
then  another  to  be  elected  in  her  stead. 

There  is  a  proviso  in  this  d,eed,  that  if  the  said  James 
Meyer,  Esq.,  his  heirs,  or  assigns,  shall  at.  any  time  be, 
evicted,  or  turned  out  of  possession,  qr  interrupted  in  the. 
quiet  enjoyment  of  a  certain  piece  of  land  belonging  to 
Osborn's  gift,  lying  in  his  park,  containing  i.rood  and  28 
poles,  then  the  said  ^2000  stock  shall  be  transferred  to 
the  said  James  Meyer,  his  -executors,  administrators,  or 
assigns,  for  his  and  their  own  proper  use  and  benefit. 

The  Duchy  Court  of  Lancaster,  in  1828,  at  the  inter- 
cession of  Dr.  Cresswell,  agreed  to  pay  the  annual  rent 
of  the  14  acres  above  mentioned,  amounting  to 
,£32  133.  8d.  per  annum,  to  the  Vicar  and  Church- 
wardens of  Enfield  every  year,  Mr.  Sawyer  having  given 
up  a  claim  which  he  had  to  a  beneficial  lease  thereof ; 
and  the  Vicar  and  Churchwardens  have  agreed  to  divide 
the  same  equally  between  three  poor  widows,  being 
parishioners  of  Enfield,  of  unimpeachable  characters. 


THOMAS  DICKASON,  of  Enfield,  Esq.,  by  will  dated 
December  3131,  1813,  bequeathed  to  the  Vicar  and 
Churchwardens  of  the  parish  of  Enfield  for  the  time  being 


the  sum  of  ^200,  to  be  laid  out  in  the  joint  names  of  the 
Vicar  and  Churchwardens  of  Enfield  aforesaid,  for  the  time 
being,  in  the  purchase  of  Government  Stocks ;  such  Vicar 
and  Churchwardens,  on  the  25th  day  of  December,  in 
every  year  for  ever,  to  divide  the  interest  of  such  stocks 
between  such  poor  persons  residing  within  the  parish 
of  Enfield  as  they  in  their  discretion  shall  think  proper 
objects  of  charity,  and  the  most  deserving  ;  the  widows 
of  housekeepers  (not  having  usually  received  alms  of  the 
parish),  to  be  always  preferred. 

The  sum  of  ^"285  33.  reduced  three  per  cents,,  stands 
in  the  names  of  the  trustees. 


MRS.  FRANCES  CLAXTON,  of  Enfield,  by  will  dated  May 
1 9th,  1817,  gave  to  the  Vicar  of  Enfield,  for  the  time 
Demg>  £333  6s.  8d.  three  per  cent,  consols ;  the  interest 
of  which  is  to  be  applied  in  keeping  her  tomb,  in  Enfield 
churchyard,  in  repair ;  and  if  anything  remain,  the  same 
to  be  given  to  some  poor  widow  above  60  years  of  age. 
The  legacy  duty  reduced  this  to  ^305  stock. 


JAMES  FRANCIS  MESTURAS,  of  Enfield,  Esq.,  by  will 
dated  August  27th,  1817,  gave  ^50  to  the  Churchwardens 
of  Enfield,  for  the  use  of  the  poor,  with  which  was  pur- 
chased ^50  three  per  cent,  reduced  stock,  in  the  names 
of  the  trustees,  and  the  interest  given  yearly  to  one 


Enfield-chase,  previous  to  its  division  in  1777,  was 
wholly  within  the  parish  of  Enfield,  and  as  the  Act  dis- 
membered that  parish,  by  annexing  the  allotments  of 
Edmonton,  South  Mimms,  and  Hadley,  to  their  respective 
parishes,  two  hundred  acres  were  awarded  to  Enfield,  in 
satisfaction  of  the  said  dismemberment ;  the  rent  of 
which  said  two  hundred  acres  was  directed  by  the  Act 
to  be  applied,  one-half  thereof  in  aid  of  the  land-tax  of 
the  parish,  and  the  other  half  in  aid  of  the  poor  rate. 
In  1800,  Enfield  sold  a  moiety  of  the  above  two  hundred 
acres,  and  with  the  produce  redeemed  the  land  tax ;  the 
remaining  half,  applicable  to  the  poor  rate,  is  let  on 
leases  for  99  years,  from  Michaelmas,  1778  (excepting 
lot  36,  containing  three  roods  and  eighteen  perches, 
which  is  in  the  occupation  of  the  Workhouse). 


The  Act  of  Parliament,  passed  in  the  year  1801,  for 
dividing  and  enclosing  the  Common-fields  and  Chase- 
allotment  in  this  parish,  directed  that  a  certain  part  of 
the  timber  then  growing  on  the  said  Chase-allotment, 
should  be  sold,  and  the  produce  placed  in  the  Govern- 
ment funds,  and  the  interest  thereof  applied  in  aid  of  the 
poor-rate  of  Enfield  parish.  Accordingly  the  Com- 
missioners placed  ^15,131  i os.  4d.  .three  per  cent. 
Consols,  in  the  name  of  the  Accountant  General  of  the 


Court  of  Chancery,  exparte  the  Churchwardens  of  the- 
parish  of  Enfield,  the  annual  interest  whereof,  being 
.£453  1 8s.  iod.,  is  yearly  applied  in  aid  of  the  poor 
rate  of  Enfield. 


In  the  Enfield  Inclosure  Act  of  1777,  it  is  directed — 
That  Sir  Thomas  Halifax,  and  his  assigns,  should  con- 
tinue at  his  and  their  costs  and  charges,  a  pipe  and  cock 
from  the  main  of  the  conduit  on  the  top  of  the  hill,  opposite 
his  house,  at  Chase-side,  "for  the  use  and  benefit  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Enfield,  in  the  manner  the  same  is  now, 
(in  1777)  or  hath  been  used  and  enjoyed." 

In  the  award  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Inclosure 
Act  of  1801,  it  is  directed,  "That  the  well  at  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  allotment  of  David  Miles  (1810)  shall 
for  ever  after  be  continued,  and  kept  open  as  a  public 
watering  place ;  and  that  all  persons  shall  and  may,  at  all 
times  hereafter,  have  free  access,  on  foot,  to  the  said 
well,  along  the  footpaths  herein  before  awarded  over  the 
allotments  of  Mary  May,  and  David  Miles,  to  the  said 
well,  and  that  the  stiles  which  cross  the  said  footpaths 
shall  at  all  times  hereafter  be  made  commodious  and 
convenient  for  the  persons  using  the  said  well,  by  and  at 
the  expense  of  the  owners  of  the  allotments  through 
which  the  said  footpaths  are  directed  to  pass." 


MRS.  ANNE  GOUGH,  widow  of  the  late  Richard  Gough, 
o,f  Forty-hill,  Esq.,  by  a  codicil  dated  June  26th,  1830, 
left  the  sum  of  ,£200,  to  be  distributed  amongst  poor 
persons,  of  the  parish  of  Enfield,  at  the  discretion  of  her 
executors,  Humphrey  Hall,  and  John  Farran,  Esquires; 
who,  in  order  to  perpetuate  her  memory,  and  to  make 
her  benefaction  a  source  of  permanent  good  to  the  poor, 
invested,  on  the  nth  day  of  April,  1834,  the  above 
mentioned  sum  in  the  three  per  cent.  Consolidated 
Annuities,  purchasing  thereby  £,220  IS-  8d.  stock,  in 
the  names  of  the  then  Vicar  and  Churchwardens  of  the 
said  parish,  and  directed  that  they,  and  their  successors, 
should  lay  out  the  dividends  thence  accruing,  in  the 
purchase  of  articles  of  clothing,  and  distribute  them 
yearly,  on  the  day  after  Christmas  day,  amongst  the 
deserving  poor  of  the  said  parish,  for  ever.  The  stock 
stands  in  the  names  of  the  trustees. 


MRS.  AVICE  KELHAM,  of  Enfield,  by  her  will,  dated  the 
j2th  day  of  December,  1829,*  gave  the  sum  of  ^"1260, 

*  Extract  from  the  Will  of  Mrs.  Avice  Kelham. 

"I  give  and  bequeath  to  the  said  Robert  Kelham  Kelham  and 

William  Belt,  of  Bedford-row,   in  the   County  of  Middlesex,  their 

executors,  administrators,   and  assigns,  the   sum   of  one  thousand 

pounds,  3^  per  cent.   Reduced  Bank  Annuities,  upon  trust  from 


three  per  cent.  Consols,  the  interest  of  which  is  to  be 
applied  for  the  benefit  of  the  Girls'  Sunday  School,  and 
also  the  sum  of  ^1000  in  the  same  Stock,  the  interest 
of  which  is  to  be  applied  in  purchasing  coals  for  the  poor 
(chiefly  aged  widows)  of  Enfield. 

The  dividend  annually  arising  therefrom  is  thus  dis- 
tributed, viz., — ^29  i2s.  for  coals,  and  ^37  6s.  for 
the  benefit  of  the  school,  which  sums  are  paid  by  the 
official  trustees  of  Mrs.  Kelham's  will,  and  are  applied 
as  directed,  the  former  by  the  Vicar  and  Churchwardens, 
and  the  latter  by  the  Treasurer  to  the  said  school. 

time  to  time  for  ever  hereafter,  to  lay  out  and  expend  the  annual 
interest,  dividends,  and  proceeds  thereof  in  the  purchase  of  coals, 
and  to  distribute  the  same  in  the  months  of  December,  January,  and 
and  February  in  each  and  every  year,  to  such  poor  persons  residing 
within  the  said  Parish  of  Enfield,  as  they,  the  said  Robert  Kelham 
Kelham  and  William  Belt,  or  the  survivor  of  them,  or  the  executors, 
administrators,  or  assigns  of  such  survivor  shall  think  fit.  And  it  is 
my  will,  and  I  do  hereby  direct  that  in  the  distribution  of  the  said 
coals,  aged  widows  shall  always  have  the  preference. 

I  give  and  bequeath  to  the  said  Robert  K.  Kelham  and  William 
Belt,  their  executors,  administrators,  and  assigns,  the  further  sum  of 
£1400,  3^2  per  cent,  reduced  Bank  Annuities,  upon  trust  from  time 
to  time  for  ever,  hereafter  to  receive  the  annual  interest,  dividends, 
and  proceeds  thereof,  and  to  pay  the  same  as  the  same  shall  become 
due  and  be  received,  into  the  hands  of  the  treasurers  for  the  time 
being,  of  the  Girls'  Sunday  School,  now  held  at  the  Free  School,  at 
Enfield,  aforesaid,  to  be  applied  by  the  committee  of  management  of 
the  said  school,  in  manner  hereinafter  mentioned,  that  is  to  say,  as 
to  the  annual  sum  of  eight  pounds,  part  thereof  in  paying  salary 


The  Sunday  School,  herein  mentioned,  was  originally 
held  at  the  Free  School,  in  the  Churchyard,  but  has 
since  been  combined  with  the  National  Schools  in 

The  fund  (^37  6s.),  according  to  the  will  of  the 
testatrix,  is  directed  to  be  disposed  of  entirely  for  the 
benefit  of  the  said  school, — viz.,  in  educating  and  clothing 
the  children,  and  including  a  salary  of  eight  pounds  per 
annum,  paid  to  the  school  mistress,  for  giving  the  girls 
religious  instruction  and  taking  them  to  church  on 

of  eight  pounds  per  annum  to  the  school  mistress  for  the  time  being 
of  the  said  school,  and  as  to  the  remainder  thereof  in  clothing  the 
scholars  of  the  said  school,  and  for  and  towards  the  instruction  of  the 
said  scholars,  or  any  other  purpose  for  promoting  the  interest  of  the 
said  school  that  the  said  committee  of  management  thereof  for  the 
time  being  shall  think  fit. 

But  in  case  the  said  Sunday  School  shall  at  any  time  hereafter  be 
discontinued  to  be  attended  by  ladies,  as  a  committee  of  management 
thereof,  then  it  is  my  will,  and  I  do  hereby  direct  that  from  thence- 
forth, the  annual  sum  of  £20,  part  of  the  said  last  mentioned  annual 
interest,  dividends,  and  proceeds,  shall  be  paid  as  a  salary  to  the 
schoolmistress  of  the  said  school,  to  be  from  time  to  time  chosen 
by  the  Vicar  for  the  time  being,  of  Enfield,  and  the  remainder  of, 
shall  be  from  time  to  time  applied  in  or  towards  clothing  the 
children  of  the  said  school,  in  such  manner  as  the  said  Vicar 
for  the  time  being  shall  think  fit.  And  I  do  hereby  direct  that  the 
receipt  and  receipts  of  the  treasurer  for  the  time  being,  of  the  said 
Sunday  School,  shall  be  a  sufficient  discharge  to  the  person  or 
persons  paying  the  whole  or  any  part  or  parts  of  the  annual  interest, 
dividends,  &c."  Mrs.  Kelham  died  27th  July,  1841. 


The  Enfield  Inclosure  Act  (41  Geo.  3,  c  143)  directed — 
That  the  Commissioners  should  set  out  and  allot  to  the 
Vicar,  Churchwardens,  and  Overseers,  for  the  time  being, 
to  be  held  by  them  and  their  successors  for  ever,  such 
part  of  the  Chase,  called  the  Enfield  Allotment,  as  is 
called  Enfield  Chase  Green,  not  exceeding  20  acres, 
as  the  said  Commissioners  should  think  proper,  to  be 
inclosed  in  such  manner  as  the  said  Commissioners,  by 
their  award,  should  direct  and  appoint ;  and  as  soon  as 
the  same  should  be  assigned,  set  out,  allotted,  and  in- 
closed as  aforesaid,  the  said  Vicar,  Churchwardens,  and 
Overseers  for  the  time  being,  and  their  successors, 
should  from  time  to  time  stand  seized  thereof,  with  the 
majority  of  freeholders  and  copyholders  in  vestry  assem- 
bled, which  vestry  should  be  called  in-  the  usual  manner, 
and  under  the  same  regulations  as  the  Chase  vestries  are 
by  law  directed  to  be  held  in  the  parish  of  Enfield  ;  and 
that  they  should  have  the  sole  and  exclusive  management 
thereof  in  any  way  they,  at  such  vestries,  should  direct  for 
the  benefit  of  the  poor. 

The  Commissioners  never  did  assign,  set  out,  allot,  or 
inclose  any  part  of  this  Green,  nor  have  they,  by  their 
award,  given  any  directions,  or  made  any  appointment, 
relating  thereto ;  therefore  the  Vicar.  Churchwardens, 
and  Overseers,  with  the  freeholders,  and  copyholders  in 
vestry,  do  not  stand  seized  thereof  under  the  Act. 


It  may  therefore  be  considered  that  the  Chase  Green 
is  still  vested  in  the  Churchwardens  for  the  time  being 
(who  were  incorporated)  by  the  17  Geo.  3,  c.  17  an  Act 
for  dividing  the  Chase  of  Enfield,  in  trust  for  the  owners 
and  proprietors  of  freehold  and  copyhold  property, 
within  the  parish,  and  their  tenants,  entitled  to  rights  of 
common,  &c. 

The  sum  of  three  pounds  is  paid  by  the  occupier  of  the 
Shrubbery  on  Chase-hill  for  encroachments,  and  disposed 
of  in  clothing  for  the  poor. 


The  sum  of  two  pounds  is  annually  paid  by  the  New 
River  Company,  to  the  Churchwardens  of  Enfield  for  the 
time  being,  for  a  certain  privilege  in  respect  of  drainage, 
at  Chase-side,  granted  by  the  parish,  which  sum  is 
disposed  of  in  clothing  for  the  poor. 


Abbiss,    James,   J.P.,    The    Shrub- 
berries,  Enfield. 
Adams,  F.  C.,  Chase-park. 
Adams,  H.  J.,  Chase-park. 
Alexander,  W.  D.,   J.P.,    Summit- 

Arabin,  Mrs.,  36,  Grosvenor-square. 
Austin,  Walter,  Juglans-lodge. 
Baird,    Rev.  James,    The  Vicarage, 

Balfour,   H.  T.;   The  Clock-house, 

East  Barnet. 
Bangs,  William,  Bow. 
Barclay,  J.  Gurney,  Knott's-green. 
Barker,  W. Nutter,  B.  A., The  Palace. 
Barry,  Horace,  Bush-hill  House. 
Batters,  George,  Brigadier-hill. 
Baxendale,  Lloyd,  Totteridge. 
Beadle,  Edmund,  Winchmore-hill. 
Bell,  Mrs.,  Hole-park,  Kent. 
Bell,     Mrs.     Spencer,     Devonshire- 

Bell,  Miss,  Borovere,  Alton. 
Bentley,  James,  Wood-green  Park. 

Bevan,  R.  C.  L.,  J.P.,  Trent-park. 

Bevan,  F.  A.,  Prince's-gate. 

Bevan,  W.  A.,  West  Farm. 

Bevan,  R.  Y.,  Trent  Park. 

Bird  and  Carpenter,   Misses,.  Chase- 

Booth,  E,,  Trent-park. 
Bond,  Mrs.,  Elm-bank,  Hampstead. 
Bosanquet,  J.  W.,  J.P.,  Claysmore. 
Bosanquet,  Mrs.  Augustus,  Osidge. 
Bosanquet,  Bernard  T.,  Enfield. 
Bosanquet,  Percival,  D'Acre  Lodge. 
Bowles,  H.  C.  B.,  J.P.,  Myddelton- 


Brading,  T.,  Ponder's-end. 
Braikenridge,  Geo.  J.,  Bush-hill. 
Braikenridge,    The    Rev.     G.     W. 

Clevedon,  Somerset. 
Bunnell,  Peter,  Penge. 
Burrell,    Sir   Percy,     Bart.,     M.P., 

West  Grinstead-park. 
Burrell,  Lady. 

Burnett,  George  R.,  Kensington. 
Busk,  Mrs.,  Ford's-grove. 
Butler,  Mrs.,  Observatory,  Armagh. 
Butler,  Charles,  Warreh-wood. 
Buszard,  William,  Enfield. 
Carr,    William,     Brunswick-square, 

Cass,  Rev.  F.  C.,  M.A.,The  Rectory, 


Cater,  J.  White,  West-lodge. 
Cater,  F.,  Durants. 
Cattarns,  R.,  Enfield. 
Cave,  Henry,  Enfield. 
Challis,  Alderman,  Enfield. 


Challis,  William  H.,  Enfield. 
Child,  Miss,  Gough-park. 
Christy,     Alexander,     Stanley-hall, 

Church,  H.,  Lawn-house,  Southgate. 

Collyer,  Jas.,  L.R.C.P.,  Oak-house. 

Cooper,  G. ,  The  Clock-house,  East 

Copleston,   Rev.   R.    E. ,   Vicarage, 

Cotton,  Alderman,  Theobakl's-park. 

Cundall,  Arthur,  Enfield. 

Curtis,    Thomas,    The  Hall,   Berk- 

Curzon,    Hon.    Edward    C.,    J.P., 

Curzon,  G.  A . ,  Capt.  2nd  Li fe  Guards. 

The  Bishop  of  St.   David's 

Dawson,  W.   I.,  Bush-hill  Cottage. 

Duncan,  T.,   New-cottage,   Potter's- 

Durant,  R.  jun.,  J.P.,  High  Canons. 

Lord  Enfield,  M.P.,  Penerley-lodge. 

Edelsten,   P.,   Manor-house,    Bull's- 

Egles,  Rev.  E.  H.,  Enfield. 

Fairhead,  Allen,  Enfield. 

Ford,     H.     R.,    Morecambe-lodge, 

Ford,   Edward,   J.P.,   Enfield  Old- 

Ford,  J.    Rawlinson,  Adel  Grange, 

Ford,  J.    W.,    The    Cottage,    East 

Ford,  A.  L. ,  Liverpool. 

George,  A.  G.,  Southgate. 

Gibbons,  Eber.ezer,  Enfield. 

Gilbert,  Josiah,  Marden-ash. 

Graham,  G.  J.,  East-lodge. 

Grey,  Sir  William,  Bohun-lodge. 

Lord    Geo.     F.     Hamilton,     M.P., 
Hertford-street,  Mayfair. 

Hall,  Ellis,  Enfield-highway. 

Hankey,  George,  Frant,  Tunbridge. 

Harman,  Rev.  J.,  Vicarage,  Enfield- 

Harman,  John,  Portman-square. 

L.M.,  L.R. C.S.I.,  M.B. 

Harrison,  Daniel,  J.P.,  Chase-hill. 

Harrison,  T.  Haydn,  Broxbpurne. 

Heath,  Rev.  J.  M.,  Milland. 

Heath,  H.  G.,  Clay-hill. 

Henry,  David,  Forty-hill. 

Herbert,  J.,  Birmingham. 

Heseltine,    J.,     Grosvenor    Lodge, 
Upper  Clapton. 

Hills,  T.    Hyde,   45,  Queen  Anne- 

Hobbs,  William,  Enfield. 

Hobbs,  Thomas,  Enfield. 

Hodson,    Rev.   Geo.   H.,  Vicarage, 

Hunter,  John  R.,   Enfield. 

Hunter,  Edward,  The  Glebe,  Black- 

Ingersoll,  R.  T.,  Enfield-highway. 
Jack,  Charles,   Beech-hill-park. 
Jackson,  Mrs-  James,  River-house. 


Jackson,  Joseph,  Enfield. 

Jones,  Rev.  Thomas,  M.A.,  Green- 

Jones,  f.  Pafeshall,  Roselands. 

Kemble,  Mrs. ,  Oakmere,  Potter's-bar. 

Kempe,  Rev.  E.  W.,  Chase-side. 

Kemp,  C.  F.,  Foxbush,  Tunbridge. 

Kent,  Rev.  Charles, 

Knight,  Thomas,  Enfield-highway. 

Knott,  J.,  London-road,  Enfield. 

Knott,  T. ,  London-road,  Enfield. 

Langton,  Walter,  Southgate. 

Law,  J.  S.,  South-lodge. 

Letch  worth,  Edward,  88,  St.  James' 

Lewis,  Capt.  Henry,  R.  N.,  Devon- 
shire street. 

Lister,  Mrs.,  Hampstead. 

Lock,  William,   Enfield. 

Lucena,  S.  L.,  Windmill-hill. 

Luck,  Mrs.,  Hampstead. 

Maclagan,  Rev,  W.  U  ,  Rectory, 

Malcolm,  Mrs.,  Bush-hill. 

Mann,  Thomas,  Winchmore-hill. 

Mansel,  R.  S.,  Everley-lodge. 

Maple,  John,  Tottenham  Court-road. 

Mathison,  R.,  Enfield. 

Meyer,  James,  J.P.,  Forty-hall. 

Meyers,  J.  H.,  Enfield. 

Micholls,  H.  L.,  Southgate-house. 

Miles,  John.  Friern  Barnet. 

Milne,  F.,  Hadley. 

Mitchell,    John,   South-street,   Pon- 


Mitchell,  William,  Enfield-highway. 
Monro,  M.  M.,  Bury-farm. 
Moore,  W.  W. ,  Leggatts,  Potter's-bar. 
Morgan,  E.  L.,  Wild  wood. 
Morison,  Miss,  Markyata-street. 
Mugliston,  G.  T.  W.,  M.D.,  Enfield. 
Muir,  H.  B.  Little-park. 
Murray,  John,  Albemarle-street. 
Nash,  Henry,  J.P. ,  Bury-house. 
Naylor,  W.  B.,  Ponder' s-end. 
Oilier,  J.,  Beauchamp-lodge. 
Owen,  Arthur,  Enfield. 
Paris,  Miss,  Trent-lodge. 
Parker,  Mrs.,  White-lodge. 
Parker,      Henry,    jvin.,     Parkfield, 

Parker,    F.   S.,    The  Grange,   East 


Parker,  W.  S.,  White  Lodge. 
Parry,  H.,  The  Elms,  Ponder's-end 
Parrott,  T.  M.,  Churchbury-house. 
Patman,  Messrs.,  Enfield. 
Paulin,  T. ,  Beaulieu,  Winchmore-hill. 
Pearson,  George,  Bolt-court. 
Peet,  Henry,  Cockfosters. 
Pitman,  —  Newgate-street. 
Riddell,  John  R.,  Bycullah-house. 
Richardson,  T.  S.,  Broomfield-park. 
Ridge,  James,  M.  D.,  Carlton -house, 
Roberts,  E.  C.,  Southgate. 
Robins,  J.   V.,  J.  P.,   Myton-house, 



Sawyer,  Arthur  A.,  F.nfield. 
Sheppard,    Edgar,    M.D.,     Colney- 


Short,  Alfred,  Clay-hill. 
Sidney,  Alderman,  Bowes-manor. 
Smart,  R.  W.,  Llanover-lodge. 
Smith,  Charles,  Enfield. 
Smith,  E.  Cozens,  F.R.   Hist.  Soc., 

Somerset,  Col.  A.  P.,  J.P.,  Enfield- 

Somerset,  Mrs. 

Somerset,  Captain  Aylmer,  Rifle 

South  Kensington  Museum. 

Stearns,  Edward,  Forty-hill. 

Stearns,  F.,  Clay-hill. 

Stern,  S.  J.,  Little-grove. 

Stocks,  Herbert  W.,  Enfield. 

Taylor,  J.  Donnithorne,  Grovelands. 

Taylor,  J.,  Baker-street,  Portman- 

Tennant,  C.  R.,  10,  West  Kensing- 
ton Gardens. 

Thomson,  James,  Colney-hatch. 

Thompson,  Julius  H.,The  Lindens. 

Tindal,  Admiral,  Chase-lodge. 

Tipping,  William,  M.P.,  Brasted- 

Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

Tremlett,  Rev.  Dr.,  Parsonage, 
Belsize  park. 

Trenchard,  J.  A,,  Nynn-house, 

Trotter,  Capt,  Dyrham-park, 

Todd,  Mrs.,  Winchmore-hill. 
Twells,      Philip,     J.P.,    Chase-side 


Upward,  W.,  Clay-hill  Lodge. 
Ear]  of  Yerulam,   Gorhambury. 
Walford,  Cornelius,   Belsize-park. 
Walker,  John,  Arno's-grove. 
Walker,  Mrs.  Edwin,  Chase-cottage. 
Walker,   Mrs.  Francis,  Elm-hall. 
Walker,  C.  H.,  Crouch-hill  House. 
Walker,  Rev.  Henry  Aston. 
Walker,  Capt.  Albert,  Hongkong. 
Walker,  Henry,  Bayswater. 
Warren,  James,  Capel-house. 
Watkins,    Rev.    II.    G.,    Vicarage, 

Weir,  Rev.  Arch.,  D.C.L.,  Vicarage, 


Whitaker,  Joseph,  Enfield. 
White,      Edward,      Brook-house, 


White,  Rev.  Geo.  W.,  Enfield. 
Wigan,  Mrs.,  Eversley. 
Wilkinson,  H.  White-webb's-park. 
Williams,  Miss 
Williams,  R.,  Walbrook. 
Willis,  J.  W.,  Grove-house. 
Wilson,      Rev.      Alex.,     Vicarage, 


Wilson,  John  Richard. 
Withers,  Joseph,  Burleigh-house. 
Young,  C.  Baring,  Oak-hill. 
Young,  John,  jun.,  Bush-hill. 
Lord  Zouche,  Pai ham-park. 

DA  Ford,   Edward 

670  A  history  of  Enfield  in 

M6F6  the  County  of  Middlesex